Women at risk vietnamese marriage migration to taiwan
Download
1 / 49

WOMEN AT RISK : VIETNAMESE MARRIAGE MIGRATION TO TAIWAN - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 54 Views
  • Uploaded on

WOMEN AT RISK : VIETNAMESE MARRIAGE MIGRATION TO TAIWAN. by Graeme Hugo and Hong Xoan Nguyen Thi Geographical and Environmental Studies, School of Social Sciences, University of Adelaide Presentation to IGU Conference, Brisbane 6 July 2006. Outline of Presentation. Introduction

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' WOMEN AT RISK : VIETNAMESE MARRIAGE MIGRATION TO TAIWAN' - philip-bennett


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Women at risk vietnamese marriage migration to taiwan
WOMEN AT RISK : VIETNAMESE MARRIAGE MIGRATION TO TAIWAN

by

Graeme Hugo and Hong Xoan Nguyen Thi

Geographical and Environmental Studies,

School of Social Sciences,

University of Adelaide

Presentation to IGU Conference, Brisbane

6 July 2006


Outline of presentation
Outline of Presentation

  • Introduction

  • Marriage Migration in Asia

  • Vietnamese Migration to Taiwan

  • A Study of Vietnamese Brides

  • Vulnerability Among Vietnam’s Brides in Taiwan

  • Policy Issues

  • Conclusion


Feminisation of migration within asia
Feminisation of Migration within Asia

  • Increasing involvement in labour migration

    - skilled

    - unskilled

  • Strong occupational specialisation

  • More exposed to exploitation than men

  • Marriage migration – links with labour migration


Increased marriage migration
Increased Marriage Migration

  • Increased international travel

  • Increasing role of marriage brokers

  • Increasing sex ratio differences

    - China – 1,000 male births to every 850 female, 2002

    - India – 1,000 males 0-6 to every 927 females, 2001


Migration to taiwan taiwan number of foreign workers by origin 1998 2005 source lee 2006 p 15
Migration to TaiwanTaiwan: Number of Foreign Workers by Origin, 1998-2005Source: Lee 2006, p. 15



Taiwan: Marriages to Foreign Spouses1 1994-2003Source: Wang and Chang, 2002, 96; Tsay, 2004; Do, et al., 2003, 38



South korea
South Korea

  • 2002 11,107 males married foreign brides

  • 2004 25,594 males married foreign brides

  • 2005 44,416 males married foreign brides

  • 2006 60,217 males married foreign brides

  • 1 in 4 marriages in rural South Korea to a foreign bride

    - China - Mongolia

    - Vietnam - Thailand

    - Philippines - Uzbekistan

  • 6,444 Korean women married foreigners


Japan
Japan

2004 257,292 foreign spouses


Drivers of marriage migration
Drivers of Marriage Migration

“… is the strong feeling among Taiwanese of the similarity between Vietnam and Taiwan in terms of the people, culture, religion and way of life. It is often mentioned that the appearance and complexion of Vietnamese are close to Taiwanese. They also have similar religious beliefs and ways of ancestor worship. Most critically, Taiwanese have the deep impression that Vietnamese women were bought up in patriarchal families and were socialised well in forming their attitudes toward the family, children, parents and husband.”

Tsay (2004, 185)


Approximate Numbers – 110,000 Vietnamese (Dang) Brides in TaiwanData from Taipei Economic and Cultural Offices in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City


Vietnam Province of Origin of Vietnamese Marriage Migrants to Taiwan, 1994-2002Source: Based on data in Do, et al., 2002, 39


The activities of recruiters are concentrated in particular poor communities where it is believed poverty would make women more ready to engage in marriage migration.

  • There are also strong network effects whereby when some women from a community are recruited they act as leaders to others.


Province of Origin of Taiwanese Husbands of Vietnamese Marriage Migrants, 1994-2002 Source: Do, et al., 2002, 39


Other destinations of vietnamese brides
Other Destinations of Vietnamese Brides Marriage Migrants, 1994-2002

  • Southern China

  • Singapore

  • South Korea


Age-Sex Structure, Vietnam 2000 Marriage Migrants, 1994-2002 Source: International Data Base, International Programs Center, U.S. Bureau of the Census


Age-Sex Structure, Taiwan Population 2000 Marriage Migrants, 1994-2002 Source: International Data Base, International Programs Center, U.S. Bureau of the Census


Poverty rate in the five provinces source tran 2004
Poverty Rate in the Five Provinces Marriage Migrants, 1994-2002 Source: Tran 2004


Multicultural influences in the mekong delta
Multicultural Influences in the Mekong Delta Marriage Migrants, 1994-2002

  • Khmer

  • Chinese

  • Indian

  • French

  • American

    History of inter-ethnic marriage


Cultural factors
Cultural Factors Marriage Migrants, 1994-2002

  • Confucianism

  • Male/Female roles

  • Filial Piety


Taiwan investment in vietnam 1993 1998 source phan 2005
Taiwan Investment in Vietnam, 1993-1998 Marriage Migrants, 1994-2002 Source: Phan, 2005


Social change in taiwan
Social Change in Taiwan Marriage Migrants, 1994-2002

“… rural poorly educated males in lack lustre jobs, possibly with unsociable hours and conservative views on what marriage should be … are looking to Mainland China and Southeast Asia for their prospective spouses.”

Eyton (2003)


National university of ho chi minh study 2004
National University of Ho Chi Minh Study 2004 Marriage Migrants, 1994-2002

  • Mekong Delta

  • 635 rural householders with one or more daughters married to Taiwanese men

  • 460 interviews with local youth

  • 40 brides in waiting

  • 34 returnees visiting

  • 8 divorcee returnees

  • 28 consultations with leaders

  • 23 focus groups


The process commodification of marriage
The Process : Commodification of Marriage Marriage Migrants, 1994-2002

  • Substantial involvement of intermediaries

  • Fee US$7-10,000

  • Visit to Taiwan – introduced to several “candidates”

  • Role of parents

  • Legality


Reasons for marrying taiwanese men n 630 source 2004 survey
Reasons for Marrying Taiwanese Men (n=630) Marriage Migrants, 1994-2002 Source: 2004 Survey


Marriage decision maker n 630 source 2004 survey
Marriage Decision Maker (n=630) Marriage Migrants, 1994-2002 Source: 2004 Survey


Age when married n 630 source 2004 survey
Age When Married (n=630) Marriage Migrants, 1994-2002 Source: 2004 Survey


Education of parents and bride source 2004 survey
Education of Parents and Bride Marriage Migrants, 1994-2002 Source: 2004 Survey


Occupation of women after marriage source 2004 survey
Occupation of Women after Marriage Marriage Migrants, 1994-2002 Source: 2004 Survey


“My husband turned out to be a farmer. I was doing the same work I did in Vietnam. We started at five in the morning and stopped at two. I didn’t speak the language. I missed home and was very lonely.”


Occupations of grooms source 2004 survey
Occupations of Grooms same work I did in Vietnam. We started at five in the morning and stopped at two. I didn’t speak the language. I missed home and was very lonely.”Source: 2004 Survey


Impact of migration on families
Impact of Migration on Families same work I did in Vietnam. We started at five in the morning and stopped at two. I didn’t speak the language. I missed home and was very lonely.”

  • 88.3 percent received remittances

Living Standards of Households Before and After their Daughters’ Marriages Source: 2004 Survey


“we see that the families, having daughters getting married to Taiwan males, all have built two, three story houses. They are very happy and enjoy life, they do not have to do hard work because their daughters send money to them very often. Even some of them help poor neighbours and poorer people in the communities” (a discussion in An Giang province).


married to Taiwan males, all have built two, three story houses. They are very happy and enjoy life, they do not have to do hard work because their daughters send money to them very often. Even some of them help poor neighbours and poorer people in the communities” before my daughter’s marriage, all members of our family were forced to work very hard, we did a day labour with very low pay so we used to be short of money. But now our lives have changed because my daughter often sends back money. With this assistance we have enough money to send our younger children to vocational school so that they will be able to find a good job later. We are much happier now” (a father in An Giang province).


“ ..very sad , all of the girls move out, so we may stay single our whole life, we are poor and have no money to marry”


“Surveys show that most of them are quite willing to learn Mandarin, the problem is their husbands are often unwilling to pay for them to go to school to do so, and often the language their husbands prefer to use is the far more difficult to learn Minnan, spoken only in Taiwan and China’s Fujian province.” Eyton (2003)


Problems
Problems Mandarin, the problem is their husbands are often unwilling to pay for them to go to school to do so, and often the language their husbands prefer to use is the far more difficult to learn Minnan, spoken only in Taiwan and China’s Fujian province.”

  • Language barriers

  • Isolation and loneliness

  • Work exploitation

  • Care giving

  • Prejudice, homogeneity issues

  • “Taiwan Disillusionment”


Returning home to divorce
Returning Home to Divorce Mandarin, the problem is their husbands are often unwilling to pay for them to go to school to do so, and often the language their husbands prefer to use is the far more difficult to learn Minnan, spoken only in Taiwan and China’s Fujian province.”

Can Tho Province

1990 – 2000 170 divorces with foreigners

2001-02 253 cases


Mandarin, the problem is their husbands are often unwilling to pay for them to go to school to do so, and often the language their husbands prefer to use is the far more difficult to learn Minnan, spoken only in Taiwan and China’s Fujian province.” I want to work outside to earn money because my relatives in Vietnam need my financial assistance. My child is 6 years old, but my husband does not send him to school because he doesn’t want to spend money for his school. Therefore he wants me to stay at home and take care of the child, while he doesn’t make any effort to help my family.” (A girl from Vinh Long Province)


Mandarin, the problem is their husbands are often unwilling to pay for them to go to school to do so, and often the language their husbands prefer to use is the far more difficult to learn Minnan, spoken only in Taiwan and China’s Fujian province.” When I met him in Vietnam, he said that he had three children and his wife had died, so he was looking for a wife to share housework with him and to look after his children. He did not tell me that two of his children are very sick. When I went to Taiwan, in the evening he brought me to his house and introduced me to his children I was shocked because they were severely disabled. They stay in bed and need a lot of care. It was very hard work, I stayed there 2 years and then decided to go home.” (a women from Can Tho province).


“ Most of the brides cannot get a good job in Taiwan. Not all of the families they go to are rich so they have to work, but because they have no skill, no education and even no language how can they get work? If they get work their employers complain. There are also problems in their work in the home. Some husbands give their wives money to send home to their families.”


“It is my understanding, that the main reason for conflict between Vietnamese brides and their families-in-law is that the ways of life in Vietnam and Taiwan are completely different. The women thought that they would have a better life straight away after they came to Taiwan but Taiwanese families expect a great deal from their daughters-in-law such as earning money to support the family, doing housework and taking care of children and aged family members. When these women are unable to do all of these tasks then conflicts emerge.”


Of 51 returnee visitors
Of 51 Returnee Visitors between Vietnamese brides and their families-in-law is that the ways of life in Vietnam and Taiwan are completely different. The women thought that they would have a better life straight away after they came to Taiwan but Taiwanese families expect a great deal from their daughters-in-law such as earning money to support the family, doing housework and taking care of children and aged family members. When these women are unable to do all of these tasks then conflicts emerge.”

89 percent happy with life in Taiwan

14 percent “completely happy”


“When he wants to do something important for the family, he always discusses it with me and he respects my opinion. Related to money, we have only one bank account and he put his income in the account and we spend it together.” (A bride from Thoai Son, An Giang).


“ My father in-law was very happy when my boy was born and he loves him a lot. My husband told me to take care of our son and do housework which is very easy. If I do something wrong my father in law never complains, he only gently shows me how to do it properly. I am very happy with my married life so far.” (A bride from Thoai Son, An Giang).


Conclusion
Conclusion he loves him a lot. My husband told me to take care of our son and do housework which is very easy. If I do something wrong my father in law never complains, he only gently shows me how to do it properly. I am very happy with my married life so far.”

  • Increasing trend

  • Increasing commodification of marriage

  • Role of industry

  • Need for more intervention


Intervention needs
Intervention Needs he loves him a lot. My husband told me to take care of our son and do housework which is very easy. If I do something wrong my father in law never complains, he only gently shows me how to do it properly. I am very happy with my married life so far.”

  • Regulate the activities of the intermediaries to combat exploitation.

  • Provide accurate information to potential brides and their families to help them make more informed decisions about migrating.

  • Provide appropriate support systems to the women in Taiwan.

  • Facilitate communication and travel between the women and their families of origin.

  • Assist their adjustment to Taiwanese society.

  • Provide protection for them in Taiwan


ad