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Vasculitis syndromes. Emily B. Martin, MD Rheumatology Board Review April 9, 2008. Kawasaki Syndrome. Mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome. Kawasaki disease. Diagnostic criteria: Fever for > 5 days plus 4 of the following: Bilateral bulbar conjunctival injection

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vasculitis syndromes

Vasculitis syndromes

Emily B. Martin, MD

Rheumatology Board Review

April 9, 2008

kawasaki syndrome
Kawasaki Syndrome

Mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome

kawasaki disease
Kawasaki disease
  • Diagnostic criteria:
    • Fever for > 5 days plus 4 of the following:
      • Bilateral bulbar conjunctival injection
      • Mucous membrane changes (injected pharynx, cracked lips, strawberry tongue)
      • Extremity changes (edema, erythema, or desquamation of hands or feet)
      • Polymorphous rash
      • Cervical lymphadenopathy (at least one >1.5 cm)
c l inical manifestions
Clinical manifestions
  • Arthritis and arthralgia
    • Present in 7-25% of patients
    • Involves large or small joints
  • Urethritis
    • Causes sterile pyuria
  • CNS involvement
    • Aseptic meningitis, facial nerve palsy, hearing loss
  • GI symptoms
    • Abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, hepatitis
  • Cardiac involvement
    • Coronary artery aneurysms, myocardial dysfunction
differential diagnosis
Differential Diagnosis
  • Viral infections
    • Measles, echovirus, adeno, EBV*
  • Toxin mediated illnesses
    • Scarlet fever, toxic shock*
  • Rickettsial or spirochete infections
    • Rocky mountain spotted fever*, leptospirosis*
  • Drug reactions
    • Stevens-Johnson, serum sickness
  • JRA
  • Mercury hypersensitivity reaction
    • See Mia’s recent case conference
laboratory evaluation
Laboratory Evaluation
  • Markers of systemic inflammation
    • Elevated CRP, ESR, leukocytosis with left shift, reactive thrombocytosis (up to 1 million)
  • Anemia (normocytic, normochromic)
  • Sterile pyuria (urethral origin, don’t do a cath)
  • Transaminase elevation (mild to moderate)
  • CSF findings
    • Mononuclear pleocytosis, hypoglycorrhachia, elevated protein
  • Synovial fluid inflammation
  • Hyponatremia (increased risk for coronary aneurysms)
treatment
Treatment
  • Mainstay of treatment is IVIG 2 gram/kg over 8-12 hours.
  • IVIG may need to be repeated in refractory cases.
  • Several studies have shown that IVIG + aspirin decreases the risk of coronary aneurysms compared to aspirin alone.
    • May also decrease risk of depressed myocardial function.
  • High dose aspirin during acute illness then low dose for about 2 months.
for the boards
For the Boards…
  • Know the clinical manifestations of Kawasaki syndrome.
  • Know the differential diagnosis of KD.
  • Know the laboratory abnormalities seen in KD.
  • Recognize the value of high-dose IVIG in treatment of KD.
question 1
Question 1

A 3-year-old girl is brought to your office for re-evaluation of a fever that began 6 days ago. Her mother tells you that her daughter\'s temperature has been as high as 102.2°F (39°C). Her physical examination was unremarkable when you examined her 3 days ago, but today you note injected sclera; cracked, red lips, a strawberry appearance of her tongue; and a swollen, nontender, cervical node. You tell her mother that you believe this is Kawasaki disease.

question 11
Question 1

Of the following, the MOST appropriate statement to make to the mother is that

  • an exercise stress test should be performed as a baseline study
  • aspirin therapy will be used until the fever subsides
  • cardiac involvement may include abnormalities of the coronary arteries or the myocardium
  • echocardiography should be performed to evaluate for the presence of coronary aneurysms
  • immediate treatment with intravenous immune globulin will eliminate the chance of coronary involvement
question 12
Question 1

Of the following, the MOST appropriate statement to make to the mother is that

  • an exercise stress test should be performed as a baseline study
  • aspirin therapy will be used until the fever subsides
  • cardiac involvement may include abnormalities of the coronary arteries or the myocardium
  • echocardiography should be performed to evaluate for the presence of coronary aneurysms
  • immediate treatment with intravenous immune globulin will eliminate the chance of coronary involvement
question 13
Question 1

Of the following, the MOST appropriate statement to make to the mother is that

  • an exercise stress test should be performed as a baseline study
  • aspirin therapy will be used until the fever subsides
  • cardiac involvement may include abnormalities of the coronary arteries or the myocardium
  • echocardiography should be performed to evaluate for the presence of coronary aneurysms
  • immediate treatment with intravenous immune globulin will eliminate the chance of coronary involvement
henoch schonlein purpura1
Henoch-Schonlein Purpura
  • Most common systemic vasculitis in children.
  • Immune mediated
    • Deposition of IgA immune complexes.
  • Often a self-limited disease.
  • Occurs more often in fall, winter, and spring.
    • Rare in the summer.
  • About 50% of cases are preceded by URI’s.
    • Streptococcus is often implicated.
    • Vaccines, insect bites, viruses have also been reported as triggers.
clinical presentation
Clinical Presentation
  • Classic tetrad
    • Palpable purpura (100%)
      • In absence of thrombocytopenia or coagulopathy
    • Arthritis or arthralgia (75%)
    • Abdominal pain (50%)
    • Renal disease (21-50%)
gi symptoms
GI symptoms
  • HSP can cause edema and submucosal hemorrhage of GI tract.
    • May see purpuric lesions on endoscopy.
  • May be the presenting symptom of HSP.
  • Symptoms typically develop within 8 days of the rash.
  • Intussusception is the most common GI complication.
    • Be able to recognize obstruction due to HSP.
    • Know that it is more often ileo-ileal (vs. ileocolic).
r e nal disease
Renal Disease
  • Occurs in up to 50% of patients.
  • Ranges from hematuria to end-stage renal disease (<1% of patients).
  • Usually presents within four weeks of onset of HSP.
  • Overall prognosis is very good, but there is some long-term risk of progressive renal impairment.
laboratory findings
Laboratory Findings
  • There is NO definitive diagnostic test.
  • IgA levels may be elevated in 50-70% of patients.
  • Platelet counts and coag studies should be normal.
  • Inflammatory markers may be elevated.
  • Urinalysis
    • Red cells, white cells, casts, proteinuria
    • May not be present until later in the course
    • Remember to continue UA screenings after the acute phase.
  • Negative RF and ANA.
f o r the boards
For the Boards…
  • Recognize the typical presentation of HSP.
  • Recognize that HSP may present initially with ABDOMINAL PAIN OR JOINT COMPLAINTS.
  • Recognize INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION secondary to HSP.
  • Know the typical laboratory findings in HSP.
question 14
Question 1

A 3-year-old boy is brought to the office with complaints of intermittent abdominal pain for 2 days. His mother notes that he also had a limp and a faint rash on his legs for 1 day. He has been afebrile and otherwise well except for an upper respiratory tract infection a few weeks ago. On physical examination, he is alert and complains of mild abdominal tenderness on palpation. His left ankle is swollen and tender, and a few 4- to 5-mm nonblanching lesions (Item Q214A) are visible on his thighs bilaterally.

question 15
Question 1

Of the following, the MOST likely diagnosis is

  • Henoch-Schonleinpurpura
  • Immune thrombocytopenic purpura
  • Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
  • Parvoviral infection
  • Post-streptococcal arthritis
question 16
Question 1

Of the following, the MOST likely diagnosis is

  • Henoch-Schonleinpurpura
  • Immune thrombocytopenic purpura
  • Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
  • Parvoviral infection
  • Post-streptococcal arthritis
question 2
Question 2

A 3-year-old child presents with a rash, abdominal pain, and joint pain. Physical exam reveals an afebrile patient who has a non-blanching maculopapular rash. The rash is limited to the lower extremities and buttocks. Both knees are swollen and tender.

question 21
Question 2

Of the following, the laboratory finding that is MOST consistent with this disease is:

  • Glucosuria
  • Hematuria
  • Positive rheumatoid factor
  • Positive serum antinuclear antibody
  • Thrombocytopenia
question 22
Question 2

Of the following, the laboratory finding that is MOST consistent with this disease is:

  • Glucosuria
  • Hematuria
  • Positive rheumatoid factor
  • Positive serum antinuclear antibody
  • Thrombocytopenia
beh et disease1
Behçet Disease
  • Very rare systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology.
  • Affects blood vessels of all sizes.
    • Both arteries and veins
  • Clinical manifestations are similar in children and adults.
  • Characterized by recurrent, painful ulcers of the mouth and skin and uveitis.
clinical presentation1
Clinical Presentation
  • Apthous stomatitis
  • Genital ulcerations
  • Uveitis
  • GI symptoms (due to ulcers)
  • Arthritis
  • Lab findings
    • Normal ANA and RF
    • ESR/CRP may be elevated
scleroderma
Scleroderma

Juvenile systemic sclerosis

Localized scleroderma

juvenile systemic sclerosis
Juvenile Systemic Sclerosis
  • Characterized by symmetrical fibrous thickening of skin and various internal organs.
    • Esophagus and GI tract, heart, lungs, kidneys
  • Clinical presentation
    • Skin changes – edema then tightening, thinning, atrophy
    • Raynaud’s – 70% at presentation
    • Arthritis, arthralgia
    • Muscle weakness/pain
    • CREST syndrome
  • Pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension are major causes of morbidity in children.
l o calized scleroderma
Localized Scleroderma
  • Much more common than systemic and has a much better outcome.
  • Affects a single dermatome.
  • Starts as a linear hypopigmented patch then slowly becomes more fibrotic.
  • Rarely requires treatment, usually self-limited.
  • May cause limb deformities or growth arrest.
  • Lab findings:
    • RF positive in 1/3 of patients
    • +/- ANA
for the boards1
For the Boards
  • Recognize the clinical manifestations of scleroderma.
  • Recognize that localized scleroderma is much more common than systemic sclerosis and has a better outcome.
question 17
Question 1

An 11-year-old girl presents with an asymmetric smile of 6-8 months duration. A tight linear band has developed progressively from the vermillion border of the left lower lip and now extends to the lateral aspect of the chin. Results of the remainder of the physical exam are normal. No laboratory studies are obtained.

question 18
Question 1

Of the following, the lesion MOST likely represents

  • Granulomaannulare
  • Lichen sclerosis et atrophicus
  • Localized morphea
  • Psoriasis
  • Tuberous sclerosis

Hint: Localized morphea = linear scleroderma

question 19
Question 1

Of the following, the lesion MOST likely represents

  • Granulomaannulare
  • Lichen sclerosis et atrophicus
  • Localized morphea
  • Psoriasis
  • Tuberous sclerosis
question 23
Question 2

A 14-year-old girl presents for evaluation of areas of skin thickening, tightness, and discoloration that developed 2 months ago. Physical examination reveals shiny, hypopigmented patches with brown borders on the leg and ankle. The affected skin is immobile, firm, and has a "bound-down" feeling.

ques t ion 2
Question 2

Of the following, the MOST likely diagnosis is

  • lichen sclerosus et atrophicus
  • Linear scleroderma
  • Pityriasis alba
  • Progressive systemic sclerosis
  • Vitiligo
ques t ion 21
Question 2

Of the following, the MOST likely diagnosis is

  • Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus
  • Linear scleroderma
  • Pityriasis alba
  • Progressive systemic sclerosis
  • Vitiligo
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