TOPIC 8 The Brain & Language Mastery. The biological foundations of language. Our linguistic ability does not depend primarily on the structure of our vocal cords, for other mammals also have vocal cords.
Language and speech
Reading and writing
perception of nonlinguistic sound
visual and spatial skills
recognition of patterns
recognition of musical melodies
Carl Wernicke created an early neurological model of language, that later was revived by Norman Geschwind - The model is known as the WERNICKE–GESCHWIND MODEL.
According to Wernicke, people who suffer from brain damage to a particular part of the brain (i.e. temporal lobe – Wernicke’s area) may experience receptive aphasia, i.e. cannot understand speech, but still can speak fluently (their speech is meaningless).
Damage to Broca’s area (frontal cortex) cause individual to suffer from aphasia, i.e. cannot speak (partial/total loss of speech ability) but still understand what others are saying.
For listening to and understanding spoken words, the sounds of the words are sent through the auditory pathways to area 41 (the primary auditory cortex) From here they continue to wernicke’s,where the meaning of the words is extracted.
In order to speak, the meanings of words are sent from Wernicke’s area via the arcuate fasciculus to Broca’s area.
Broca’s area holds a representation for articulating words Instructions for speech are sent from Broca’s area to the facial area of the motor cortex and from there instructions are sent to facial motor neurons in the brainstem, which relay movement orders to facial muscles.
Communicative – enable people to communicate with each other.
Arbitrarily symbolic - Language create an arbitrary relationship between a symbol and its reference, such as things, ideas, process, relationship & description.
Regularly structured - Language has a structure, where particular patterns of sounds and letters form meaningful words.
Structured at multiple levels – Language structure can be analyzed at more than one level (e.g. in sound, meaning units, words, phrases etc)
Generative, Productive – Limitless ability to produce language creatively
Dynamic – Language constantly evolves
Usually there is a context that helps us determine the intended meaning of a word. The surrounding words disambiguate (remove ambiguity from) a homonym.
A psychologist who reads, "The patient had a flat affect" will know to pronounce the word AFF-ect and will interpret this sentence as meaning "The patient showed little emotion."
(2) Exchange Fancy getting your model resnosed. (getting your nose remodeled).
(3) Anticipation Bake my bike. (take my bike).
(4) Perseveration He pulled a pantrum. (tantrum).
(5) Addition I didn’t explain this clarefully enough.(carefully enough).
(6) Deletion I’ll just get up and mutter intelligibly. (unintelligibly).
(7) Substitution At low speeds it’s too light. (heavy).
(8) Blend That child is looking to be spaddled. (spanked\paddled).
(1) Shifts = one speech segment disappears from its appropriate place and appears somewhere else.
(2) Exchanges = are double shifts, in which two linguistic units exchange places.
(3) Anticipations =occur when a later segment takes the place of an earlier one. They are different from shifts in that the segment that intrudes on another also remains in its correct place and thus is used twice.
(4) Perseverations = appear when a earlier segment replaces a later item.
(5) Additions = add linguistic material.
(6) Deletions = leave something out.
(7) Substitutions = occur when one segment is replaced by an intruder. These are different from the previously described slips in that the source of the intrusion may not be in the sentence.
(8) Blends = occur when more than one word is being considered and the two intended items “fuse” or blend into a single item.
The speech of patients with this aphasia is fluent and grammatical, and their comprehension is excellent.
unable to think of the most appropriate word.
convey meaning in speech besides that specified by
the particular words; an important means of
communication of emotion.
ability to write; produced by brain damage.
letter strings; sound reading.
phonetically but has difficulty reading irregularly
spelled words by whole-word reading.
which the person can read words aloud without
out words and write them phonologically.
The process of considering alternative and choosing among them
Thoughts and actions required to achieve a desired goal that is not readily attainable.
Highly creative thinking is associated with activity in both hemispheres, but with significantly higher levels in the right hemisphere (a).
During thinking that is not creative (b ) activity is largely restricted to the left hemisphere.