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RHIC : The Path Forward Presented to Quark Matter 2006 Shanghai, PRC Derek I. Lowenstein Brookhaven National Laboratory November 15, 2006. The Present RHIC. PHOBOS. BRAHMS. Jet Target. RHIC. PHENIX. STAR. RF. LINAC. NSRL. Booster. AGS. Tandems.

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RHIC:The Path Forward

Presented to

Quark Matter 2006

Shanghai, PRC

Derek I. Lowenstein

Brookhaven National Laboratory

November 15, 2006



PHOBOS

BRAHMS

Jet Target

RHIC

PHENIX

STAR

RF

LINAC

NSRL

Booster

AGS

Tandems

RHIC – a high luminosity hadron collider

Electron cooler

EBIS

Operated modes (beam energies):

Au–Au 10, 28, 31, 65, 100 GeV/n

d–Au* 100 GeV/n

Cu–Cu 11, 31, 100 GeV/n

p–p 11, 31, 100, 205, 250 GeV

Possible future modes:

Au – Au 2.5 GeV/n (AGS, SPS c.m. energy)

p – Au* 100 GeV/n (*asymmetric rigidity)

Achieved peak luminosities (100 GeV, nucl.-nucl.):

Au–Au 581030 cm-2 s -1 (2x design)

p–p 351030 cm-2 s -1(7x design)

Other large hadron colliders (scaled to 100 GeV):

Tevatron (p – pbar) 251030 cm-2 s -1

LHC (p – p, design) 1401030 cm-2 s -1


Delivered luminosity and polarization during last 5 years (Q3)

65%

47%

46%

34%

15%

  • Expect x2 Au ion luminosity increase in the 2007 run



Path forward
Path Forward (Q3)

  • Short term (2007-2008)

    • Luminosity increase

      • Stochastic cooling complete

      • Increase number of bunches

        • >x2 for ions; >x2 for polarized protons

  • Mid term (2009-2010)

    • RHIC II Phase 1 efforts completed

      • EBIS injector operational

      • Major detector upgrades completed

    • RHIC II Phase 2 efforts started

      • electron cooling construction started

  • Longer term (2011-2015)

    • RHIC II completed

    • eRHIC Project started


Goals for RHIC Enhanced Design Performance (2008*) (Q3)

  • Au-Au L store average= 8 x 1026 cm-2s-1 @ 100 GeV/n

  • p  -p L store average=150 x 1030 cm-2s-1 @ 250 GeV

  • P store average = 70%

  • 60% of calendar time in store = 100 hours/week

  • *First 250 GeV p-p physics run currently scheduled for 2009.


Stochastic cooling (Q3) can counteract IBS by keeping the emittance constant while electron cooling will shrink the emittance.Improves RHIC performance by providing more luminosity (20-50%) improved vertex size, and longer stores and reduced number of refills. Improves productivity.

Stochastic cooling of a high frequency bunched beam has been observed for the first time.

  • Time domain (oscilloscope) and frequency domain (spectrum analyzer) measurements confirm cooling

  • Cooling time about 1 hour

Bunch profile before (red) and after (blue) cooling, Wall Current Monitor

Schottky spectrum before cooling: blue trace

Spectrum after cooling: red trace


Ebis injector project

EBIS test stand (Q3)

EBIS Injector Project

  • New RHIC preinjector system: EBIS replaces 30+ year old tandems

    • Joint DOE and NASA funded project. Construction begun in 2006.

    • Improves performance

      • Extends mass range to uranium

      • Allows for polarized He3 injection

    • Commission in 2009


q (Q3)

q

Why RHIC II ?

  • The RHIC experiments have learned to utilize elemental QCD processes generated in the collisions themselves, such as…

  • formation and transport of heavy quarks, and quarkonium bound states

  • fragmenting jets from high energy partons

  • high energy photons

  • Typically these are rare probes:

  • Future progress requires well-defined improvements in detector capability and machine performance.T. Ludlam


Rhic ii electron cooling
RHIC II electron cooling (Q3)

  • Electron cooling of ion beams

  • Increases the luminosity for heavy ions by a factor of ten

    • Based on a high energy, 54 MeV and 50 mamp, energy recovery linac (ERL) and a superconducting photoelectron gun

    • Preparing for DOE CD0 decision in early FY2007

  • Superconducting RF Cavity Ampere Superconducting RF Gun


Electron cooling facility at ip2
Electron-cooling facility at IP2 (Q3)

Electron cooling R&D

Cooling region

RHIC triplet

100 m

RHIC triplet

ERL

ERL


Why eRHIC? (Q3)

A New Generation of DIS:

High luminosity polarized Electron-Nucleon/Electron-Ion Collider

Electron-proton collisions

  • Gluon and sea quark polarization

  • The role of orbital angular momentum

Electron – Ion collisions

  • Gluon momentum distributions in nuclei

  • Gluons in saturation

  • The color glass condensate

T.Ludlam


eRHIC at BNL (Q3)

  • A high energy, high intensity polarized electron (and positron) beam to collide with the existing heavy ion and polarized proton beam.

  • Would significantly enhance RHIC’s ability to probe fundamental, universal aspects of QCD

  • Ee = 10 GeV (~5-12 GeV variable) TO BE BUILT

  • Ep = 250 GeV (~50-250 GeV variable) EXISTS

  • EA= 100 GeV/nucleon (for Au) EXISTS

  • At least one new detector for ep & eA TO BE BUILT


eRHIC Design Concepts (Q3)

2 designs are under consideration

Ring-Ring designLinac-Ring design

simpler ring design

one IR possible

less R&D effort

1033 luminosity

simpler IR design

multiple IRs possible

Ee ~ 20 GeV possible

1034 luminosity


eRHIC CM Energy vs Luminosity (Q3)

  • eRHIC

    • Variable beam energy

    • Proton-to-uranium ion beams!

    • Proton, He3(EBIS) polarization

    • 1034 luminosity

Jlab12GeV

eRHIC


eRHIC ZDR (Q3)

http://www.bnl.gov/eic

  • Reviewed June 2005 (252 page document)

  • Collaboration: BNL, MIT-Bates, BINP & DESY

  • Goals: initial design, identify & investigate most crucial R&D problems for challenging luminosities and IR design


Path Forward Schedule (Q3)

RHIC II


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