Lost in parallel concordances
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Lost in parallel concordances. Ana Frankenberg-Garcia ISLA, Lisbon. Lost in parallel concordances. When are they useful?. How do you use them?. availability of corpus. cognitive style of learners. parallel. representativeness of corpus. monolingual. level of difficulty

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Lost in parallel concordances

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Lost in parallel concordances

Ana Frankenberg-Garcia

ISLA, Lisbon


Lost in parallel concordances

When are

they useful?

How do

you use them?


availability of corpus

cognitive style

of learners

parallel

representativeness

of corpus

monolingual

level of difficulty

of concordances


Lost in parallel concordances

So when exactly

are they

useful?


Parallel concordances

in L2 learning

L2

L1


Grammar-translation method

L1 L2


L2

Modern approaches to L2 learning

L1  poor L2 fluency

Multilingual classes

Native-speaker teachers

Monolingual materials


Learners use L1 schemas as templates for constructing L2 schemas Barlow (2000)

Despite being told not to, learners often use L1 as a strategy for learning L2Cohen (2001)

Awareness of L1 influence upon L2 seems to helpTomasello and Herron (1988, 1989)

Teaching Monolingual ClassesAtkinson (1993)The Non-Native TeacherMedgyes (1994)

L1 revival


Parallel concordances

in L2 learning

L1

L2

Self-access

Classroom


Learners decide what to focus on

Aston (2001)

Self-access

  • Queries initiated by learners

  • Learners engaged in finding solutions to problems that are in the forefront of their minds

  • Concordances likely to be meaningful, relevant and conducive to successful learning


What should teachers do?

Classroom

  • Monolingual classes

  • Teachers who know L1

But when?


  • L1  L2

Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis Lado (1957)

But not all differences between languages are relevant to learning Wardhaugh (1970), Odlin (1989)

“consciousness-raising techniques may be counterproductive where the insight has already been gained at a subconscious, intuitive level.” Sharwood-Smith (1994:184)


No use learners being swamped with language contrasts that don’t affect and could even be detrimental to their learning

Classroom

So what language

contrasts might help?


  • IL  L2

Contrastive Interlanguage Analysis Granger & Tribble (1996)

But some IL problems can still be traced back to L1

Negative transfer from L1 ItalianLott (1983)

Portuguese-English crosslinguistic influence Frankenberg-Garcia & Pina (1997)


CLI and parallel concordances

in L2 learning

L1 French tonic auxiliariesRoussel (1991)

L1 Norwegian shall  skalJohansson & Hofland (2000)

L1 Portuguese prepositions after N, V & AdjFrankenberg-Garcia (2000)


  • Pay attention to crosslinguistic influence

  • Find out which language contrasts might be worth making a particular group of learners aware of

  • Use parallel concordances to focus on these contrasts

Classroom

Use parallel concordances to focus on IL problems that can be traced back to L1

Language contrast per se


Lost in parallel concordances

How exactly do you use them?


Unlike monolingual corpora...

L1

L2

ST

TT


Very lost...

?

L1  L2 ?

ST  TT ?

TT  ST ?

L2  L1 ?


L1  L2

Howcan I say ___ in L2?

Language production

How meanings learners formulate in L1 can be expressed in L2


L2  L1

What does___ mean?

Language reception

How meanings learners don’t understand in L2 translate into L1


Production & Reception

L1  L2 L2  L1

“actualmente”

“actually”

e.g. FALSE COGNATES


+ reception - production

Don’t miss the party!

OK

And don’t lose

those keys.

*Sorry I’m late.

I lost the train.

OK


English Portuguese

miss

perder

lose


L2  L1?

“lose”

lose

perder


L2L1?

“miss”

miss

perder


L1 L2

“perder”

miss

perder

lose


Different purposes in language teaching

L1 L2L2  L1

PRODUCTION

RECEPTION


Lost in parallel concordances

ST  TT ?

TT  ST ?


Unidirectional parallel corpora

e.g. German-English INTERSECT

Not much choice...

L1

English TT ST

L1

German ST TT

L1

L2


Bi-directional parallel corpora

e.g. COMPARA, CEXI, part of ENPC

How do you choose?

L1L2

ST

TT

TT

ST


Translational  Non-translational e.g. Baker (1996)

L1 L2

ST TT

 

TT ST


Explicitation in TT

Distribution of already in COMPARA 1.6


Against parallel corpora

in L2 learning?

Gellerstam (1996)


Exposing L2 learners

to translational language

can be problematic

Já almoçaste?

Have you already

had lunch?


Should I

be looking at

translational L2?

How can I

take advantage

of the translational

& non-translational

language distinction?


Sheltering learners from

translational L2

L1 L2

ST TT

TT ST

e.g. elements with significantly different ST-TT distributions


Exposing learners to

translational L2

L1 L2

ST TT

TT ST

e.g. culturally-bound concepts difficult to express in L2


Drawing attention to

basic linguistic contrasts

L1 L2

ST TT

TT ST

e.g. prepositions after N, V and Adj


L1, L2, ST and TT

Production

L1L2

Reception

L2L1

TTSTshelterSTTT

STTTexpose

ST+TT  TT+ST ST+TT  TT+ST


Queries that focus on

basic language contrasts

Unidirectional &

bi-directional

parallel corpora

OK in both directions


Queries affected by

translational/non-translational

language distinction

Bi-directional

corpora OK in

both directions

(but use right part

of the corpus)

Unidirectional

parallel corpora

only in one direction


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