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基础笔译课程. 曾 诚 北京外国语大学 英语学院. Those who can, do; those who can ’ t, teach. Those who can, write; those who can ’ t, translate. --Western Proverbs 没有翻译,就没有共产党。 -- 毛泽东 张仲实 《 毛泽东同志论理论著作翻译 》 , 《 翻译通讯 》1980 年创刊号 陈福康 《 中国译学理论史稿 》 , 382 页 师者,所以传道、授业、解惑也。

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基础笔译课程

曾 诚

北京外国语大学 英语学院


Those who can, do; those who can’t, teach.

Those who can, write; those who can’t, translate.

--Western Proverbs

没有翻译,就没有共产党。

--毛泽东

张仲实《毛泽东同志论理论著作翻译》,《翻译通讯》1980年创刊号

陈福康《中国译学理论史稿》,382页

师者,所以传道、授业、解惑也。

It takes a teacher to transmit wisdom, impart knowledge and resolve

doubts.

--韩愈《师说》



  • 一、笔译基础

  • 目的

  • 介绍翻译的基本知识和理论

  • 树立翻译的正确认识和态度

  • 为翻译学习、实践和研究打基础

  • 要求

  • 了解翻译的基本性质、困难及应对方法

  • 养成认真负责的工作态度

  • 掌握翻译的学习方法

  • 教学方法

  • 理论知识讲授

  • 翻译实践讲评

  • 课堂讨论和练习


教学内容

理论部分

翻译的定义(古今中外的翻译定义、翻译的基本要素)

翻译者(理想翻译者、翻译困难、应对技巧、所需知识)

翻译理论研究(理论/研究内容、翻译的功能、工具和资源)

语言学分析I(词汇层次:词素、词汇、语义、语义分类)

语言学分析II(词汇之上:翻译单位、准确自然、形式内容)

语言学分析III(词汇之上: 习语、搭配,固定表达、成语)

语言学分析IV(语法:词语形态、句法、语段/范式)

语言学分析VI(篇章:信息流,主/述位,非/常态、重心)

语言学分析V(粘连:指/替代、省略/重复、语义粘连、繁简)

语用学分析(语义/用含义、粘连/连贯、隐含、合作原则)


11. 翻译理论视角I(由下而上的语言分析;目的论:能动性)

12. 翻译理论视角II(译者无形论:流畅、异/归化、“忠实”)

13. 翻译理论视角III(对等论:形式/功能、动态对等;妥协论)

14. 翻译职业(职业道德、准则、工作环境、生存状态、译联)

15. 翻译评价(评价标准、质量监控、反馈渠道、资格/等级考试)

16. 翻译与理论(语言学、翻译理论、理论的价值、理论与实践)

实践部分

每周约300字/词翻译练习

《英语翻译三级笔译》

(外研社,曾诚、王琼琼)


Lexical meaning
Lexical meaning

a)propositional meaning

b) expressive meaning

c)presupposed meaning

d) evoked meaning

Alan Cruse, Lexical Semantics (1986)


A propositional meaning
a) propositional meaning 实质意义

the part of the meaning that determines the truth condition

  • Shirt is “a piece of clothing worn on the upper part of the body”

    Inaccurate translation: to use shirt to refer to a piece of clothing worn on the foot, such as socks

  • Peter is here/Peter is still here

    do not mean the same, but since they express true propositions in the same set of circumstances (they have the same truth conditions), so their propositional meaning is the same


B expressive meaning
b) expressive meaning 表达意义

the part of the meaning that relates to the speaker’s feelings/attitudes and cannot be judged as true or false

  • Don’t complain/Don’t whinge

  • 别哭/别哭哭啼啼


C presupposed meaning
c)presupposed meaning预设意义

the part of the meaning that arises from co-occurrence restrictions, that is to say, it depends on what other words we expect to see before or after a certain lexical unit.

Restrictions can be:

  • Selectional restrictions, connected to the propositional meaning of a word. For example, next to the adjective “furious” we expect a human subject, except in the case of figurative language. (小猪真胖/肥?)

  • Collocational restrictions do not depend on the propositional meaning of a word but are linked to its usage in the various languages (学习知识/learn knowledge?)


D evoked meaning
d) evoked meaning 联想/唤起意义

the part of the meaning that derives from dialect and register variation.

A dialect is a variety of language used by a specific community of speakers and can be: 

  • Geographical (restricted to a certain area:flagfall?)

  • Temporal (restricted to a certain period of time, age groups)

  • Social (used by different social classes: Scent/ perfume)

    Register is a variety of language used in specific situations, according to

  • Field (What’s happening?)

  • Tenor (People involved)

  • Mode (Role of language)


请将这篇选自The Economist的文章译成汉语,刊登在《世界博览》杂志上。

Snowbirds of the south-west

Anybody who drives in Arizona at this time of year will be familiar with the annual migration of “snowbirds”—retired people, that is, seeking to escape the sub-zero temperatures of the north for the balmy desert winter. As many as 300,000 snowbirds flock here each year, so if you haven't seen one before, there’s a good chance that your first encounter with this exotic creature will occur when you find yourself stuck behind a Jayco caravan with Nebraska licence plates doing 40mph on a single-lane highway.

Most of Arizona’s snowbirds start their journey in the rural mid-west. They tend to be less affluent than the urban north-easterners who make up most of Florida’s winter-resident stock and who favour the more comfortable nesting afforded by condos. Still, the snowbirds bring an extra $1 billion a year to Arizona. In some towns, such as Yuma, which sees its population double in winter, they keep the local economy ticking over.


二、汉译英笔译

  • 目的

  • 介绍汉译英中常见的问题

  • 探讨解决翻译问题的方法

  • 了解翻译方法的适用情况

  • 要求

  • 了解汉英语言差异

  • 熟悉常见文体的特点

  • 掌握汉英翻译技巧

  • 教学方法

  • 翻译技巧讲授

  • 翻译实践讲评

  • 课堂讨论和练习


教学内容

笑话 上下文/语境

成语故事 逻辑的显隐

寓言 专有名词

城市简介 增加解释

旅游资料 标识语/目的

广告 译文功能

说明书 文体特点

散文 实/代称、重复

剧本 准确/自然

小说 动词谓语长句

讲话 断句/名词化

书信 词序/语序

政治新闻 变换角度/范畴词

一般报道 假朋友/冗余信息

契约 流水句

法规 外位语


教材

《实用汉英翻译教程》(外研社,曾诚)

教学活动

1.以篇章为单位的译文学习

形式:对照阅读、译文比较/评论/赏析。

目的:认识翻译难点,吸取经验教训。

2.以段落、单句或词语为单位的译文研究

形式:译例分析、试译、译文修改/选择/赏析、查阅词典。

目的:摸索并掌握翻译方法,解决本单元提出的翻译难点。

3.思考题

目的:思索翻译中带普遍性的问题,认识翻译的性质和特点。

4.翻译作业

相同体裁,题材也相同或相近,并包括相应的翻译难点。



Try to translate
Try to translate

上学路上

一天下午,我乘公共汽车去上学。车上人不多,有一位妇女从座位上站起来买票。这时,她旁边的一位小伙子以为她要下车,就坐在那个空座位上。那位妇女买完票,发现位置被人占了,满脸不高兴地说:“真是,不会下蛋,倒挺会占窝!”小伙子听了这话,忙让出座位对她说:“真对不起,耽误您下蛋了。”


下列四个句子中,哪句适合作为这则短文首句译文的句子?并解释为什么。下列四个句子中,哪句适合作为这则短文首句译文的句子?并解释为什么。

  • One afternoon I went to school by bus.

  • One afternoon I was going to school by bus.

  • One afternoon I was riding on a bus on my way to school.

  • One afternoon,on my way to school,I got on a bus.


  • 在初学英语时,我们做过许多单句练习。如果“一天下午,我乘公共汽车上学去”出现在这种练习中,在初学英语时,我们做过许多单句练习。如果“一天下午,我乘公共汽车上学去”出现在这种练习中,One afternoon I went to school by bus是很好的译文。可否用这个英文句子去翻译上面短文的首句?为什么?

  • “一天下午,我乘公共汽车上学去”这句话出现在单句翻译练习中与出现在需要翻译的短文中有什么区别? 对比这两种情况,从以下三个方面说明实际交流中的翻译与初学英语时做过的单句翻译有什么不同:

  • 1)翻译的目的

  • 2)原文的作(编)者、读者和译者以及译文的读者

  • 3)语言的作用


Context of situation

Context of Situation在初学英语时,我们做过许多单句练习。如果“一天下午,我乘公共汽车上学去”出现在这种练习中,

Halliday, M.A.K. & Hassan, R. (1989).

Language, context and text: Aspect of language in social-semiotic perspective.

Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Context of situation1
Context of Situation在初学英语时,我们做过许多单句练习。如果“一天下午,我乘公共汽车上学去”出现在这种练习中,

  • Field------what is happening

  • Tenor------people involved

  • Mode------the role of language


以上分析对我们的翻译实践有什么启示?在初学英语时,我们做过许多单句练习。如果“一天下午,我乘公共汽车上学去”出现在这种练习中,

译文除了要语言和意思正确外,译者还要考虑:

  • 翻译的具体语境

  • 原文作者/译者/译文的读者

  • 译文目的

  • ……


跟进练习在初学英语时,我们做过许多单句练习。如果“一天下午,我乘公共汽车上学去”出现在这种练习中,(一)

狐假虎威

虎求百兽而食之,得狐。狐曰:“子无敢食我也!天帝使我长百兽,今子食我,是逆天帝命也。子以我为不信,吾为子先行,子随我后,观百兽之见我而敢不走乎。”虎以为然故遂与之行。兽见之皆走。虎不知兽畏己而走也,以为畏狐也。

A tiger caught a fox while looking for any beast that might come to his way and fall prey to him.


跟进练习(二)在初学英语时,我们做过许多单句练习。如果“一天下午,我乘公共汽车上学去”出现在这种练习中,

她在追赶明天

黄宗英是一九四二年在上海开始艺术生涯的,在此之前,曾在天津度过了学生时代。至今她还清楚地记得,三七年夏天,小学毕业,她报考了天津南开中学,发榜那天,她兴冲冲地赶去看榜,刚走到中原公司,就遇到了戒严。她和行人慌忙躲进商店,只见插着太阳旗的坦克隆隆驶过,坦克履带的痕迹深深刻在了祖国母亲的胸膛上,也在她少小的心灵上留下了不可平复的伤痕。这以后,日军全面占领了天津,当局在学校强制推行日语教育,和她们朝夕相处的老师,含泪讲着都德的《最后一课》。

Before she started her career as an actress in Shanghai in 1942, she spent her schooldays in Tianjin.


跟进练习(三)在初学英语时,我们做过许多单句练习。如果“一天下午,我乘公共汽车上学去”出现在这种练习中,

引导农民向城市转移

中国有12多亿人口,农民占了9亿多。尽管农村社会在进一步分化,但农村人口却没有减少,反而在增加。据中国社科院调查,与1978年相比,1999年农民增加了800多万人。一份研究报告指出,“没有城市化的发展,农村、农业和农民的问题也不可能得到有效解决。过去人们常讲,农民问题归根到底是土地问题,这个问题已经基本解决了。现在的农民问题是就业问题。”因此,调整城乡社会结构,加快城市化的步伐,改变城市化严重滞后于工业化的状况,应是当务之急。

Of China’s 1.2 billion people, 900 million are farmers.


  • 三、笔译实践在初学英语时,我们做过许多单句练习。如果“一天下午,我乘公共汽车上学去”出现在这种练习中,

  • Advanced translation course to train professional ability to produce quality translation

  • Theoretic perspectives of linguistics, contrastive linguistics and translation studies

  • Authentic materials, covering the areas such as culture, education, international affairs, business,

  • science, ecology, IT, etc.


Aims outcomes
Aims Outcomes在初学英语时,我们做过许多单句练习。如果“一天下午,我乘公共汽车上学去”出现在这种练习中,

  • To familiarize students with the common translation problems and relevant strategies to solve them.

  • To give students some theoretic tools for analysing and solving translation problems.

  • To enhance students’ problem-solving ability in translation practice.

  • Able to produce quality translation, approaching or attaining professional level.

  • Able to apply proper strategies to different translation tasks.

  • Able to use various resources for analysing and solving translation problems.

  • Able to improve their translation competence by independent learning.


Course Contents在初学英语时,我们做过许多单句练习。如果“一天下午,我乘公共汽车上学去”出现在这种练习中,

Introduction & Requirements

Context & context of situation

Meaning & understanding

Text & function

Summary of linguistic approach

Implicit vs. explicit

Hypotactic vs. paratactic

Word and sentence order

Static vs. dynamic

Substitutive vs. reiterative

Contrastive studies and translation

Skopos & strategy

Dynamic equivalence

Domestication vs. foreignization

Translation & Theory

Freelance translation and translation resources


Hypotactic vs paratactic

Hypotactic vs. paratactic在初学英语时,我们做过许多单句练习。如果“一天下午,我乘公共汽车上学去”出现在这种练习中,

形合与意合


形合 在初学英语时,我们做过许多单句练习。如果“一天下午,我乘公共汽车上学去”出现在这种练习中,hypotaxis

句子中的词语或分句之间用语言形式手段(如关联词)连接起来,表达语法意义和逻辑关系。

Hypotactic

The dependent or subordinate construction or relationship of clauses with connectives:

I shall despair if you don’t come.

意合 parataxis

词语或分句之间不用语言形式手段连接,句中的语法意义和逻辑关系通过词语或分句的含义表达。

Paratactic

The arranging of clauses one after the other without connectives showing the relation between them:

The rain fell; the river flooded; the house washed away.


昨天碰见老张,说老婆病了,住了院,要陪床,下周不能上班。昨天碰见老张,说老婆病了,住了院,要陪床,下周不能上班。

Yesterday meet Lao Zhang, say wife ill, hospitalized, need take care of (her), can’t work next week.

When I met Lao Zhang yesterday, he said that his wife was ill and hospitalized. He needed to take care of her so he could not go to work the next week.


Contrast of chinese and english sentences
Contrast of Chinese and English Sentences昨天碰见老张,说老婆病了,住了院,要陪床,下周不能上班。

English

1) Detached and independent

2) Compact: S+V structures

3) Hypotactic: subordination of one clause to another

Chinese

1) No clear dividing line in between

2) Diffusive, water-flowing or verb sentences

3) Paratactic: without indication of coordination or subordination

  • 第一,英语由于有形态上的变化,又强调主谓一致,因此句界分明;而汉语没有形态变化,由于强调按照时间和事理顺序横向排列,所以断句不严。

  • 第二,英语每个句子基本上都以主语-动词为结构主干,以谓语动词为核心组成空间搭架;而汉语强调时间顺序和事理排列。

  • 第三,英文重形合(hypotaxis),有丰富的连接手段,不仅有形态变化,有连词和介词,还有关系代词、关系副词、不定式、分词和动名词,可以构成无数的短语,表达各种语法关系;而汉语重意合(parataxis),没有形态变化,没有非谓语动词形式,更没有关系代词和关系副词,尽管也有一些连词和介词,但数量较少,使用也不如英语频繁。


下周不能上班昨天碰见老张,说老婆病了,住了院,要陪床,下周不能上班。can’t work next week.

要陪床need take care of (her ),

住了院hospitalized,

说老婆病了say wife ill,

昨天碰见老张Yesterday meet Lao Zhang,


and hospitalized.昨天碰见老张,说老婆病了,住了院,要陪床,下周不能上班。

his wife was ill

…that said he

When I met Lao Zhang yesterday,


E-C:昨天碰见老张,说老婆病了,住了院,要陪床,下周不能上班。

During the winter holidays in her senior year, while she was driving during a storm, her car ran off the road and hit a tree.

在她大四的那个寒假期间,当她正在暴风雨中驾驶时,她的汽车冲出了那段公路,并且撞上了一棵树。

大四放寒假,她开车遇到了暴风雨,车子冲出公路,撞到了树上。

C-E

我是一个外地来京的打工仔,工作单位离我住的地方不远,可要倒两趟车,为节省开销,我买了一辆仿山地的自行车。

I am not from Beijing but I am working in the city. My work place is not far from where I stay, but I have to change buses twice to get there. To save the bus fare, I bought a bike that looked like a mountain bike.


From english to chinese
From English to Chinese昨天碰见老张,说老婆病了,住了院,要陪床,下周不能上班。 ⇒

When I met Lao Zhang yesterday,

he said that his wife was ill

and hospitalized.

昨天碰见老张,说老婆病了,住了院。


From chinese to english
From Chinese to English昨天碰见老张,说老婆病了,住了院,要陪床,下周不能上班。昨天碰见老张,说老婆病了,住了院,要陪床,下周不能上班。

昨天碰见老张,说老婆病了,住了院, 要陪床,下周不能上班。

(他)说老婆病了 要陪床,下周不能上班。

(当when)我昨天碰见老张(时), 他需要陪床,

他对我说(that)他的老婆病了 (所以so)他下周

(并且and) 住了院。 不能上班。

When I met Lao Zhang yesterday, He needed to take care

he said that his wife was ill and of her so he could not

hospitalized. go to work the next week.


One-Point Perspesctive昨天碰见老张,说老婆病了,住了院,要陪床,下周不能上班。

Rays of light travel from

the object, through the picture

plane, and to the viewer's eye.

This is the basis for graphical

perspective.


Multi point perspective
Multi-point Perspective昨天碰见老张,说老婆病了,住了院,要陪床,下周不能上班。


Thank you
Thank You昨天碰见老张,说老婆病了,住了院,要陪床,下周不能上班。祝永远年轻!


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