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基础笔译课程 PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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基础笔译课程. 曾 诚 北京外国语大学 英语学院. Those who can, do; those who can ’ t, teach. Those who can, write; those who can ’ t, translate. --Western Proverbs 没有翻译,就没有共产党。 -- 毛泽东 张仲实 《 毛泽东同志论理论著作翻译 》 , 《 翻译通讯 》1980 年创刊号 陈福康 《 中国译学理论史稿 》 , 382 页 师者,所以传道、授业、解惑也。

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Those who can, do; those who cant, teach.

Those who can, write; those who cant, translate.

--Western Proverbs




It takes a teacher to transmit wisdom, impart knowledge and resolve
















11. I

12. II/

13. III/


15. /



Lexical meaning

Lexical meaning

a)propositional meaning

b) expressive meaning

c)presupposed meaning

d) evoked meaning

Alan Cruse, Lexical Semantics (1986)

A propositional meaning

a) propositional meaning

the part of the meaning that determines the truth condition

  • Shirt is a piece of clothing worn on the upper part of the body

    Inaccurate translation: to use shirt to refer to a piece of clothing worn on the foot, such as socks

  • Peter is here/Peter is still here

    do not mean the same, but since they express true propositions in the same set of circumstances (they have the same truth conditions), so their propositional meaning is the same

B expressive meaning

b) expressive meaning

the part of the meaning that relates to the speakers feelings/attitudes and cannot be judged as true or false

  • Dont complain/Dont whinge

  • /

C presupposed meaning

c)presupposed meaning

the part of the meaning that arises from co-occurrence restrictions, that is to say, it depends on what other words we expect to see before or after a certain lexical unit.

Restrictions can be:

  • Selectional restrictions, connected to the propositional meaning of a word. For example, next to the adjective furious we expect a human subject, except in the case of figurative language.(/?)

  • Collocational restrictions do not depend on the propositional meaning of a word but are linked to its usage in the various languages (/learn knowledge?)

D evoked meaning

d) evoked meaning /

the part of the meaning that derives from dialect and register variation.

A dialect is a variety of language used by a specific community of speakers and can be:

  • Geographical (restricted to a certain areaflagfall?)

  • Temporal (restricted to a certain period of time, age groups)

  • Social (used by different social classes: Scent/ perfume)

    Register is a variety of language used in specific situations, according to

  • Field (Whats happening?)

  • Tenor (People involved)

  • Mode (Role of language)


The Economist

Snowbirds of the south-west

Anybody who drives in Arizona at this time of year will be familiar with the annual migration of snowbirdsretired people, that is, seeking to escape the sub-zero temperatures of the north for the balmy desert winter. As many as 300,000 snowbirds flock here each year, so if you haven't seen one before, theres a good chance that your first encounter with this exotic creature will occur when you find yourself stuck behind a Jayco caravan with Nebraska licence plates doing 40mph on a single-lane highway.

Most of Arizonas snowbirds start their journey in the rural mid-west. They tend to be less affluent than the urban north-easterners who make up most of Floridas winter-resident stock and who favour the more comfortable nesting afforded by condos. Still, the snowbirds bring an extra $1 billion a year to Arizona. In some towns, such as Yuma, which sees its population double in winter, they keep the local economy ticking over.



















Context and Context of Situation

Try to translate

Try to translate


  • One afternoon I went to school by bus.

  • One afternoon I was going to school by bus

  • One afternoon I was riding on a bus on my way to school.

  • One afternoonon my way to schoolI got on a bus


  • One afternoon I went to school by bus

  • 1

  • 2

  • 3

Context of situation

Context of Situation

Halliday, M.A.K. & Hassan, R. (1989).

Language, context and text: Aspect of language in social-semiotic perspective.

Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Context of situation1

Context of Situation

  • Field------what is happening

  • Tenor------people involved

  • Mode------the role of language


  • //



A tiger caught a fox while looking for any beast that might come to his way and fall prey to him.


Before she started her career as an actress in Shanghai in 1942, she spent her schooldays in Tianjin.



Of Chinas 1.2 billion people, 900 million are farmers.


  • Advanced translation course to train professional ability to produce quality translation

  • Theoretic perspectives of linguistics, contrastive linguistics and translation studies

  • Authentic materials, covering the areas such as culture, education, international affairs, business,

  • science, ecology, IT, etc.

Aims outcomes

Aims Outcomes

  • To familiarize students with the common translation problems and relevant strategies to solve them.

  • To give students some theoretic tools for analysing and solving translation problems.

  • To enhance students problem-solving ability in translation practice.

  • Able to produce quality translation, approaching or attaining professional level.

  • Able to apply proper strategies to different translation tasks.

  • Able to use various resources for analysing and solving translation problems.

  • Able to improve their translation competence by independent learning.


Course Contents

Introduction & Requirements

Context & context of situation

Meaning & understanding

Text & function

Summary of linguistic approach

Implicit vs. explicit

Hypotactic vs. paratactic

Word and sentence order

Static vs. dynamic

Substitutive vs. reiterative

Contrastive studies and translation

Skopos & strategy

Dynamic equivalence

Domestication vs. foreignization

Translation & Theory

Freelance translation and translation resources

Hypotactic vs paratactic

Hypotactic vs. paratactic




The dependent or subordinate construction or relationship of clauses with connectives:

I shall despair if you dont come.



The arranging of clauses one after the other without connectives showing the relation between them:

The rain fell; the river flooded; the house washed away.


Yesterday meet Lao Zhang, say wife ill, hospitalized, need take care of (her), cant work next week.

When I met Lao Zhang yesterday, he said that his wife was ill and hospitalized. He needed to take care of her so he could not go to work the next week.

Contrast of chinese and english sentences

Contrast of Chinese and English Sentences


1) Detached and independent

2) Compact: S+V structures

3) Hypotactic: subordination of one clause to another


1) No clear dividing line in between

2) Diffusive, water-flowing or verb sentences

3) Paratactic: without indication of coordination or subordination

  • -

  • hypotaxisparataxis


cant work next week.

need take care of (her ),


say wife ill,

Yesterday meet Lao Zhang,


and hospitalized.

his wife was ill

that said he

When I met Lao Zhang yesterday,



During the winter holidays in her senior year, while she was driving during a storm, her car ran off the road and hit a tree


I am not from Beijing but I am working in the city. My work place is not far from where I stay, but I have to change buses twice to get there. To save the bus fare, I bought a bike that looked like a mountain bike.

From english to chinese

From English to Chinese

When I met Lao Zhang yesterday,

he said that his wife was ill

and hospitalized.

From chinese to english

From Chinese to English


that so


When I met Lao Zhang yesterday, He needed to take care

he said that his wife was ill and of her so he could not

hospitalized. go to work the next week.


One-Point Perspesctive

Rays of light travel from

the object, through the picture

plane, and to the viewer's eye.

This is the basis for graphical


Multi point perspective

Multi-point Perspective

Thank you

Thank You

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