TEENAGE PREGNANCY: MATERNAL & FETAL OUTCOMES
MohdPazudin I, Najihah AZ, NM Zaki, MohdShukri O, Noraliza AGDepartment of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus USM, 16150 KubangKerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
A total of 488 pregnant nulliparous successfully participated and completed in this study. They were divided into two groups, which were the teenage group (study group, n=244 patients) and the non teenage group (control group, n=244 patients).
Table 1: Characteristics of Patients in Teenage and Non Teenage Group
aIndependent t test, significant at p<0.05
b Pearson Chi-square tes; tsignificant at p < 0.05
Table 2: Univariate Analysis of Maternal-Fetal Outcomes In Teenage and Non teenage Group
significant at p<0.05
Table 3 : Birth weight of Newborn In Teenage and Non Teenage Group
b Pearson Chi-square test; significant at p < 0.05
- Teenage pregnancy nowadays is reducing but still remains relatively high and the rates vary worldwide. Some important factors like socioeconomic deprivation, disrupted family structure and limitededucation appear to be most consistently related to teenagepregnancy. Many adverse outcomes of the fetal as well as the maternal, have been associated with teenage pregnancy including premature delivery, small for gestational age, low birth weight and increased neonatal mortality, anaemia and gestational hypertension.
- Teenage Pregnancy is defined as a teenage or underage girl (19years old and less), usually refers to women who have not reached legal adulthood that become pregnant
- To study the maternal and fetal outcomes of teenage pregnancy and to compare the outcomes with the normal population.
- SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
- 1. To compare the maternal demographic, major antenatal complications, outcome of labour, mode of delivery and perinatal outcome between the study group and the control group.
- 2. To identify the fetomaternal outcomes and complications among the study groups.
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The youngest age in the teenage group was 13 years-old. The mean age of teenage group was 17.49 (±SD 1.35) while the non teenage group was 27.29 (±SD 3.05), statistically significant p value of 0.001. All non-teenage mothers were married whereas only 85.7% of the teenage mothers were married (14.3% single mother). About 30% of the teenage group conceived before they got married while in the non teenage group only 1% (p value <0.001). There were 8 cases of rape in teenage group but only one case in non-teenage group. There were significant delay booking in teenage group, mean gestational 18.48 weeks vs 14.92 weeks.
There were higher incidence of premature delivery in teenage group as compare to non-teenage group (p value, 0.016). However there were no significant difference incidence of pre-eclampsia, prelabour rupture of membrane, antepartumhaemorrhage, anaemia and instrumental delivery between the groups.
The incidence of postpartum haemorrhage was about the same between both groups. For the incidence of third and fourth degree perineal tear, surprisingly 14 cases happened in the non teenage group as compared to only one case from the teenage group (p value 0.001).
4. There were higher incidence of baby weighing less then 2.5kg in teenage group about 19% vs 10% in the non teenage group. This would be explained by the higher incidence of premature delivery in the teenage group. The incidence of poor Apgar score and admission to NICU were doubled in the teenage group as compared to the non teenage group however the p value were not significant.
5. The incidence of congenital abnormality was 7 (2.9%) in teenage group , while nil from the non teenage group, a significant p value of 0.015. The congenital abnormality found were congenital talipesequinavarus, cleft lips and hydrocephalus.
- STUDY DESIGN
- This is a comparative cross sectional study carried out in Hospital UniversitiSains Malaysia (HUSM), KubangKerian, Kota Bharu Kelantan.
- Study Participants
- During the study period, all nulliparous women aged ≤19 years old and at gestation of more than 24 weeeks, seen in clinics, antenatal ward or labour room were included as teenage group (study group). When each of the teenage group delivered in labour room HUSM, the first nulliparous women aged 20-34years delivered following each teenage case was selected as the non teenage group (control group). Data regarding the maternal demographic , various fetal and maternal outcome were compiled by reviewing their antenatal and delivery records, and also interview was conducted.
- Inclusion criteria
- Singleton pregnancy
- Exclusion criteria
- Multiple pregnancy
- No consent from patient.
- OUTCOME MEASURES
- Antenatal Outcome:
- Anaemia, Antepartumhaemorrhage, Hypertension or PE, GDM and PROM
- Labour outcome:
- Premature or term labour, IOL, mode of delivery, duration of labour, Postpartum Haemorrhage and Third and fourth degree perineal tear.
- Perinatal outcome:
- Apgar score
- congenital abnormalities
- NICU Admission
- Perinatal mortality
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