Burning issues with utis
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Burning Issues with UTIs. Meghan Brett, MD Division of ID Hospital Epidemiologist Medical Director, Antimicrobial Stewardship. Objectives. Distinguish between asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and different types of active UTIs (complicated vs. uncomplicated)

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Burning Issues with UTIs

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Burning issues with utis

Burning Issues with UTIs

Meghan Brett, MD

Division of ID

Hospital Epidemiologist

Medical Director, Antimicrobial Stewardship


Objectives

Objectives

  • Distinguish between asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and different types of active UTIs (complicated vs. uncomplicated)

  • Describe in which patients ASB should be treated

  • Learn how to diagnose a catheter-associated UTIs (CAUTIs)

  • Describe how to determine empiric treatment and how long uncomplicated UTIs should be treated

  • Know how to access and use various antibiograms and other resources


What s the burden of utis

What’s the Burden of UTIs?

  • 50% of women will have a UTI in their lifetime

    • Up to 25% may have a second UTI within 6 months

  • Visits related to UTI

    • 3 million ED visits in 2010

    • Most common primary diagnosis for U.S. women visiting EDs

    • 100,000 hospitalizations in U.S.

    • 0.9% of all ambulatory visits

  • Half of all UTIs were among patients age 18 to 44 years

  • Pts visiting the ED have higher acuity than those pts presenting to primary care

    • 400,000 (13%) were for pyelo (13 visits/10,000 people)

    • In general population: 1 case/28 cases of cystitis


Who is most affected by utis

Who is Most Affected by UTIs?

  • Annual Incidence of UTIs

    • Young, sexually active women: 2 – 4%

    • Women > 70 yrs: 5 – 10%

    • Women > 80 yrs: 50%

    • Institutionalized Women: 40%

    • Adult men (childhood through middle age): < 1%

    • Men > 65 yrs: 1 – 3%

    • Men > 80 yrs: 10%

    • Institutionalized Men: 25%

  • CAUTIs: ~1 million/year


What are take home points

What Are Take Home Points?

  • Assemble the whole clinical picture (i.e., limiting reflexive Rx of positive Urine Cx)

  • Determine the syndrome

  • Distinguish between complicated vs. uncomplicated UTIs

  • Choose appropriate empiric antibiotics based on likely bacterial etiologies and their resistance

  • Adjust antibiotics based on culture results

  • Decide about length of therapy


Questions 1 st set

Questions (1st Set)

  • How do you define asymptomatic bacteriuria ASB?

  • How do you differentiate between asymptomatic bacteriuria and UTI?

  • Which groups need to be treated for ASB?

  • What criteria do you use to define uncomplicated vs. complicated UTIs?

  • Why does distinguishing uncomplicated vs. complicated help?

  • What kinds of questions would you ask to distinguish between uncomplicated and complicated?


Asymptomatic bacteriuria

AsymptomaticBacteriuria

  • Asx women: 2 consecutive voided urine specimens with isolation of same bacterial strain in quantitative counts ≥ 105cfu/mL

  • Men: single, clean-catch voided specimen with 1 bacterial species isolated in quantitative counts ≥ 105cfu/mL

  • Women or men: single catheterized specimen with 1 bacterial species isolated in quantitative count ≥ 102cfu/mL

Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), ASB guidelines 2005


Burning issues with utis

ASB

  • Evidence that screening and treatment does not lead to improved clinical outcomes

  • More likely, unnecessary antibiotics may cause harm

    • Adverse effects

    • C difficileinfection

    • Antibiotic resistance

    • Wasted expense


Uti signs sx

UTI Signs/Sx


Clinical presentation distinguishing asb vx uti

Clinical Presentation – Distinguishing ASB vx. UTI

  • Lower tract signs

    • Dysuria

    • Frequent urination

    • Urgent urination

  • DDX:

    • STIs

    • Vaginitis

    • Exposure to chemical or allergic irritants


Clinical presentation distinguishing asb vx uti1

Clinical Presentation – Distinguishing ASB vx. UTI

  • Upper tract:

    • Fevers, chills

    • Nausea

    • Flank pain

    • Often also with dysuria/frequency/urgency


Which groups require rx for asb

Which Groups Require Rx for ASB?

  • Definitive:

    • Pregnant Women

    • Anyone undergoing TURP or Urologic procedures during which mucosal bleeding is anticipated

  • Maybe:

    • Renal transplant patients

    • Neutropenic patients

Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), ASB guidelines 2005


Uncomplicated vs complicated

Uncomplicated vs. Complicated

  • Uncomplicated – premenopausal women

    • No structural or functional abnormalities in urinary tract

    • Not pregnant

  • Complicated –

    • Structural abnormalities (e.g., nephrolithiasis)

    • Functional abnormalities (e.g., ureteral reflux)

    • Compromised hosts (e.g., pregnant, diabetic)

    • UTIs in boys/men: until structural/functional ruled out

IDSA, Uncomplicated UTI Guidelines 2011

DielubanzaEJ. ID Clin N Am 2014.


Why distinguish between uncomplicated vs complicated

Why Distinguish Between Uncomplicated vs. Complicated?

  • Guidelines for uncomplicated but none for complicated UTIs

  • More important than upper tract/lower tract

  • Complicated

    • May need further evaluation (diagnostics, urology consult)

    • Increased morbidity and mortality

    • May encounter more drug resistance (IV ABX)

    • Duration of therapy will likely be longer

  • Assess conversion from uncomplicated to complicated (may indicated underlying issues)


Questions to distinguish uncomplicated from complicated

Questions to Distinguish Uncomplicated from Complicated

  • Pregnancy status

  • History of kidney stones

  • Structural/functional GU abnormalities

  • Pelvic surgery

  • DM

  • Neurologic disorders

  • Recent ABX use

  • Recent hospitalization

  • Recent GU instrumentation


Questions 2 nd set

Questions (2nd Set)

  • What’s the best way to obtain a urine sample for diagnosing a UTI?

  • What are indications for having a Foley catheter?

  • What tests do you review on a urinalysis to make you consider a UTI? ASB?

  • How do you diagnose a CAUTI?


Key issue urine sample collection

Key Issue – Urine Sample Collection

  • Clean-catch, mid-stream = best

  • In/Out catheterization

  • DO NOT insert Foley catheters for sake of urine collection (unless otherwise indicated)


Indications for foley catheters

Indications for Foley Catheters

  • Patients with hemodynamic instability (e.g., on pressors) who require urine output monitoring

  • Urinary obstruction/retention

  • Sacral or perineal wounds in patients with incontinence

  • Genitourinary surgery/Placed by a Urologist

  • Requires prolonged immobilization (unstable spine)

  • End of life care

CDC (HICPAC) CAUTI Prevention Guidelines, 2009

http://www.cdc.gov/HAI/ca_uti/uti.html


Review of ua for evidence of infection

Review of UA for Evidence of Infection

  • Check squamous cells first… if > 20, likely a contaminated sample

  • Nitrites

    • Produced by many Gram-negatives

    • Requires hours for conversion of nitrate  nitrite

    • Not by Gram-positives, candida species

  • WBCs

    • > 10 per high powered field

  • Leukocyte esterase

    • Enzyme found in neutrophils

    • If present, indicates neutrophil activity


Caveats

Caveats

  • Pyuria in ASB does not need to be treated

  • Urine samples that sit will have alterations in UA results

    • Samples analyzed within 2 hours or refrigerated to limit false positive and false negative results


Questions 3 rd set

Questions (3rd Set)

  • How do you select an antibiotic for empiric treatment treatment?

  • When do you change from empiric to directed antibiotic therapy?

  • How long do you treat uncomplicated cystitis? Uncomplicated pyelonephritis?

  • How do you treat CAUTIs? For how long?

  • Do you test urine for cure? Why?


Treatment of utis what bugs

Treatment of UTIs – What Bugs?

  • Enteric flora colonizing perineum and urethra

  • E. coli

    • 80% of first infection in women, men, children

    • 50% of nosocomial UTIs

    • Most common for acute uncomplicated cystitis

    • Many episodes of complicated UTIs and pyelo

  • Staphylococcus saprophyticus

    • 11% of UTIs (sexually active, younger women)

  • Remaining

    • GNRs (Klebiella, Proteus mirabilis)  increasingly MDROs

    • Gram-positive cocci (entercoccus and GBS)


What s first line therapy empiric treatment uncomplicated only

What’s First Line Therapy (Empiric Treatment)? – Uncomplicated Only!

  • Antimicrobial Stewardship Clinical Pathway (with a focus on inpatients)


Change from empiric to directed

Change from Empiric to Directed?

  • When you have culture results

  • Look at susceptibility interpretations

  • Determine what has good urine/kidney penetration

  • Lowest MIC ≠ Best ABX selection

  • Questions? Call Antimicrobial Stewardship! (on amion.com)


How long to treat

How Long to Treat?

  • It depends!

  • Uncomplicated UTIs

    • Cystitis 

      • Nitrofurantoin or Bactrim  3 days

      • 20% resistance in isolates is an indication not to use this for empiric coverage

      • Note: nitrofurantoin should not be used in patients with Creatinine clearance < 50 (does not reach bladder)

    • Pyelonephritis 

      • FQ  5 – 7 days

      • Beta-lactams  10 – 14 days

      • Bactrim  14 days


How long to treat cautis

How Long to Treat CAUTIs?

  • 7 days of treatment for patients with CAUTI who have prompt resolution of symptoms

  • 10 – 14 days in patients with delayed response to treatment

  • 3 day regimen may be considered for women ≤ 65 yrs who develop CAUTI without upper tract sx after a catheter has been removed


Test of cure

Test of Cure?

  • Nope (please don’t)


Other notes

Other Notes

  • Complicated including CAUTIs

    • Polymicrobial for longer-term (>30d) indwelling catheters

    • More drug resistant (ESBLs, P. aeruginosa, or enterococcus faecium)

  • S. aureus– what to do?


Treatment of cautis

Treatment of CAUTIs

  • Algorithm to be developed


Greatest overuse of antibiotics

Greatest Overuse of Antibiotics

It’s ASB

patient’s positive urine cx


Unintended consequences of abx

Unintended Consequences of ABX

  • Drug reactions

  • C difficileinfections

  • Selection for drug resistance

  • Stay tuned… impact to the microbiome


Resources

Resources

ASP – InptAntibiograms and Clinical Pathways

  • https://hospitals.health.unm.edu/intranet/Index.cfm

  • https://hospitals.health.unm.edu/intranet/antimicrobial/pathways.shtml

  • http://www.tricore.org/Healthcare-Professionals/Test-Information/Antibiograms

Tricore – Outpatient Antibiograms


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