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Genetics Review. Mendel Punnett Squares Complex inheritance Human Genetics. Science of how traits are passed on from one generation to the next. HeredityOr Genetics. Science of how traits are passed on from one generation to the next. Genetics. Father of Genetics is:.

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Genetics Review

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Genetics Review

Mendel

Punnett Squares

Complex inheritance

Human Genetics


  • Science of how traits are passed on from one generation to the next

HeredityOr Genetics


  • Science of how traits are passed on from one generation to the next

Genetics


  • Father of Genetics is:

MendelorHooke


  • Father of Genetics is:

Mendel


  • What kind of organisms did Mendel work with?

Fruit fliesorPeas


  • What kind of organisms did Mendel work with?

Peas


Parent generation

F1orP1


Parent generation

P1 Stands for Parent


  • First and second generation of offspring

F1 and F2orG1 and G2


  • First and second generation of offspring

F1 and F2F = “Filial” Latin for Offspring


  • An allele that hides the presence of another allele

RecessiveDominant


  • An allele that hides the presence of another allele

Dominant


  • An allele that is hidden by the presence of another allele

RecessiveIncomplete


  • An allele that is hidden by the presence of another allele

Recessive


  • Why did recessive traits disappear in the F1 generation and return in the F2 generation?

COMPLETE DOMINACE OR SEGREGATION


  • Why did recessive traits disappear in the F1 generation and return in the F2 generation?

Complete DominaceAND Segregation


  • Complete Dominance – Parent generation were pure Domiant and Recessive for traits: TT x tt so F1 generation all were heterozygous: Tt and only showed the dominant trait so the recessive trait “disappeared” or was hidden.

  • Segregation – using a Punnett square we can see that when the F1 generation are crossed with each other: Tt x Tt, ¼ of the offspring will have the recessive trait “reappear” because during meiosis – alleles separate or segregate and offspring get only one allele from Mom and one allele from Dad

Explanation


Punnett Squares


  • T

Dominantor Recessive


  • T

Dominant(capital letTer)


  • tt

Homozygousor heterozygous


  • tt

Homozygous(letters identical)


  • Ll

Homozygous or Heterozygous


  • Ll

Heterozygous (Different cases – one lower and one upper)


If Black is dominant what are 2 possible genotypes for black cats?

BB bbor Bb BB


If Black is dominant what are 2 possible genotypes for black cats?

BB or Bb both will look Black because both have at least one dominant allele


  • What is the phenotype for this plant: tt, Tall is dominant to short

ShortMedium


  • What is the phenotype for this plant: tt, Tall is dominant to short

short


  • What are the genotypes of these parents:

  • Heterozygous for tall x Homozygous for short

Tt x ttor TT x tt


  • What are the genotypes of these parents:

  • Heterozygous for tall x Homozygous for short

Tt x tt


  • The appearance of an organism

Genotypeor Phenotype


  • The appearance of an organism

Phenotype - Physical Appearance


  • What is the genotype of a plant that is white, when dominant trait is Green?

wwor gg


  • What is the genotype of a plant that is white, when dominant trait is Green?

gg The dominant trait determines the letter used, recessive traits are always shown in lower case of dominant letter


Rr

R

r

R = round,

r = wrinkled

Cc?

What genotype goes here?


Rr

R

r

Cc?

What genotype goes here? rr


Rr

R

r

Cc?

What Phenotype goes here?


Rr

R

r

Cc?

What Phenotype goes here? wrinkled


Rr

r

r

Cc

What Percent of offspring will be Round?


Rr

r

r

Cc

What Percent of offspring will be Round? 50%


  • hybrid

Homozygous or heterozygous


  • hybrid

heterozygous


  • Pure genotype

Homozygous or Heterozygous


  • Pure genotype

Homozygous


Complex inheritance


  • A trait with multiple alleles

Blood typeorskin color


  • A trait with multiple alleles

Blood type - A, B, o (skin color has multiple genes and a whole range of in between phenotypes)


RR = red Rr= red rr=white

What kind of dominance?

Completeor incomplete


RR = red Rr= red rr=white

What kind of dominance?

Complete


  • AA or AO = type A

  • BB or BO = type B

  • AB = typeAB

  • OO = typeO

  • What kind of dominance?

Incompleteor co-dominance


  • AA or AO = type A

  • BB or BO = type B

  • AB = typeAB

  • OO = typeO

  • What kind of dominance?

co-dominance


  • RR = redRr = orange

  • rr = yellow

  • What kind of dominance?

Codominance or incomplete


  • RR = redRr = orange

  • rr = yellow

  • What kind of dominance?

incomplete


  • Universal Donor

AAB B o


  • Universal Donor

o


  • Can RECEIVE any type of blood

A AB B O


  • Can RECEIVE any type of blood

AB


  • Determines the sex of the child

FatherMother


  • Determines the sex of the child

Father


  • Chromosome pair numbers 1-22

Sex chromosomes or Autosomes


  • Chromosome pair numbers 1-22

Autosomes


  • XY

Male or Female


  • XY

Male


  • Dad is not colorblind

  • Mom is colorblind

Xb

Xb

XBXb

XBXb

XB

Xby

y

Xby

X-linked or y-linked


  • Dad is not colorblind

  • Mom is colorblind

Xb

Xb

XBXb

XBXb

XB

Xby

y

Xby

X-linked


  • Picture of chromosomes

Pedigree or karyotype


  • Picture of chromosomes

karyotype


  • Homologous chromosomes do not separate

CarrierNondisjunction


  • Homologous chromosomes do not separate

Nondisjunction


  • Diagrams that show how genes are passed from generations

KaryotypePedigree


  • Diagrams that show how genes are passed from generations

Pedigree


Male female


Male


Has DiseaseCarrier


Has Disease


  • Down Syndrome 21

3 copies 1 copy


  • Down Syndrome 21

3 copies


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