State transition models in the west region
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STATE & TRANSITION MODELS IN THE WEST REGION. Diversity in 2006…. Historic Climax Plant Community Natural variability – Includes natural disturbances (fire, grazing, etc.), all functional groups present in varying quantities. Seeded Range High management & economic inputs required).

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STATE & TRANSITION MODELS IN THE WEST REGION

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State transition models in the west region

STATE & TRANSITION MODELS IN THE WEST REGION

Diversity in 2006…


State transition models in the west region

Historic Climax Plant Community

Natural variability – Includes natural disturbances (fire, grazing, etc.), all functional groups present in varying quantities.

Seeded Range High management & economic inputs required).

Disturbance State 1

Deep rooted perennial grass functional groups are lost.

Disturbance State 2

Shallow rooted perennial grass functional groups and Biotic Crusts are lost.

Probable path

Disturbance State 3

Annual grasses & invasive species w/ increased woody species cover. May degrade further (abiotic threshold) with irreversible changes to soil profile.

Improbable path

Threshold

GENERAL MODEL FOR COOL-SEASON BUNCHGRASS RANGELANDS

A General Model


State transition models in the west region

JSS

JSS

PFG

PFG

SS

SS

(fireproof)

(fireproof)

JW

JW

(closed)

(closed)

JSS

JSS

RT1

RT1

IRT1

IRT1

fireprone

fireprone

)

)

(

(

State 2

State 2

RT2

RT2

IRT2

IRT2

State 1

State 1

JW

JW

Eroded phase

Eroded phase

Plant Community Phases

State 3

State 3

PFG

Perennial

forb

and grass

SS

Sagebrush steppe

JSS

Juniper

Sagebrush steppe

JW

Juniper woodland

A Conceptual Model


State transition models in the west region

A Model For A Group Of Sites


State transition models in the west region

Shale (Sh) 7-9GR

R034AY154WY

Site Type: Rangeland

MLRA: 34A-Cool Central Desertic Basins and Plateaus

GARDNERS SALTBUSH/

RHIZOMATOUS

WHEATGRASS

HCPC

SHC

HCSLG

BARE GROUND/

ANNUAL FORB

BMA – Brush Management (all methods)NF – No Fire

BMC – Brush Management (chemical)NS – Natural Succession

BMF – Brush Management (fire)NWC – Noxious Weed Control

BMM – Brush Management (mechanical)NWI – Noxious Weed Invasion

CSP – Chemical Seedbed PreparationNU – Nonuse

CSLG – Continuous Season-long GrazingP&C – Plow & Crop (including hay)

DR – DrainagePG – Prescribed Grazing

CSG – Continuous Spring GrazingRPT – Re-plant Trees

HB – Heavy BrowseRS – Re-seed

HCSLG – Heavy Continuous Season-long GrazingSGD – Severe Ground Disturbance

HI – Heavy InundationSHC – Severe Hoof Compaction

LPG – Long-term Prescribed GrazingWD – Wildlife Damage (Beaver)

MT – Mechanical Treatment (chiseling, ripping, pitting) WF - Wildfire


State transition models in the west region

Site Type: Rangeland Loamy 10-14” P.Z.

MLRA: 58B – Northern Rolling High Plains R058BY122WY

HCPC

Rhizomatous wheatgrasses,

Needleandthread, Blue grama

BM + PG

MCSLG + Na

NU, NF

Heavy Sagebrush

Greasewood

MCSLG

BM + PG

MCSLG + Na

Mixed Sagebrush/Grass

BM + Freq.

& Severe Grazing

BM + Freq.

& Severe Grazing

MCSLG

Western wheatgrass

Cheatgrass

LTPG

GLMT + PG

From any State

Freq. &

Severe

Yearlong

Grazing

Freq. &

Severe Grazing

GLMT

+MCSLG

Blue grama, Plains pricklypear,

Bare ground

Go-back Land

Blue grama Sod

LTPG

BM - Brush Management (fire, chemical, mechanical)

Freq. & Severe Grazing - Frequent and Severe Utilization of the Cool-season Mid-grasses during the Growing Season

GLMT - Grazing Land Mechanical Treatment

LTPG - Long-tem Prescribed Grazing

MCSLG - Moderate, Continuous Season-long Grazing

NU, NF - No Use and No Fire

PG - Prescribed Grazing (proper stocking rates with adequate recovery periods during the growing season)

VLTPG - Very Long-term Prescribed Grazing (could possibly take generations)

Na - found adjacent to a saline site


State transition models in the west region

An EarlyModel

Go-back

Silty 17-22” P.Z. MLRA 64

Blue grama/

Buffalograss

Understory

Blue grama/

Buffalograss

Sod

CPC

Juniper/Pine

Closed Canopy

Threeawn/

Annuals

Western wheatgrass/

Bluegrass


State transition models in the west region

The Model Evolves

Loamy/Silty MLRA 64

Abandoned farm land (from various plant communities)

Go-back

Short-lived

perennials &

annuals

Threeawn/

annuals

PG

Low vigor,

litter imbalance

Warm-season

grasses

NU

PG

OG

Short-lived

perennials &

annuals

SOG

Blue grama/

buffalograss

sod

Rest, PG, M

NU

CSG

PG

SOG

Woody

Lower canopy

cover

Cheatgrass

Rest, PG, M

I, NU

SOG

PG

CPC

NU

PG, PF

Threeawn/

annuals

OG

Woody

Higher canopy

cover

CSG

PG

NU

Western

wheatgrass-

cool-season

grasses

HSTG, PG

WF

CSLG

PG, NG

ISTG

HSLG

Kentucky

bluegrass/

annuals

Cheatgrass

Climate

Short-lived

perennials &

annuals

PG - Prescribed grazing; NG - no grazing; SOG - Seasonal overgrazing; CSLG - Continuous season-long grazing

I - Invasion; OG - Overgrazing; M - Mechanical treatment; WF - Wildfire; CSG - Continuous seasonal grazing

NU - Non-use, no fire; PF - Prescribed fire; ISTG - Intensive short-term grazing; HSTG - Heavy short-term grazing


State transition models in the west region

Silty (Si) 11-14 PZ

R058AC040MT


State transition models in the west region

State A (1, 2a, 2b): Natural variability within HCPC

State B (3 & 4): Deep-rooted perennial grass functional group lost

State C ? (5 & 6): Warm season/annual

grasses dominant – medium grasses lost (6)& shrubs lost (both for 5)


State transition models in the west region

Fire?

No

Fire?


State transition models in the west region

Silty (Si) 11-14 PZ - R058AC040MT

  • Plant Community 1: Tall Grasses/ Forbs/ Shrubs (HCPC):

    • The diversity of grass stature and life forms, along with scattered shrubs and a variety of forbs, provides habitat for many bird species including the upland sandpiper, sharp-tailed grouse, loggerhead shrike, grasshopper and savanna sparrow, chestnut-collared longspur and western meadowlark. This community is especially favorable for ground-nesting birds because of the abundant residual plant material and litter available for nesting, escape, and thermal cover.

  • Plant Community 2A: Medium and Short Grasses and Sedges/ Half-shrubs:

    • The partial loss of structural diversity makes this plant community somewhat less attractive to the variety of wildlife species using the HCPC or PPC. A decrease in residual plant material and litter cover is usually associated with degradation of the HCPC, which makes this community less attractive for ground-nesting birds.

  • Plant Community 2B: Medium and Short Grasses and Sedges/ Shrubs and Half-shrubs:

    • Wyoming big sagebrush, with canopy cover of 15-30%, and an understory of grasses and forbs, is excellent nesting, winter, brood rearing, and foraging habitat for sage grouse. Other obligate sagebrush-grassland species, notably Brewer’s sparrow, also benefit from an increase in sagebrush cover.

(TRANSITIONAL COMMUNITY?)


State transition models in the west region

2b

2b


State transition models in the west region

NF, NG

Subhumid Tallgrass

(Interpretive Community)

Guineagrass, glycine, ekoa.

Dense Shrubland

Dense Christmasberry stand.

F, BM

CG

PG

Mid-Seral Mid-Grass

Pitted beardgrass, lesser amounts of Rhodesgrass, rattail, wiregrass, Natal redtop.

A Model for Tropical Grassland

(Naturalized – Native or HCPC Unknown)

CG

PG, BM

Low Seral Shortgrass

Bermudagrass, lantana, apple sodom.


State transition models in the west region

A Forest Model

Figure 5. Ecological Site (common name): Western redcedar-Douglas-fir/oceanspray/swordfern

Clearing and seeding for cropland or pasture (PC#’s 5 or 6)

PC*#: 5

Common Name: cultivated cropland

Structure: Annual herbaceous groundcover

PC*#: 2

Common Name: Douglas-fir-grand fir/oceanspray/sword fern

Structure: One or two-story overstory with openings

Age range: 25-125 years (some remnant older trees)

PC*#: 1 (HCPC*)

Common Name: Western redcedar-Douglas-fir/oceanspray/sword fern

Structure: Multi-story

Age: 125 years +

Windstorm

Growth and conifer infill

Abandon-ment (alder seed source present)

Site preparation and cropland planting

Site preparation and pasture planting

Harvesting, scarification and no conifer reforestation

Harvesting, scarification and conifer tree planting (to PC#4 if no conifer planted)

Harvesting/ Wildfire plus conifer establishment

Shade-tolerant conifer species infill (time period of 100+ years)

PC*#: 6

Common Name: pasture (improved)

Structure: Grass sod ground cover

Growth through structural stages (sapling, pole, mature) and natural infill of shade-tolerant conifers

PC*#: 3

Common Name: Douglas-fir

Structure: Single-story

Age range: Regeneration; < 3 years

Site preparation and conifer tree planting

Lack of invasive grass/forbs control

Lack of alder control and/or heavy animal damage to conifers

PC*#: 4

Common Name: red alder/salmonberry/sword fern

Structure: Single-story

Age range: < 5 years

Site preparation, pasture or cropland planting, and control of invasive plants

PC*#: 7

Common Name: Invasive grass/other species (e.g., Himalaya blackberry)

Structure: Ground cover

Clearing and development

Non-native Condition

Clearing and development

PC*#: 8

Built-up

*HCPC = Historic Climax Native Plant Community,

PC = Plant Community

Optimum Wood Fiber Quality/Quantity Condition =

Draft – 4April2005

Pacific Northwest Soils


State transition models in the west region

Hairy grama

Native Mid-Grassland

Sideoats grama

Mesquite, Lehmann

Lehman lovegrass

Blue grama

Mesquite, Natives

Purple threeawn

Dense Mesquite

Honey mesquite


South facing model

PFG

SS

SC2-SC4

JSS (fireproof)

SH4

SC > 36%

SC ~ 3%

Io ~ 9 cm/hr

Io ~ 3 cm/hr

JW (closed)

SC < 2%

JSS (fireprone)

SM2

SM1 SM4

Io < 3 cm/hr

SC > 18%

SH1-SH3

Io ~ 6 cm/hr

SM3

State 1

State 2

South-facing Slope

JW

Eroded phase

SC < 1%

PFG

Perennial forb and grass

Io < 3 cm/hr

Sagebrush steppe

SS

Juniper – Sagebrush steppe

JSS

Juniper woodland

JW

State 3

A Model for Juniper Invasion

South-facing Model

From Petersen, 2005


East facing model

PFG

SS

EC1-EC4

JSS (fireproof)

EH2

SC > 31%

SC ~ 2.1%

Io ~ 9 cm/hr

Io ~ 4.6 cm/hr

JW (closed)

EH4

SC < 2%

JSS (fireprone)

EM1 EM3

Io < 4 cm/hr

EM2

SC > 13%

EH1

EH3

Io ~ 7 cm/hr

State 1

State 2

East-facing Slope

JW

Eroded phase

SC < 1%

PFG

Perennial forb and grass

Io < 4 cm/hr

Sagebrush steppe

SS

Juniper – Sagebrush steppe

JSS

Juniper woodland

JW

State 3

A Model for Juniper Invasion

East-facing Model

From Petersen, 2005


West facing model

PFG

SS

WC1-

WC4

WH3

WH4

JSS(fireproof)

SC > 41%

SC ~ 2.4%

Io ~ 9 cm/hr

Io ~ 3.5 cm/hr

WM1

JW (closed)

SC < 2%

JSS (fireprone)

Io < 3 cm/hr

SC > 13%

WM2

WM3

Io ~ 7 cm/hr

WM4

State 1

State 2

WH2

West-facing Slope

WH1

JW

Eroded phase

SC < 1%

PFG

Perennial forb and grass

Io < 3 cm/hr

Sagebrush steppe

SS

Juniper – Sagebrush steppe

JSS

Juniper woodland

JW

State 3

A Model for Juniper Invasion

West-facing Model

From Petersen, 2005


North facing model

PFG

SS

NC1-

NC4

JSS (fireproof)

SC ~ 54%

Io > 9 cm/hr

?

JW (closed)

JSS (fireprone)

NM2

SC > 28%

NM1

NM3-4

Io > 9 cm/hr

State 1

State 2

North-facing Slope

PFG

Perennial forb and grass

Sagebrush steppe

SS

Juniper – Sagebrush steppe

JSS

Juniper woodland

JW

A Model for Juniper Invasion

North-facing Model

From Petersen, 2005


State transition models in the west region

Riparian Ecosystems

Is the model appropriate ?

State B

Community

Transition

  • Processes:

  • Nutrient Cycling

  • Energy Capture

  • Water Cycle

  • ? Hydrology

  • channel morphology

  • influent - effluent

Threshold

Transitional

community

State A


State transition models in the west region

Riparian Ecosystems

Is the model appropriate ?

Community

Indicators ?

Proper Functioning Condition

(USDI, BLM TR 1737-9)

Monitoring the Vegetation Resources in Riparian Areas

(USDA, USFS, RMRS-GTR-47)

Channel Classification

(Rosgen 1996)

Transitional

community

State A

Indicator sensitivity ?

Process capacity ?

Process change ?


State transition models in the west region

SABO2/SALU2/

Sedge, Rush, and Grass Understory

Booth Willow/Yellow Willow/

Sedge, Rush, and Grass Understory

SABO2/SALU2/PHAR3

Booth Willow/Yellow Willow/

Reed Canarygrass

Channel straightened,

Willows removed

Willows removed

Meanders reconnected, Willows planted

Willows Planted

PHAR3/ALPR3

Reed Canarygrass/Meadow Foxtail (Stable)

Characteristics:

Flood plain Well Connected

Low Gradient Meanders

E Channel Type

Sinuosity >1.5

Gradient <0.2’/100’

Width/Depth ratio <12

Point Bars Sand/Silt

Sedge and Bulrush initially dominates

With Coyote Willow

Bank Stability

Outside curves with moderately stable

Overhanging banks

Stream Shade

Channel straightened

Meanders restored

PHAR3/ALPR3

Reed Canarygrass/Meadow Foxtail (unstable)

Characteristics:

Flood plain Disconnected

Moderate Gradient Meanders

C Channel Type

Sinuosity <1.5

Gradient >0.2’/100’

Width/Depth ratio >12

Point Bars Sand/Silt

Scattered Coyote Willow initially dominates

Bank Stability

Outside curves with unstable

Overhanging banks

Stream Shade

Summer mid-day shade <1%

Dashed line indicates that intensive treatment is needed for recovery.


State transition models in the west region

Riparian Subirrigated (Rsb), North Rocky Mountain Valleys, 15-19-Inch

(Typically occurs along riffle-pool streams (i.e., Rosgen C type).

1. (Obligate and Facultative Wetland) Tall and Medium Shrubs, Tall and Medium Grasses & Sedges, Forbs: (Historic Climax/Potential Plant Community)

PG

NPG

(3) (Facultative Wetland, Obligate)Medium and Short Sedges & Grasses, Rushes, Forbs, Mature Willows

(2) (Facultative Wetland/Obligate) Willows, Sedges, Mid Grasses, Rush, & Forbs

NPG

PG

Restore Watershed Hydrology***

Upland

Encroachment**

NPG

Channel Recovery Stages *

(4) (Facultative and Facultative Upland) Non-Native Grasses, Forbs, Shrubs May be a drop in water table level, no change in stream type

NPG

Stream Braids (becomes Rosgen D type), or Incises (becomes Rosgen G or F type)

(5) Early Seral Community

Colonizing grasses, spikerushes, rushes, and willow

(6) “Stream Terrace “ecological site (depending on depth to water table, and flooding frequency), or can be an Upland Site (e.g., Sy, Si, Cy, SwG)] Grasses, Forbs, Tall Trees


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