The progressive era
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The Progressive Era. What kinds of actions can bring about social change?. The Origins of Progressivism. Main Idea Political, economic, and social change in the 19 th century America led to broad progressive reforms. What it Matter Now

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The Progressive Era

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The progressive era

The Progressive Era

What kinds of actions can bring about social change?


The origins of progressivism

The Origins of Progressivism

Main Idea

Political, economic, and social change in the 19th century America led to broad progressive reforms.

What it Matter Now

Progressive reforms such as labor and voting rights have helped to make life in America what it is today.


The origins of progressivism1

The Origins of Progressivism

  • What were the four goals that various progressive reform movements struggled to achieve?

    • Protecting social welfare, promoting moral reform, creating economic reform, and fostering efficiency.


Four goals of progressivism

Four Goals of Progressivism


Cleaning up local government

Cleaning Up Local Government

  • How did government change during the Progressive Era? How were these changes important?

    • Government became more responsive to the people, elections were reformed, Senators directly elected and the public had more voice in law-making. Democracy was expanded.


Cleaning up local government1

Cleaning Up Local Government

  • Reforming Local Government

    • 1900- Hurricane in Galveston, TX

    • TX legislature appointed a 5 member commission to take over the clean-up.

      • Each member takes charge of a different city depart.

    • By 1917- 500 cities adopted what Galveston did.

    • City Managers were created

      • City Councils were elected by the people

  • Reform Mayors

    • Hazen Pingree (Detroit)- instituted a fairer tax structure, set up work relief.

    • Tom Johnson (Cleveland)- dismissing corrupt and greedy private owners of utilities.


Reform at the state level

Reform at the State Level


Women in public life

Women in Public Life

Main Idea

As a result of social and economic change, many women entered public life as workers and reformers.

Why it Matters Now

Women won new opportunities in labor and education that are enjoyed today.


One american s story

One American’s Story

  • Sussette La Fleshe- 1879, helped translate for Chief Standing Bear (Ponca tribe) into English.

    • She testified before Congress and helped win the passage of the Dawes Act of 1887.


Women in the work force

Women in the Work Force


Women lead reform

Women Lead Reform

  • Dangerous conditions, low wages, and long hours led many female industrial workers to push reform.


Three part strategy for suffrage

Three-Part Strategy for Suffrage

  • Convince Legislatures to grant women the right to vote.

    • Wyoming-1st (1869)

  • Pursue Court Cases to test the 14th Amendment and threaten to lose congressional representation. Aren’t women citizens too?

    • 1875- Supreme Court rule that women were citizens, but denied them to vote.

  • Push for a constitutional amendment for women to vote.

    • 41 years women lobbied to have it.


Final thoughts

Final Thoughts

  • Describe the growing presence of women in the workforce at the turn of the 20th century.

  • Identify leaders of the woman suffrage movement. Explain how woman suffrage was achieved.


Teddy roosevelt s square deal

Teddy Roosevelt’sSquare Deal

Main Idea

As president, Theodore Roosevelt worked to give citizens a Square Deal through progressive reforms.

Why it Matters Now

As part of his Square Deal, Roosevelt’s conservation efforts made a permanent impact on environmental resources.


A rough riding president

A Rough-Riding President

  • Controlling Roosevelt

    • Gov. of N.Y.

    • McKinley’s V.P.

  • Roosevelt’s Rise

    • Adventurer

    • Harvard- Boxing and Wrestled

    • Rough Riders (1898)

    • San Juan Hill in Cuba

  • The Modern Presidency

    • 1901- became president (42 yrs old)

    • Sportsman

    • “Bully Pulpit”- influence media, shape legislation

    • SQUARE DEAL- progressive reforms sponsored by Roosevelt


Using federal power

Using Federal Power

  • Roosevelt was convinced that modern America required a powerful federal government.


One american s story1

One American’s Story

  • Upton Sinclair- muckraker

    • “The Jungle” (1906)

    • Exposed the meatpacking industry in Chicago.

  • Theodore Roosevelt

    • Appalled by the account

    • Promised to help


Health and the environment

Health and the Environment


Roosevelt and civil rights

Roosevelt and Civil Rights

  • Roosevelt appointed African Americans to government positions

  • Invited African Americans to the White House

  • NAACP- W.E.B. Du Bois


Teddy roosevelt s square deal review

Teddy Roosevelt’s Square DealReview

  • What scandalous practices did Upton Sinclair expose in his novel The Jungle? How did the American public, Roosevelt, and Congress respond?

    • Sinclair’s descriptions of the meatpacking industry’s corrupt practices disgusted both the public and Roosevelt, who pushed Congress to pass the Meat Inspection Act.


Teddy roosevelt s square deal review1

Teddy Roosevelt’s Square DealReview

  • How did Roosevelt earn his reputation as a trustbuster?

    • Roosevelt filed suits under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, thus breaking up some of the trusts. He also ordered the Justice department to sue the Northern Securities Company which, until the Supreme Court dissolved the company, held a monopoly over northwestern railroads.


Progressivism under taft

Progressivism Under Taft

Main Idea

Taft’s ambivalent approach to progressive reform led to a split in the Republican Party and the loss of the presidency to the Democrats.

Why it Matters Now

Third-party candidates continue to wrestle with how to become viable candidates.


One american s story2

One American’s Story

  • Gifford Pinchot- head of the U.S. Forest Service under Roosevelt.


Taft becomes president

Taft Becomes President

1904- Roosevelt pledged not to run for reelection in 1908.

William Howard Taft- Secretary of War under Roosevelt


Progressivism under taft1

Progressivism Under Taft

  • What did Taft do that angered progressive Republicans?

    • He agreed to the Payne-Aldrich Tariff, that raised tariffs and sided with Richard Ballinger, when he removed 1 million acres of forest and mining lands from the reserve list.


The republican party splits

The Republican Party Splits

  • Problems within the Party

    • Progressives were split on those who sought change and conservatives who did not.

    • Taft sides with Joseph Cannon

    • Cannon ignored progressive bills

    • Cannon stripped of his power.

    • Democrats gain control of the House of Rep.

  • Bull Moose Party

    • “New Nationalism”

    • 1912- Roosevelt decides to run again

    • Progressive Party AKA “Bull Moose Party”

  • Woodrow Wilson wins because of the split


Democrats win in 1912

Democrats Win in 1912

  • Taft called Roosevelt a “dangerous egotist”

  • Roosevelt called Taft a “fathead” with a brain of a “guinea pig”

  • The election offered voters several choices:

    • Wilson- New Freedom

    • Roosevelt- Progressivism

    • Taft’s- Conservatism

    • Eugene V. Debs- Socialism


Evaluating

Evaluating

  • Both Roosevelt and Taft resorted to mudslinging during the 1912 presidential campaign. Do you approve or disapprove of negative campaign tactics? Support your answer.


Wilson s new freedom

Wilson’s New Freedom

Main Idea

Woodrow Wilson established a strong reform agenda as a progressive leader.

Why it Matter Now

The passage of the Nineteenth Amendment during Wilson’s administration granted women the right to vote


One american s story3

One American’s Story

  • Carrie Chapman Catt- President of the NWSA


Wilson wins financial reforms

Wilson Wins Financial Reforms

  • Like Roosevelt, Wilson claimed progressive ideals, but a different idea about federal government.

  • Wilson’s “New Freedom”

  • Triple wall of privilege:

    • Trusts, tariffs, high finance


A new tax system

A New Tax System

  • Wilson worked to lower tariffs, to control big business.

  • Underwood Act- lower tariffs for the 1st time since the Civil War.


Women win suffrage

Women Win Suffrage

  • Women push for the right to vote

  • Three developments made it possible:

    • Increase activism

    • Built enthusiasm for the movement

    • Rebirth of movement under Carrie Chatman Catt


Women win suffrage1

Women Win Suffrage

  • By 1912, only 5 states had suffrage for women

  • Local Suffrage Battles

    • Educated women

    • Used door-to-door campaign

    • Women go to England

    • Emmeline Pankhurst- British suffragist

  • Catt and the National Movement

    • Carrie Chapman Catt-1900-1904 (NWSA)

    • Five tactics of Catt


Five tactics of catt

Five Tactics of Catt


Catt national movement

Catt & National Movement

  • Lucy Burns & Alice Paul

    • National Women’s Party

  • 1919- 19th Amendment

    • 72 years after women meet.


The limits of progressivism

The Limits of Progressivism

  • Wilson wouldn’t support social reform as much.

  • Wilson and Civil Rights

    • Wilson retreated once in the White House on civil rights.

    • He appointed Southerners who extended segregation.

  • The Twilight of Progressivism

    • War in Europe would put progressive ideas on hold.


Final thoughts1

Final Thoughts

  • How did the Clayton Antitrust Act benefit labor?

    • It recognized the legality of labor unions, strikes, peaceful picketing, boycotts, and strike benefits; it limited the use of injunctions in court disputes.

  • Cite two examples of social welfare legislation that Wilson opposed during his presidency and the arguments he used to defend his position.

    • Child labor laws, because he felt they were unconstitutional; federal antilynching laws, because he believed such crimes fell under state jurisdictions.


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