1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a
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1=xNn]n"ofx xf];Ggf xNn]n"ofx -4_ :s]n A PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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1=xNn]n"ofx xf];Ggf xNn]n"ofx -4_ :s]n A. != k/dlktfsf] :t'lt ufcf}+, xfdLnfO{ arfpg] pg} x'g\, ;a} kfkLnfO{ u5{g\ Ifdf, ;a} /f]uLnfO{ u5{g r · f . @= wGojfb lbO{ pgsf] cf;gsf], cfglGbt eO{ cfpm pgsf] r/0fdf ;·Lt ufpFb} v'zLn] d'lQmsf] kx/fdf hoho u/f}+ .

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1=xNn]n"ofx xf];Ggf xNn]n"ofx -4_ :s]n A

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1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

1=xNn]n"ofx xf];Ggf xNn]n"ofx -4_ :s]n A

!= k/dlktfsf] :t'lt ufcf}+, xfdLnfO{ arfpg] pg} x'g\,

;a} kfkLnfO{ u5{g\ Ifdf, ;a} /f]uLnfO{ u5{g r·f .

@= wGojfb lbO{ pgsf] cf;gsf], cfglGbt eO{ cfpm pgsf]

r/0fdf ;·Lt ufpFb} v'zLn] d'lQmsf] kx/fdf hoho u/f}+ .

#= pg} x'g\ xfd|f k/dlktf, xfdLnfO{ l67fpF5g\ ;j{;bf

sfnf] afbnsf] kbf{h:tf] kfknfO{ x6fOlbG5g\ ;bf .

$= cfdfn] ô}F pgn] zflGt lbP, b'lgofFsf] 8/df 5f]8]g\ s}n]

rf]vf] b"wsf] jrgsf] lkofO, hLjg cd/ lbP pgn] .

%= uf]7fnf]n] ô}F vf]hL pgn], lgsfn] kfksf] bnbnb]lv

k|f0f TofuL arfP pgn], u/fP ;anfO{ cfºg} clg .

^= u'F8nfO{ 3/L3/L eTsfOlbP, l;sfP xfdLnfO{ p8\g cfk}m,

kv]6fdf p7fO psfan] ô}F kf/]gg\ xfdLnfO{ rf]6 st} .


2 dxfg li stf sf g

2 dxfg\ ;[li^stf{ sf]*{G

!= dxfg\ ;[li6stf{ k/d]Zj/sf] ho, ;+;f/nfO{ k|]d u/L v|Li6 k'q k7fP,

hf] k|f0f cfÇgf] TofuL ag] tf/0fxf/ / ;a}sf] nflu vf]n] :ju{åf/ .

:t'lt ufpm -2_ pgsf] jrg ;'gfpm,

:t'lt ufpm -2_ ;a} ldnL /dfpm

o]z" k'qåf/f lktfsxfF cfpm

/ O{Zj/sf] hohosf/ :t'lt r(fpm .

@= xf] /utn] lsg]sf] k"/f p4f/ ljZjf;Lx¿nfO{ O{Zj/sf] s/f/,

hf] ;aeGbf t'R5 Tof] ljZjf; To;nfO{ Ifdf u5{g\ em6\6}} o]z"n] .

#= lbP dxfg\ lzIff, u/] dxfg\ sfd, dxfg\ 5 lg o]z"df xif{ Ogfd,

t} o;eGbf a9\tf 5 cfgGb ckf/, xfdL ha x]/f}+nf v|Li6sf] d'xf/ .


3 o zj dxf fhfnfo sf g

3= O{Zj/ dxf/fhfnfO{ sf]*{G

!= O{Zj/ dxf/fhfnfO{ u/ k|0ffd, cF dfg pgsf u'0f, ;dy{g / k|]d

hf] xfd|f] 5g\ 9fn / /Ifs ;w}+, hf] a:5g\ k|tfkdf klx/g :t'tsfnfO{

@= k|tfk clg t]h t u/ k|sfz, xf] j:q pHofnf] 8]/f cfsfz

x'g\ /y pgsf uh{gsf afbn xhf/, atf;sf kv]6fdf x'G5g\ ;jf/ .

#= e"nf]s clg To;sf pb]ssf wg a;fNg'ef] tkfO{+n], ;j{zlQmdfg\,

l:y/ cf1fn] ug'{ef] bl/nf] To;nfO{ 3]g'{ef] ;d'b|n] vf:6fn] em}F .

$= tkfO{+sf] lgwf]n] /fvL ljZjf; ;a vfFrf]cg';f/sf] e]6\5 lgsf;

tkfO{+sf] cg'u|x ckf/ 5, ;a /Lt x] stf{, x] /Ifs, x] qftf, x] dLt .


4 dfpm wdl xf s n d7

4= /dfpm wdL{ xf]:s]nD7

/dfpm wdL{ xf], ofxj]df gd|nfO{ ;'xfpF5 pgsf] :t'lt -@_

!= jL0ff ahfpFb} b08jt\ u/, l;tf/ bz tf/sf] ahfO{ ufpm -@_

7"nf] ufg ofxj]nfO{ ufpm, ;f]/ 7"nf] u/L ahfpm .

@= ofxj]sf] jrg ;f]e}m 5, sfd ;j{;Totfdf x'Fb}5 -@_

Gofo wd{nfO{ :g]x ub{5, s?0ffn] k[YjL el/Psf] 5 .

#= ofxj]sf] jrgn] cfsfz algof], d'v}sf] :jf;n] ;j{ ;]gf -@_

h;n] ;d'b| y'K¥ofpF5, ulx/fOnfO{ 9's'6Ldf /fVb5 .


5 li stf l xf gdf sf c a

5= ;[li^stf{ l;+xf;gdfsf]*{C/A

!= ;[li6stf{ l;+xf;gdf tf/f / 3fdsf] dlxdf

hLjgbftf ;a cfTdfsf], x/ k|]dL hgsf] 5]p xf] .

@= hLjgsf] 3fd tkfO{+sf] an, xfdLnfO{ kf5{ k|ltkmn

cfzfsf] tf/f /ft}df xfd|f] ljzjf; k|e' a9fpm .

#= lagftkfO{+ ;a dWo/ft, Hof]lt tkfO{+sf] k|]dL xft

Ogb|]0fL bofsf] k|sfz, kfkafx]s ;a tkfO{+sxfF .

$= hLjgbftf pFwf]–pFwf] k|]dsf] ls/0f ;a pHofnf]

tkfO{+sf] z'4 l;+xf;g 5]p xfdLnfO{ k|e' hUuf b]pm .

%= ;fFrf]n] xfdLnfO{ 5'8fpm, d/]sf] XbonfO{ hufpm

/ x/ Ps cfTdf tkfO{+sf] cfuf] / Hof]ltn] k"0f{ xf];\ .


6 o zj tkfo s n c

6= O{Zj/ tkfO{:s]nC

!O{Zj/ tkfO{ pb]ssf 5f} ckf/ dxfgtdsf

l;+xf;g zf]ef avfg c3ft t]h dlxdf .

@cyfx tkfO{sf] cgGtsfn, x] cfkm} cfkm O{Zj/ .

:ju{b"tn] ub{5g\ lbg /ft dfg k"hf lg/Gt/ .

#= tkfO{sf] eo d dfGb5' x] O{Zj/ lhp“bf]

k5'tfO{ sfDb} sfDb} cf; d u5'{ k"hf, dfg.

$t} klg k|e' cfkm} cfkm d klg k|]d u5'{

c“ d]/f] cof]Uo dgsf] k|]d tkfO{+n] dfUg'eof] .

%x] v|Li6sf lktf k|]dsf] d"n k/dfgGb x'G5 of]

:ju{df ef]Ug' lgTo jf; kfO{ bz{g O{Zj/sf] .


7 kljq s n d

7= kljq :s]nD

!= kljq -#_ k/d]Zj/, laxfg ;w}F tkfO{+sf] cf/fwgf x'Fb5

kljq -#_ zlQmdfg\, bofn', lqPs k/d]Zj/ wGo tkfO{+nfO{ .

@= kljq -#_ k/d]Zj/, eQmx¿ 9f]Ub5g\, tkfO{+sf] r/0fdf

s?a / ;/fkm b"tn] b08jt\ u5{g\, hf] lyP, 5g\ / x'g]5g\ ;bf

#= kljq -#_ k/d]Zj/, kfkL dflg; b]Vb}g tkfO{+sf] dlxdf

tkfO{+em}F kljq c¿ sf]xL 5}g, l;4 5g\ an, k|]d, ;To tkfO{+sf

$= kljq -#_ k/d]Zj/, ub{5g\ ;a} ;[li6n] tkfO{+sf] a9fO

kljq -#_ zlQmdfg\ bofn', lqPs k/d]Zj/, wGo tkfO{+nfO{ .


8 slt dxfg s n a

8= slt dxfg\ :s]nA

!= dxfg\ O{Zj/, ljrf5'{ sfd tkfO{+sf], crDdsf] hf] ;[li6 ug'{ef]

x]5'{ tf/f, ;'G5' uh{g 8/nfUbf], k|s6 ;fdy{ ;+;f/df tkfO{+sf]

k|z+;f xf]O/xf];\ O{Zj/sf], slt dxfg\, slt dxfg\ -2_

@= kxf8–kj{t, h·n d ha 3'D5', kIfLx¿ d ;'G5' ufPsf]

;'Gb/ kxf8b]lv d tn x]5'{, snsn cfjfh ;'Gb5' vf]nfsf] .

#= ha lktfn] Psnf}t] k'qnfO{ k7fP hudf kfk p7fpgnfO{

d]/f] abnL q"m;}df pgL r9L p4f/ d]/f] u/] /ut axfO{ .

$= hoWjlg;fy o]z" ;+;f/df cfpF5g\,

c;Ld cfgGb;fy n}hfG5g\ pxfF

ljgd|;fy pgnfO{ pxfF k'Hg]5', dxfg\ O{Zj/sf] u5'{ k|z+;f .


9 wgo wgo k d zj s n d

9= wGo wGo k/d]Zj/:s]nD

!wGo wGo k/d]Zj/ hutstf{ wGo xf} -@_

:jfut u/L ltdLnfO{, :t'lt r9fp“5f} .

cg]s u|x k|s[lt dflg; ;anfO{ agfof}+

k|f0fL ;anfO{ cflzif\ lbO{, hudf km}nfof} .

@x] gfy k|e' k/d]Zj/ dte]b x'Gy] hudf @

dflg; kfkdf km“;]y] ub{y] ljnfk .

b"tn] eg] :ju{nf]sdf, x'G5 ;bf dlxdf

k[YjLdf v'zL xj; dflg;df ldnfk .

#ltdL ;asf] :jfdL eO{, d'lQmsf] dfu{ b]vfof} @

kfksf] cGt ug{nfO{, v|Li6nfO{ k7fof}+ .

x'“b}g cGt k|0fosf], k|0fosf] lnKt bofn' k|e'

wGojfb r9fO :t'lt ufp“5f}+, k/d]Zj/sf] .

$x] k/d]Zj/ ltdLnfO{, oL If'b| ljgo r9fp“5f}+ @

kZrftfkL eO{ kfknfO{ k|sfz u/fp“5f}+ .

tL xfd|f kfk ;a Ifdf b]pm, ;b}j /fVgf];\ cfºgf] 5]pm

cGTodf hut 5f]8L cfp“bf xfd|f] cfTdf n]pm .


10 ufp t lt s n c

10= ufp :t'lt:s]n C

!/fhf k/d]Zj/sf] ;[li6 :j/ cfºgf] /fu prfnL ufpm :t'lt xNn]n'ofx

x] ls/0f 3fdsf] h:tf] ;'g cfsfzdf rf“bL h:tf] h"g,

ufpm :t'lt, pgsf] :t'lt xNn]n"ofx, xNn]n"ofx, xNn]n"ofx

@x] xfjf hf]/df ;fdyL{ cfsfzsf] afbn x] ltdL, ufpm :t'lt xNn]n'ofx

laxfgsf] Hof]lt :t'ltufpm j]n's rDsL v"a s/fpm, ufpm xNn]n'ofx

#x] ;kmf wf/f aUb} ufpm k|e'n] ;'g"g\ /fu ahfpm, ufpm :t'lt xNn]n'ofx

x] cfuf] dflns rlDsnf] pHofnf] lbg] dfG5]sf], ufpm :t'lt ====

$;a gd| dgsf u/ /fu dfkm lbO{ n]pm cfkm\gf] efu, ufpm :t'lt ====

x] b'Mv ;xg]x? xf] z/0f / cfzf pgdf xf], ufpm :t'lt ====

%x] d/0f lbG5 hf] lj>fd ha ul/;Sof] xfd|f] sfd, ufpm :t'lt ====

O{Zj/sf] afns :ju{nfO{ b]vfp“5f} af6f] o]z"s}, ufpm :t'lt ====

^;a yf]sn] ufpmg\ wGojfb bLg eO{ u¿g\ ;w}+ ofb, ufpm :t'lt ====

lktfnfO{ :t'lt k'qnfO{ cfTdfnfO{ klg ufpm ho, ufpm :t'lt ====


11 cflbdf lyp k d zj s n g

11= cflbdf lyP k/d]Zj/:s]n G

!cflbdf lyP k/d]Zj/ ;a yf]s 5 lbgdf ;[h]

;f]daf/ agfP, pHofnf], d+unaf/ cfsfz ;[h]{

sf]M xNn]n"ofx -3_ oxf]j] ufpm xNn]n"ofx oxf]j]

@a'waf/ jg:klt, vfgL, ;[h]{ ;fu/ / e"ld

ljxLaf/ 3fd, h"g, tf/f afbn ah| jiff{ lah'nL .

#z'qmaf/ ;fgf 7"nf hGt' auLlxF8\g] ;fu/df .

ToxL lbg p8\g] ;a} kIfL rLn wl/ / e';'gf ..

$zlgaf/ w/tLdfly lxF8\g] ag kz' / 3/}of .

;[h{] dflg; cfºg} ¿kdf lbP clwsf/ ;a yf]sdf ..

%5 lbgdf sfd ef] ;dfKt ;ftf}+ lbg la;fpg' ef] .

cfOtaf/ la;fpm ltdL klg egL ;]jf u/ d]/f] ..

^cflb cGt ;j{zlQmdfg oxf]j] /fhf ;j{dxfg\ .

g/–gf/L, afns j[4 ufcf}+ pgsf] :t'ltufg ..


12 fu jfdl s n g eb

12= ;fu/ :jfdL:s]n G(Eb)

sf]M ;fu/ :jfdL xf} k/d lktf hohosf/,

hohosf/ ;j{;bf -2_

tf/)fxf/ ltdL o'u o'usf kf/ u¥of} q"m; kf/ u¥of}+

hLjgsf k|e' kfkLsf k|e' xf];\ hohosf/

!ltdL xf} k|]d–ktj/ ltdL hLjgsf] ;f/ -@_

hn–yn l;tn ldnL ltd|};Gd'v em'sL -@_ kf/ u¥of}+

qm"; kf/ u¥of}+, hLjgsf] k|e', kfkLsf] k|e' xf];\ hohosf/ .

@lsg gxf];\ demwf/, xf];\ yk8Lsf] df/ -@_

Xbo k|km'lNnt /xL, k|e' xfd|f] wL/h w/L -@_ kf/ ===

#hohosf/ ufpm nnsf/, k|e' x'g\ v]jgxf/ -@_

hoho k|e'sf] ho, hoho snj/Lsf] ho -@_ kf/ ===


13 t ltsf of uo dlxdfsf s n d

13= :t'ltsf] of]Uo dlxdfsf] :s]nD

:t'ltsf] of]Uo dlxdfsf] k/d]Zj/, kfkLsf] ;a kfknfO{ d]^fpg] -2_

tkfO{+sf] bz{g kfP/ c^n eO{ Tofu]/ ;+;f/ k%ØfpF%' k|e'nfO{ -2_

!= cGwsf/k"0f{ 5 of] kfkL ;+;f/, z}tfgsf kf;f] / hfn 5g\ xhf/,

tkfO{+sf] bz{g kfP/ c6n eO{ -Tofu]/ ;+;f/ k5ØfpF5' k|e'nfO{_ @

@= uh{t] l;+xem}F j}/L s/fpF5, kfgLsf] 5fne}Fm dgnfO{ xNnfpF5,

tkfO{+sf] zlQm kfP/ c5n eO{ -Tofu]/ ;+;f/ k5ØfpF5' k|e'nfO{_ @

#= cfFwLem}F z}tfg t;f{pg cfpF5, sdhf]/ ljZjf;sf] h/f xNnfpF5,

tkfO{+sf] r/0fdf a;]/ c6n eO{ -k|z+;f hohosf/ r9fpF5'

tkfO{+nfO{_ @

$= :juL{o 3/sf] bz{g lbg'xf];\, k]ml/ Psrf]l6 cf]ln{cfpg'xf];\,

cfTdfsf] cfuf]n] k|To]snfO{ hufpg'xf];\ -ljGtL of] xfd|f] u|x0f

ug'{xf];\_ @


14 s x s x ug s n g

14= s'x', s'x' ug]{ :s]nG

s'x'–s'x' ug]{ jgdf p8\g] sf]OnL r/L 5g\,

v'n'v'n' ub}{ vf]nf aUg] -@_ tkfO{+sf ;[li6 x'g\,

x] O{Zj/, tkfO{+sf ;[li6 x'g\,

!= hudu ug]{ aQLem}F aNg] cfsfzdf tf/f 5g\ -@_

h"gsf] ls/0f slt g/d -@_ tkfO{+sf] ;[li6 x'g\,

x] O{Zj/, tkfO{+sf] ;[li6 x'g\ d[usf kf7f s] /fd|f u/L jgdf pk|]ms,

kz' / kIfL s] /fd|f u/L tkfO{+n] /r]sf, x] O{Zj/, tkfO{+n] /r]sf .

@= jgdf hfG5', kmnk"mn x]5'{ tkfO{nfO{ ;DemG5' -@_

tkfO{+sf /rgf ;De]m/ dgdf -@_ d 5Ss kb{5', x] O{Zj/,

GofpgL r/L lanf}gf ufO{ jgdf p8]sf,

kz' / kIfL s] /fd|f u/L tkfO{+n] /r]sf, x] O{Zj/ tkfO{+n] /r]sf .

#= ca|fxfd, O;xfs, ofs"asf O{Zj/, bftf hLjgsf -@_

kfkLsf lglDt clt k|]d u/L -@_ k'q lbP alnbfg,

x] O{Zj/, tkfO{+ tf/0fxf/, kfkL Xbo 56k6 u/L vf]H5 d'lQm pkfo,

d'lQmsf] af6f] :ju{sf j}ej tkfO{+n] /r]sf, x] O{Zj/, tkfO{+n] /r]sf .


15 o zj sf k d s n c

15= O{Zj/sf] k|]d %:s]n C

!O{Zj/sf] k|]d 5 slt dxfg\ j0f{g u/L g;lsg]

tf/fu0fb]lv cem pRr kftfn;Dd km}lnPsf

lj>fd/lxt cfTdfsf] nflu O{Zj/n] k'q lbP

kfksf] sfnf] bfunfO{ d]6fO{ lxpFh:tf] ;]tf] kf/] .

sf]M O{Zj/sf] k|]d slt k|z:t % ax'd"No ckf/

;w}+el/ b"tu)f ;d:t ufpF%g\ To;sf] hohosf/

@ckmzf];L lbg ha laTg]5g ;f+;fl/s /fHo gfz x'g]5

k|fy{gf gug]{ x/]s hg d[To" egL af]nfpg]5 .

O{Zj/sf] k|]d /xg] cem slt 5 b[9 / dxfg\

cg'u|x cfbd j+znfO{ egL ufpg]5g\ b"tu0f .

#;d'b| d;Ln] e/]sf] cfsfz kq ePsf] eP

x/ ¿vsf] 8f“7 snd ag]sf] / x/]s dflg; n]vs eP

n]Vg O{Zj/sf] dxfg\ k|]d ;d'b| ;'sL hfGYof]

t t c6fp“Yof] cfsfzdf j0f{g Tof] lbJo k|]dsf] .


16 k d zj sf a fof s n d

16= k/d]Zj/sf] a(fOF:s]n D

sf]M k/d]Zj/sf] a(fO{ u/f}+ ;f/f ;Gtu)f ldnL -2_

pRr :j/df :t'lt u/f}+ v|Li^ d'lQmbftfs} . -2_

!ckf/ k|]d k|e'sf] ge'nf}+ hLjgdf -@_

s[t1 eO{ r/0f k/L r9fp“m cf/fwgf -@_

@k|ltlbg ofqfdf v|Li6lt/ b[li6 nfcf}+ -@_

b'Mv ;'vnfO{ :jLsf/ ub}{ ;bf :t'lt u/f}+ -@_

#hfUg] ;do 5 of] zf]s lrGtfnfO{ kG;fO{ -@_

v|Li6sf] xftdf hLjg /fVb}, :t'lt r9fcf}+ pgnfO{ -@_


17 k e gbl s n g

17= k|e' gbL:s]n G

sf]M k|e' gbL axfpg' x'g] lgh{n phf* kxf*x¿df

!d?e"ldnfO{ 3gf h+unemF} Kof;f e"ldnfO{ cbgem}+ -@_

agfpg' x'g] k|e', tkfO{, abngf];\ k|e', d]/f] Xbo -@_

@3f6Lx¿nfO{ k|e', tkfO{n] hLjg–hnn] eg'{x'G5,

k|e', tkfO{ ;gftg rट्टfg, k|e' eg'{xf];\ d]/f] Xbo -@_

#gbLsf tL/sf hLjg j[IfemF} h;sf kft 5g\ :j:y kfg]{

/fVgf];\ hflt–hfltsf] aLrdf ;DxfnL k|e', bflxg] xftn] -@_

$zflGt/lxt 5' zlQmxLg klg t/ tkfO{ d'lQmbftf

aufpgf];\ gbL kLzf]g cf} uLxf]g phf8 d]/f] of] hLjgaf6 -@_

%k|e'Ho, d tf 5' clt lgikmn, hh{/, ;+sL0f{ dgsf]

aufpg'xf];\ gbL lx2]s]n, km/ft lg/y{s d]/f] hLjgaf6 -@_


18 dlxdf dlxdf dlxdf xf s n g

18= dlxdf,dlxdf, dlxdf xf];\ :s]nG

dlxdf,dlxdf,dlxdf xf];\ -2_ O{Zj/nfO{ dlxdf xf];\, dlxdf xf];\ -2_

!= -d[ts cfTdfnfO{, cfzf/lxtnfO{,

3[l0ft, u/La, z"Go cy{xLg hLjgnfO{_ @

gjLg bz{g lbg, gofF hLjg lbg -dfgj aGg'ef]_ @

k|z+;f, k|z+;f, k|z+;f xf];\ -@_ O{Zj/nfO{ -k|z+;f xf];\_ @

@= -;To cd/ k|]dsf], ;'Gb/ pbf/ k|]dsf],

c;Lldt Psdfq hLljt ;fIft\ k|]dsf]_ @

k|dfl0ft sf];]nL, ax'd"No sf];]nL -cfh lbg'ef]_ @

-wGojfb, wGojfb, wGojfb xf];\_ @ O{Zj/nfO{ -wGojfb xf];\_ @


19 oxj sf t lt s n em

19= oxj]sf] :t'lt:s]n Em

sf]M ofxj]sf] :t'lt, :t'lt O{Zj/sf] ;"o{ clg rGb|df -2_

kljq b"tu)f, ;]gf O{Zj/sf pRr :yfgdf u/ == :t'lt oxj]sf]

!x] Hof]ltd{o tf/fu0f ;a x] ljzfn cfsfz,

clg e"nf]ssf lgd{n hn / cl;gf lxp“ /fz,

dxf;fu/ cf} kj{t, clUg, cf“wL, d]3 atf;, -@_ k|z+;f u/

kmnjGt j[If lktf O{Zj/sf] u/ === :t'lt oxj]sf] .

@/fhf, k|hf, GofowLz xflsd, /fHo–/fHosf,

o'js, o'jtL, afns, j[4 ;f/f k[YjLsf,

jg–kz' / kz' 3/]n', kIfL uugsf,

k|z+;f u/ dxfg\ dlxldt lktf O{Zj/sf] u/ === :t'lt oxj]sf]


20 db lkmb s n g

20= #'Db} lkmb}{:s]n G

!3'Db} lkmb}{ ufO{sf] uf]7df cfP uf]7fnfx¿

b]v] ;fgf] 8"F8df o]z" uf]7df kl;|/x]sf.

xfd|f] cfgGbsf] lbg cfof] wGo xfd|f] d'lQm ef]

ufpm ;+;f/sf] ;a} ;[li^n] dflg; ¿k lnP v|Li^n]

@tf/fsf] cu'jfO{ kfO{ cfP Hof]ltifLx¿

b]vL b08jt\ ;an] u/L pgnfO{ e]6L r9fP.

#cfpm ;a} efO–alxgL ufcf}+ ;fFrf] :t'ltufg

eg"g\ ;an] xNn]n"ofx, u/f}+ ;w}+ dlxdfufg.


21 e l uf s n g

21= e]*L uf]& :s]nG

!= e]8L uf]7 rbf{ lg rbf{ /ft kl/uof],

nf} ca NofP uf]7}df uf]7fnfx¿n] -@_

@= cfuf]sf jl/ lg kl/ uf]7fnf a;],

cfºgf lg cfºgf vf]/}df e]8L x} ;a} k;] -@_

#= ;a} 7fpF cFWof/f] x'Fbf pHofnf] eof],

of] Hof]lt s]sf] eGb} lg uf]7fnf ;a} p7] -@_

$= :ju{b"t 5]pdf b]lv 8/n] ;a sfd],

æg8/fpm, ;'g ;';dfrf/Æ egL x} b"tn] yfd] -@_

%= ufO{sf] uf]7}df ;'g a]yn]x]d ufpFdf,

tf/0fxf/ k|e' hlGdP uO{ x]/ Tof] 7fpFdf -@_


22 g ju b tsf ufg s n g

22= ;'g :ju{b"tsf] ufg:s]n G

!;'g :ju{b"tsf] ufg xf];\ cjtf/L v|Li6sf] dfg

k[YjLdfly ef] ldnfk u/] dfkm O{Zj/n] kfk .

;a} b]zsf hg /dfpm b"t ;“u;“u} hoho ufpm

;a}klट्ट xf];\ k|rf/ a}tnxddf v|Li6 cjtf/ .

sf]M ;'g :ju{b"tsf] ufg xf];\ cjtf/L v|Li^sf] dfg .

@v|Li6sf] ;a :ju{n] k'h]sf] v|Li6 k|e' hf] ;w}+sf]

k"/f] ;do cfof] ha sGo]blv hGd] ta .

O{Zj/ hLpwf/L ef] wGo cjtf/ O{Zj/sf]

wGo v|Li6 u/fpg] d]n wGo v|Li6 ODdfg'Pn .

#wGo s'znsf] k|wfg wd{sf ;"o{nfO{ k|0ffd

Hof]lt, hLjg hut\nfO{ lbg x'g'ef] pbo .

5f]8L cfºgf] k/dnf]s cjtf/ eO{ u/] sfd

dfG5] hft gdg{nfO{, hLjg gof“ hGd kfO{ .


23 sf qmf pgsf g s n g

23= sf]qmf] pgsf] %}g:s]n G

!sf]qmf] pgsf] 5}g, 8"F8 g} cf]5Øfg ef] ;fgf k|e' o]z" uf]7df kl;|P :ju{b]lv tf/fx¿ pgnfO{ x]b}{ uP

;fgf k|e' o]z" k/fndf ;'t]

@ufO{–uf]? s/fP, afns lapm“leP g pgL s/fP, g s}n] /f]P

x] k|e', Kof/ u5'{, :ju{af6 x]g"{ / laxfg};Dd d;“u /xg" .

#Kof/ ug'{xf];\ dnfO“ of] laGtL u5'{, cgGt;Dd x'g'xf];\ ghLs,

k|e', cflzif\ ;anfO{ lbO{ ;asf] /Iff ugf]{;\

xfdLnfO{ :ju{nf]sdf a:g] of]Uo kfgf]{;\ .


24 a yn x dsf tof s n g

24= a]yn]x]dsf] Tof]:s]n G

!a]yn]x]dsf] Tof] z"Go /ft, pb]ssf] xfd|f] gfy u/LaL 5fgL,

t'R5 gdfgL -@_ kl;|g'eof] 8"F8}df wGo k/d]Zj/sf] Kof/ .

sf]M cfgGb dgfpm, v'zL dgfpm, eP v|Li^ cjtf/

u/fpg d[To" kf/, kfkb]lv arfpg ;+;f/

@Tofu]/ :ju}{sf] ;'v, p7fpg xfd|f] b'Mv, cfpg'ef] kf7f]

xfd|f] ;f6f] -@_ x'gnfO{ dxf alnbfg, wGo of] l;Q}sf] bfg

#;'gg x] alxg–efO, rfxG5g\ v|Li6 cfpgnfO{ uf]7¿kL of]

t'R5 Xbodf -@_ vf]ng Xbosf] åf/, lgZro x'G5f}+ d[To'kf/


25 k e x hgd s n c bb

25= k|e' x} hGd] :s]n C/Bb

k|e' x} hGd] ufO{sf] uf]&df, k|rf/ gfpF

xfdL kfkLsf] p$f/ ug{nfO{

!= Tof] ;fgf] 8'F8df ;'t]sf] k|e' x}, k|e' x} -@_

jfl/ / kfl/ Hof]ltn] 9fs]sf] -@_

O{Zj/n] dfgj cjtf/ lnPsf] -@_

@= x]g{nfO{ hfcf}+ xfdL ;a} g} ldn]/ x}, ldn]/ -@_

xif{ dgfpFb} hohosf/ ub}{ -@_,

pgsf] hGdsf] k|rf/ ub}{ -@_

#= hfcf}+ xfdL ;a} b08jt\ ug{nfO{, ug{nfO{ -@_

afns k|e'sf] bz{g u/f}+ -@_ cfTdfsf] e]6L r9fpFb} -@_


26 nfub dnfo dfonf s n f d

26= nfUb% dnfO{ /dfOnf] :s]nF/D

nfUb% dnfO{ /dfOnf], Tof] pHofnf] tf/fsf]

a]yn]x]d ufpFsf] Tof] ;fgf] uf]&, o]z" hGd]sf] ;fgf] *'F*

!= cGwsf/sf] dfemdf pHHjn k|sfz lnO{ cfP -@_

hunfO{ p4f/ u/fpg ;Tosf] hu a;fNg

lgFbaf6 hfu, efO xf], d'lQmsf] kydf rNgnfO{,

nfUb5 dnfO{ /dfOnf] Tof] pHofnf] tf/fsf] .

@= v'zLofnL /ft dgfcf}+, o; w/tLnfO{ pHHjn u/fcf}+ -@_

:ju{b"tn] ufpF5g\ uLt, afns v|Li6sf] dlxdf

xfdL klg ufcf}+ x} uLt, afns v|Li6sf] r/0fdf,

nfUb5 dnfO{ /dfOnf] Tof] pHofnf] tf/fsf] .


27 o zn d zx sf s n d

27= o¿zn]d zx/sf]:s]n D

!o¿zn]d zx/sf] a]yn]x]d uf“j}df, xfd|f] k|e' o]z" hGd] uf]7}df .

lyof] cf]5Øfg k/fnsf] sf]qmf] pgsf] 8"F8} ef] cfglGbt eO{ xif{ u/f}+ ;a}n]

@To} /ft uf]7fnfx¿ e]8f s'b}{ lyP Pp6f b"t crfgs cfO{ ;dfrf/ lbP

;+;f/}sf] nflu d'lQmbftf hGd] o]z"nfO{ x]g{ hfpm a]yn]x]ddf .

#uf]7fnfx¿ uP, b]v] 8"F8}df o]z" b"tn] eg]em}+ kfP d'lQmbftfnfO{

xlif{t / cfglGbt eO{ u/] b08jt\ ;a}n], v'zL eO{ /dfp“b} 3/ kms]{

$Hof]ltifLx¿ klg k"j{b]lv cfP tf/f x]b}{–x]b}{ o]z"nfO{ e]6\g .

b]vL b08jt\ u/] ;an] e]6L r9fP v'zL eO{ /dfp“b} 3/kms]{

%xfdL ;a} ldnL b08jt\ u/f}+ O{Zj/nfO{, pgn] cfºgf k'q lbP d'lQmbfg

pgdf ljZjf; ug]{ kfp“g]5g\ qf0f d'lQm cfgGb eO{ xif{ u/f}+ ;a}n]


28 fgf f df x s n g

28= ;fgf] *"F*df x]/:s]n G

!;fgf] 8"“8df x]/ efO o]z" hGd] xfdLnfO{

x]/, gd| afn–cjtf/, tflbsf] s/f/ cG;f/

sf]M wGo ;'vsf] lbg cfof] wGo xfd|f] d'lQm ef]

ufpm ;+;f/sf ;a} ;[li^ a]yn]x]ddf hGd] v|Li^ .

@h;sf] 7fp“ / l;+xf;g s¿asf aLrdf 5g\ .

h;n] l;h{] ;a ;[li6 clxn] 8"“8df k|e' v|Li6 .

#uf]7fnf s'/La:bf b]v] Hof]lt /ft}df .

eg] b"tn] xf];\ ldnfk, hGd] v|Li6 d]6fpg kfk .

$lk|o k'q O{Zj/sf] k|]d tkfO{sf] sqf] ef] .

5f]8L :juL{o cfgGb–;'v ;xg'ef] ;+;f/sf] b'Mv ..


29 x uf fnfx s n c

29= x]/ uf]&fnfx?:s]n C

!x]/ uf]7fnfx¿ cfºgf e]8f x]b{5g\

pHofnf] PSsfl; cfsfzdf rDsFb5 v|Li6sf] hGdlbg}df .

@zflGt / ldnfksf] uLt ufp“b5g\ kljq b"t lsg xfd|f]

k|e'Ho" o; ;+;f/df cfpg'ef] v|Li6sf] hGd lbg}df

#o]z" sf]qmf]df a:g], ;a} gfgL Kof/ ug]{ pgsf] sf/0f xfd|f]

dg k|]d / xif{n] eb{5 v|Li6sf] hGd lbg}df


30 s sf fd uf nf s n a

30= s;sf ;fd' uf]&nf:s]n A

!s;sf ;fd" uf]7df 3'“8f 6]S5g\ uf]7fnf <

sf]M k|e' xf] pb]ssf] s'/f, k|e' xf] j}ejsf /fhf .

3'“8f 6]Sb} xfdL cfcf}+, k|e' v|Li6df d's'6 nfcf}+ .

@v'zL eO{ 3/}df cfºgf] xftn] sfd ubf{ .

#;f/f] ef]sf] h+undf z}tfg;“u o'4 ubf{ .

$cfºgf] dLtsf] lrxfgdf peL b'Mvn] ?“bf .

%sli6t eO{ af/Ldf cfwf /ft k|fy{gf ubf{ .

^kfksf] qm";df 6f“lubf zq'nfO{ cflzif\ lb+bf .

&cfºgf] lgh lrxfg 5f]8\bf, o; ;+;f/sf] qf0f ubf{ .

*:ju{sf] l;+xf;gdf a;Lsg /fHo ubf{ .


31 zfgtdo ft s n a

31= zfGtdo /ft:s]n A

!zfGtdo /ft, zfGtdo /ft, o]z" v|Li6 s[kfgfy

ljZjsf ;j{>]i7 tf/0fxf/

lnP uf]7}df ;t cjtf/ -a]yn]x]d zx/df_ @.

@zfGtdo /ft, zfGtdo /ft, hoho ufcf}+ b"tu0f;fy,

afns ;'Gb/ hGd]sf 5g\

afns O{Zj/sf k'q x'g\ -o]z" xf] pgsf] gfp“_ @

#zfGtdo /ft, zfGtdo /ft, o]z" v|Li6 xif{;fy,

cfP :ju{b]lv hut\df

kfkL dflg;sf] vf]hLdf -:jfut u/f}+ pgnfO{_ @


32 bfpmb fhfsf s n d

32= bfpmb /fhfsf]:s]n D

!bfpmb /fhfsf] zx/df ufO{sf] Pp6f uf]7 lyof]

afns cfdfn] ;'tfp“bf sf]qmf] eof] 8"F8}sf]

dl/od gd| cfdfrflx“ o]z" afns pg}s} .

@o]z" afns ;asf :jfdL ;+;f/ cfP cjtf/ eO{

pgsf] af; uf]7df clg pgsf] sf]qmf] Tof] 8"F8}

s·fn clg x]nf of] d'lQmbftf x'g'ef] .

#o]z" ;fg} afnsb]lv bLg / cf1fsf/L y]

cfdrflx“nfO{ k|]dn] x]/L h;sf] sfvdf ;'Tby]

v|Li6Lo afns xf]cf}+ o:t} cf1fsf/L o]z"em}+ .

$xfdLh:t} afns eP lbg–lbg a9\y] xfdL em}+

sdhf]/ clg nfrf/ lyP ?g'–xf“:g' ;a p:t}

xfd|f] b'Mvdf b'Mlvt 5g\, xfd|f] ;'vdf ;'vL 5g\ .


33 uf fnfx e fnfo s n d

33= uf]&fnfx? e]*fnfO{:s]n D

!uf]7fnfx¿ e]8fnfO{ /ftdf s'b}{ lyP

ta :ju{b]lv b"t cf]nL{ dlxdf;fy cfP .

@nf} g8/fpm b"tn] eGof] d k|rf/ ug{nfO{

cfPsf] 5', ;a dfG5]nfO{ ;';dfrf/ lbgnfO{ .

#ltd|f] nflu 5 hGd]sf bfpmb /fhf s'nb]lv

qf0fstf{ k|e' cfhsf] lbg b]Vg kfp“5f} ltdL .

$Ps afns ltdL b]Vg]5f}+ bfpmbsf] zx/df

n'ufdf a]x|L/fv]sf] / k;|]sf] 8"F8df .

%ha olt s'/f eg]y] crfgs cfPy]

;f/f :ju{b"tu0f hf] of] uLt cfgGb;fy ufP .

^u'0ffg'jfb xf];\ O{Zj/sf] / hudf xf];\ zflGt

xf];\ v'zL dfG5]df clxn] clg ;bfel/ .


34 cfpm a ljzjf l s n g

34= cfpm ;a} ljZjf;L:s]n G

!cfpm ;a} ljZjf;L, cfgGb ub}{cfpm . cfpm ;a}hgf ldnL a]yn]x]ddf .

hutsf] qftf afns eP x]/,

-cfpm ehg ub}{ k"hf}+_ -#_ v|Li6 k|e'nfO{ .

@x] jrg ;gftg, k/d]Zj/sf] k'q, k|e' o]z" x'g\ v|Li6 Oddfg'Pn .

sGofsf] ue{b]lv dfG5] hGd]sf] -cfpm ehg ub}{ k"hf}+_ -#_

v|Li6 k|e'nfO{ .

#x] ;a :ju{b"t xf], hohosf/ ug'{, k/d]Zj/nfO{ xf];\ :ju{df wGojfb

k[YjLdf s'zn, dfG5]x¿df ldnfk -cfpm ehg ub}{ k"hf}+_ -#_

v|Li6 k|e'nfO{ ..

$= cfldg k|e', wGo xfd|f] nflu hGd] o]z" ;bf tkfO{+sf] gfd k'lhcf];\

O{Zj/sf] jrg ca b]xL ePsf] -cfpm ehg ub}{ k'hf}+_ -#_ v|Li6 k|e'nfO{


35 x g cfsfzdf s n g

35= x]/g cfsfzdf :s]nG

x]/g cfsfzdf tf/fsf] pHofnf]

gjhft k|e'sf] bz{g ug{ gu/ laofFnf] -2_

!= O{Zj/sf] jrg k"/f ug{nfO{ cfP k|e' hutdf -@_

dfgjsf] ;a} b'Mv a'µgnfO{ kl;|P 8'F8}df -@_

-uf]7fnfx¿ 5Ss k/]_ -@_ ha b]v] :ju{b"tnfO{

9f8; kfO{ /dfO{ uP va/ lbgnfO{ -@_

@= tf/fnfO{ cfºgf] cIo agfO{ a9] Hof]ltifLu0f -@_

e]6L r9fP, bz{g kfO{ u/fP cfglGbt dg -@_

-kfkL hgsf] tf/0fxf/_ -@_ dflg;sf] ¿kdf

Vofn g/fvL 8fF8f–sfF8f a9f}+ ;a} k|e'df -@_


36 cfggb dgfcf s n c

36= cfgGb dgfcf}+ :s]nC

cfgGb dgfcf}+, xif{ dgfcf}+

;f/f b'lgofFnfO{ ;';dfrf/ ;'gfcf}+

!= p7 bfHo"–efO xf], x]/ tf/fnfO{,

o]z"hLsf] hGd eof], p7 bz{g ug{nfO{ .

@= p7 lbbL–alxgL xf], x]/ tf/fnfO{,

o]z"hLsf] hGd eof] p7, bz{g ug{nfO{ .


37 cfpg ef ju b lv s n d

37= cfpg'ef] :ju{b]lv:s]n D

!cfpg'ef] :ju{b]lv d's'6nfO{ TofuL, d]/f] nflu lnO{ cjtf/

a]yn]x]dsf] ufp“df lyPg 7fp“ cfºgf] nflu, x] tf/0fxf/

dsxf“ k|e' o]z" cfpgf];\, d]/f] Xbodf w]/} 5 7fp“ .

@:ofnsf x'G5g\ s'/ / r/fsf u'“8, ltgn] nfp“5g\ h+undf

t/ tkfO{s} lz/ /fVgnfO{ 7fp“ lyPg ufnLndf

dsxf“ k|e' o]z" cfpgf];\ d]/f] Xbodf w]/} 5 7fp“ .

#hLljt jrg ;fy lnO{ :ju{b]lv cf]nL{ d'lQmbfg lbg cfpg'ef]

t/ 7ट्टfn] qm";df r9fP, nufO{ d's'6 sf“9fsf]

dsxf“ k|e' o]z" cfpgf];\ d]/f] Xbodf w]/} 5 7fp“ .

$:ju{sf] åf/ vf]lnFbf b"tu0fn] ufp“bf, tkfO{ dlxdf;fy cfp“bf

zAb ;'Gg kfp“ ætFnfO{ w]/} 5 7fp“, d]/f]5]p ;bf a:g cfÆ .

d]/f] dg ta v'zL x'G5, ha lktfsxf“ k'Ug]5' .


38 b lgoff dfpm s n c

38= b'lgofF /dfpm:s]n C

!b'lgof“ /dfpm / u|x0f u/ v|Li6 k|e' /fhfnfO{,

x/ dgdf xf]];\ pxf“nfO{ 3/, ;+;f/ u/f];\ a9fO, -$_

@b'lgof“sf] Hof]lt pg} x'g\, kfk Ifdf lbg]5g\ .

pgn] xfd|f] ;a} b'Mv b"/ u5{g\ -/ cflzif\ lbg]5g\_ -#_

#v'zL dgfpm, v|Li6 /fhf x'g\ ;a hg / ;a} k|f0f

;d'b| kxf8 / vf]nf, d}bfg -ufpm :t'ltsf] uLtufg_ -$_

$pgn] ljZjf; / bofn] /fHonfO{ km}nfp“b5g\

cfºgf] b[9 ;To ljejsf af6f]n] -cdf]n k|]d ub{5_ -$_


39 cfh xfd f k e s n c

39= cfh xfd|f] k|e':s]n C

cfh xfd|f] k|e' o]z" hGd] a]yn]x]d zx/df

d'lSt % ;anfO{ pg}df dfq uOx]/ Tof] &fpFdf

!k/d]Zj/sf] Tof] sqf] bof xfdLdf x'g uf],

h;sf] sf/0f k'q o]z" -@_ uf]7}df hGd lng' ef] -@_

tg–dg–wg ;a e]6L r9fp“b} -@_ pgs} r/0fdf cfpm“ -@_

@hohosf/ ufp“b} e]6L r9fp“b} -@_ pgs} r/0fdf cfpm“ -@_

hGd lnOsg cfP xfdLdf -@_ hohosf/ pgs} ufp“m -@_


40 c lgzfdf s n d

40= c${ lgzfdf :s]nD

c${ lgzfdf lnO{ ;';Gb]z, bLg agL cfof}+ xfdL ltd|f] åf/df

!= b'b{zf of] ;a b]lv ;+;f/sf] kfksf] ef/n] dfgj ldr]sf] -@_

lhGbuL xft ;'wfg{ egL -@_ O{Zj/ k'q hudf cfP ;+sf]r gdfgL

@= O{Zj/ / dfgjaLrsf] kbf{ kfkL dfgjsf] kfkn] ubf{ -@_

tf]8L dfjgnfO{ nfg O{Zj/sxfF -@_ cfpg'ef] dxfg\ O{Zj/ b'i6 ;+;f/df

#= zx/ o¿zn]d, ufj}+ a]yn]x]d hGd] uf]7}df afns Ps g/d -@_

v|Li6 hLjgwf/, o]z" tf/0fxf/ -@_ ljZjf; NofO{ cfpg] hlt

x'G5g\ d[To'kf/ .


41 h t hof ltiflx n s n g

41= h:t} Hof]ltifLx¿n]:s]n G

!h:t} Hof]ltifLx¿ Hof]lt x]/] tf/fsf] h:t} To; pHofnf]d}

cl3a9] /dfp“b}, To:t} xfdL cu'jfO{ kfcf}+ tkfO{sf] ;Gd"vdf cfcf}+ .

@h:t} u/] v"a xtf/ e]6\g afns tf/0fxf/, h:t} x]/L :ju{gfy

3'“8f 6]s] gd|tf;fy, To:t} xfdL ;j{bf k/f}+ v|Li6sf] r/0fdf .

#h:t} k'h] k|e'nfO{ ax'd'No e]6L NofO{, To:t} xif{;fy xfdL

kfk–e"nb]lv z'4 agL r9fcf}+ tg–dg–wg tkfO{ :juL{o /fhf

o]z"nfO{ .

$z'4 o]z", af6f]df xfdLnfO{ 8f]¥ofpm ;bf clg lat]kl5 Hofg

:ju{df k'¥ofpg'xf];\ k|f0f hxf“ 5}g 3fd–tf/f ;a 5 pHhjn tkfO{df .


42 ufpfb hfcf k e sf dlxdf s n f d

42= ufpFb} hfcf}+ k|e'sf] dlxdf :s]nF/D

ufpFb} hfcf}+ k|e'sf] dlxdf pg}sf] hGd lbj;df

xfF:b} a(f}+ pgs} ;]jfdf hufpFb} gf}nf] efjgf

pg}sf] hGd lbj;df, pg}sf] hGd lbj;df

ufpFb} hfcf}+ k|e'sf] dlxdf, xfF:b} a(f}+ pgs} ;]jfdf

!= v'zLsf] of] ;';dfrf/, k}mnfcf}+ x} lbz} rf/ -@_

cfpg'eof] k|e' ;+;f/df, lgDTofcf}+ x} pgnfO{ Xbodf .

@= :ju{/fhsf] j}ejnfO{ Tofu]/, cfP dflg; ¿k lnP/ -@_

cfpg'eof] k|e' ;+;f/df, lgDTofcf}+ x} pgnfO{ Xbodf .

#= kfkLsf] ljGtL ;'GgnfO{, :ju{sf] 9f]sf vf]NgnfO{ -@_

cfpg'eof] k|e' ;+;f/df, lgDTofcf}+ x} pgnfO{ Xbodf .


43 ho ho u v zln s n c

43= ho ho u/ v'zLn]:s]n C

hoho u/ === v'zLn] === k|e'sf] === hGdlbg -2_

!dl/od ue{jtL lyOg, kljq cfTdfn],

TofUg] OR5f u/] o';'km bfpmbsf] 5f]/fn] .

:ju{b"tn] o';'kmnfO{ va/ k'¥ofP, clg pgn] dl/odnfO{ cfºg} u/fP .

@e]8L uf]7df uf]7fnf ;a, uf]7} 5f8]/, ufp“b} uP v|Li6sf] hoho bz{g

u/]/ a]yn]x]d eGg] ;fgf] ufp“df v|Li6sf] hGd ef],

cudjQmfn] af]n]sf jrg k"/f] ef] .

#;fgf] tf/f b]vfk¥of] k"j{ b]zdf Hof]ltifLx¿ bf}8\b} cfP k|e'sf] vf]hdf,

afns v|Li6sf] bz{g kfO{ cfglGbt eP

sGt'/ vf]nL ;'g w"k d"/{ e]6L r9fP .

$cfpg'xf];\ cfh} x] bfh"efO xf], ljZjf; u/]/

dfUg'xf];\ Ifdf k|e'sf] kfpdf k/]/

cfh k|e' cfpg'ef] d'lQm lbgnfO{ km]l/ k|e' cfpg'x'G5 lgof ug{nfO{ .


44 k e afns k bf ep s n f d

44= k|e' afns k}bf eP:s]n F(D)

k|e' afns k}bf eP ufO{sf] uf]&}df

ldnLh'nL :t'lt ufcf}+ -Ps} :j/df_ 2

!k|]dL O{Zj/ bofn'n] k'q lbP xfdLnfO{ -@_

h;n] O{Zj/sf ef/ p7fO{ cflTds dfu{ b]vfP -@_

@dfgj ¿kdf hGd lnO{ j}ej TofuL cf:dfgL -@_

agfP k/fn cf]9\gL lj5fP r/0fL -@_

#ljZj kfksf] e'“j/Ldf 8'Ab} lyof] k|e'ljgf -@_

tf/s k|e' hudf cfO{ lbP nf} ;xf/f -@_


45 slt dfx sf lbg s n f g

45= slt /dfx^sf] lbg:s]n F(G)

slt /dfx^sf] lbg cfof], of] hutdf .

xfF:b} v]Nb} ufgf ufpFb} k|e' o]z"df .

!cfpm j[4 hg, cfpm ;a hjfg .

:j/df :j/ ldnfO{ ufpm k|e'sf] ho ufg -@_

@xfdL ;a lyof}+ 3f]/ cGwsf/df .

cfP k|e' cjtf/ lnO{ pxL a]yn]x]ddf -@_

#5f]8 ca efO b'i6 z}tfgnfO{ .

p7, hfu, :jfut u/ gjhft k|e'nfO{ -@_


46 cfh v li sf hgd s n d

46= cfh v|Li^sf] hGd:s]n D

cfh v|Li^sf] hGd eof] a]yn]x]dsf] ufpFdf -2_

!Hof]ltifLx¿n] tf/fnfO{ x]/L -@_

u/la 3/df uO{ cl8P -@_ v'zL eO{ e]6L r9fP . -@_

@O{Zj/sf] k'q k|e' o]z" v|Li6

ufO{sf] uf]7df cjtf/ lnO{ cfP hohosf/ pgs} ucf}+ .

#lgb|fnfO{ TofuL p7 aGw'–efO,

hfcf}+ xfdL ;a} o]z" yfO{ hohosf/ ufp“b} hfcf}+ .


47 lxn ldn eo s n am

47= lxn ldn eO:s]n Am

lxn ldn eO{ cfof}+ lg hGd pT;jdf ufof}+ lg

;+s6 kf/ nufof} lg, hunfO{ pHofnf] u/fof} lg .

!o¿zn]d zx/sf] a]yn]x]d ufp“df

v|Li6 o]z" hGd] ufO{sf] uf]7df v|Li6 /Tg wg cfof} lg

;+s6 kf/ nufof} lg, hunfO{ pHofnf] u/fof} lg .

@k/dnf]sdf dlxdf dflg;df ldnfk

tf/0fxf/sf] hGd cfwf /ftdf, zflGtsf] /fhf cfof} lg

;+s6 kf/ nufof} lg, hunfO{ pHofnf] u/fof} lg .


48 pbfof tf f cfh s n f d

48= pbfof] tf/f cfh :s]nF/D

pbfof] tf/f cfh, gLn uugsf] dfem

of] cFw]/L /ftnfO{, pHofnf] agfOlbof]

!= ufO{sf] uf]7df k;|]sf] k|e', kfkL hg ;asf] p4f/ ug{

hGd] cfh, hGd] k|e' hudf Tof] Psnf] 8'F8}df -@_

@= cfgGb dgfcf}+ of] z'e–/ftdf, ;';Gb]z ;'gfcf}+ ;f/f

hut\df, hGd] cfh, hGd] k|e' hudf, Hof]ltsf xfd|f

/fhf -@_


49 cxf slt dfonf s n g

49= cxf] slt /dfOnf] :s]nG

cxf] slt /dfOnf] v'zLsf] lbg cfof]

d'lQmbftf k|e'sf] a]yn]x]ddf hGd ef]

%g\ hf] d]/f] Xbodf v|Li^ /fhf a;]sf] -2_

ho ho afns /fhfsf] ho ho ho xf];\ ;bf -2_

!= O{Zj/sf] lk|o k'q k|e' v|Li6 :ju{df dlxldt -@_

afnssf] ¿kdf kl;|P 8'F8df, ljZjdf cjx]lnt .

@= ;'grfFbL 5}g, w"k klg xf]Og, ;dk"0f{ hLjg n]pm -@_

uf]7f¿kL Xbo wf]P/ cfh} k|e'hL /fh ul/b]pm .


50 vrfvr ef s n c

50= vrfvr ef], :s]nC

vrfvr ef], a]yn]x]d ufpF, ;/fodf ly P g v|Li^nfO{ &fpF

cfh klg dflg; Jo:t eO{ ub}{gg\ v|Li^nfO{ jf:tf

!= lk|o k'q O{Zj/sf] -@_ yf]qf] uf]7df kl;|g'ef]

;a}af6 TofluP/ -@_ u/LaeGbf u/La eP .

@= ltd|f] d]/f] lglDt v|Li6n] -@_ k|z:t wg ;fFr]sf 5g\

xfd|f] b'Mv p7fP/ -@_ cgGt ;'v /fv]sf 5'g\ .

#= clt bLg v|Li6 d[To';Dd -@_ cf1fsf/L aGg'eof]

ljZjf;LnfO{ cNufpgnfO{ -@_ cfk}m cl3 xf]lrg'ef] .


51 d lqmfbftf tf fxf s n d7

51= d'lQmfbftf tf/)fxf/ :s]n D7

d'lQmbftf tf/)fxf/ o]z" hGd], o]z" hGd]

! :ju{b"t o;f] eGb}, hGd] k|e' uf]7}df -@_

uf]7fnfx¿ Dffemdf, crfgs b]vf k/]

@pb]ssf] tf/fnfO{ x]b}{ Hof]ltifL klg cfpg nfu],

a]yn]x]dsf] ufj}df bz{g ug{ k|e'sf] -@_

#;'gfpm bfHo", efO, alxgL, ;';Gb]z ;f/f hut\df

tf/0fxf/sf] hGd ef]’ cfgGb dgfpm ;a}n] -@_


52 kfksf sfnf afsnf s n a

52= kfksf] sfnf] afSnf]:s]n A

kfksf] sfnf] afSnf] cFWof/f], x^fpg] pHhjn bLk,

o?zn]d zx/sf] a]yn]x]d ufpFdf hGd], k|e' v|Li^

kfksf] sfnf] afSnf] cFWof/f], x^fpg] pHhjn bLk

!uf]7fnf uP, bz{g u/] / cf}wL /dfP,

Hof]ltifL cfP, b08jt\ u/] cf} e]6L r9fP -@_

@slt pb]ssf] k|]d o]z" v|Li6sf] dflg;sxf“ cfpg'ef]’

b'Mv / bb{, rf]6 clt ulx/f], k|e'n] ;xg'ef]’ -@_

#/fd|/L ;f]r, 7Ls lg0f{o u/, ltdL s] r9fpg] <

uf]7¿kL Xbo vf]Nb5g\ h;n], /fh u5{g k|e'n] -@_


53 o zj sf k q o z s n g

53= O{Zj/sf] k'q o]z":s]n G

O{Zj/sf] k'q o]z" dflg; ?k wf/)f u/L :ju{sf] ;'vnfO{ Tofu]/ uf]&df hGd lnP

;x]/ b'Mv xfdLnfO{ ;'v lbgnfO{ k|e'n], ;'v lbgnfO{ k|e'n]

!pgn] ;anfO{ Kof/ u/], la/fdLnfO{ r·f u/] b'MvLnfO{ ;xfotf lbP/

:ju{sf] k|rf/ u/] cGwfnfO{ cf“vf, u"“ufnfO{ af]nL, u"“ufnfO{ af]nL

alx/fnfO{ ;'gfP zAb, alx/fnfO{ ;'gfP .

@o]z"nfO{ of] yfxf lyof], ;a}n] kfk u/]sf 5g\ O{Zj/sf] jrgn] eGb5

kfksf] kmn d[To" g} xf], Kfkb]lv d'Qm u/fpg v|Li6n], u/fpg v|Li6n]

qm";}df k|f0f Tofu], efO xf], qm";}df k|f0f Tofu] .

#O{Zj/sf] k'q o]z" t];|f] lbg af}/L p7] d[To"sf] aGwgnfO{ tf]8]/ :ju{sf] k|rf/ u/]

:ju{df r9L O{Zj/sf] 5]pdf, O{Zj/sf] 5]pdf

xfdLnfO{ kv{b}5g\ efO xf], xfdLnfO{ kv{b}5g\ .

$s'sd{b]lv kmsL{ k|e'df ljZjf; ug]{ kfp“b5g\ tL ;an] d'lQm, k/d]Zj/ Ifdf u5{g\

o;sf/0f efO xf], ljZjf; u/, ljZjf; u/,

k|e', o]z" v||Li6df alxgL, k|e' o]z" v|Li6df .


54 lgn pm d f efo xf s n d

54= ;'lgn]pm d]/f] efO xf]:s]n D

;'lgn]pm d]/f] efO xf], o]z"hL d]/f b'lgofFdf cfP

!b'lgof“df cfP, d'lQm lnO{ cfP -@_

dflg;nfO{ cfO{ arfP, o]z"hL d]/f] b'lgof“df cfP .

@:juL{o lktfsf Ps dfq k'q -@_

dflg;sf k'q elgP, o]z"hL d]/f] b'lgof“df cfP .

#cGwfnfO{ cf“vf, u"“ufnfO{ af]nL -@_

alx/fnfO{ zAb ;'gfP, o]z"hL d]/f] b'lgof“df cfP .

$sf]/L, cwf{·L lgsf] u/fP -@_

d'bf{nfO{ a}/fO{ p7fP, o]z"hL d]/f] b'lgof“df cfP .

%xfdL ;a kfkdf 8'la/x]sf lyof}+ . -@_

cb\e't k|]d b]vfP,, o]z"hL d]/f] b'lgof“df cfP .

^b'lgofSsf] sf/0f q"m;}df r9L -@_

kljq /ut axfP, o]z"hL d]/f] b'lgofFdf cfP .

&v|Li6 d/]kl5 lrxfgdf /flvP -@_

/ t];|f] lbgdf af}/L p7], o]z"hL d]/f b'lgof“df cfP .


55 eh dgnfo s n f d

55= eh dgnfO{ :s]n F(D)

!hut\ ;[li6 kfngstf{, wGo O{Zj/ bftf

wGo–wGo k|e' o]z" hut\sf qftf lg wGo .

eh dgnfO{, cfpm hg k|e'sxfF, eh dgnfO{, eh dgnfO{

@k/d]Zj/sf] k|yd jrg k'q lbpm“nf egL

;f“r} k|e' cjtf/ eP hut\sf] dl0f lg wGo .

#tL;} jif{ k'u]kl5 k|rf/ u/L lx8\y]

k|e' o]z" dxfbftf chDd/L lbg] lg wGo .

$chDd/L jrg ;'gfO{ b]z}–ljb]z lkm/]

qm";sf] dxf b'Mv k|f0f bfg ul/lbP lg wGo .

%cfpm kfkL ljZjf; u/L k|e'sxf“ wfpm

kfksf] d[To" aGwgb]lv lg:tf/ bfg kfpm lg wGo .

^k|e'hL lbJo jrg b'MvL kfkL cfpm

bfpmbsf] j+zL o]z" v|Li6sf] hoho :t'lt ufcf}+ lg wGo .


56 ufcf d lxsf s n d

56= ufcf}+ d;Lxsf]:s]n D

ufcf}+ d;Lxsf] ho ufg / wGo eg pgsf] gfd,

k[YjL tnsf] g/ gf/Lsf] -2_ Ps ;xf/f d;Lx -2_ ufcf}+ ===

!d'lQmsf] kynfO{ k|rf/ ub}{ hLjg d;Lxn] latfP

kfk / >fk d]6fpg d;Lxn] qm";df /ut aufP .

@cGwsf/ husf] c“Wof/f]nfO{ k|]dL d;Lxn] x6fP

k|]d k|rfb}{, k|]d a9fp“b} O{iof{ / å]if d]6fP .

#klysx¿nfO{ ky bzf{p“b} O{Zj/ gftf hf]8fP

kfksf] aGwgdf xfdL k/]Yof}+ Kof/f] d;Lxn] 5'6fP .

$cdf]n k|]d hf] d;Lxdf kfp“5f}+ Tof] 5f8L sxf“ hfcf}+ <

d'lQm / zflGt hf] pgdf kfp“5f} ho hosf/ pgs} ufcf}+ .


57 ps lbgsf s f s n d

57= Ps lbgsf] s'/f:s]n D

!Ps lbgsf] s'/f ufnLndf ha k|e' o]z" 3'Dby]

;a cfdfx¿ gfgLx¿nfO{ pgsxf“ NofPy] .

@pgn] sfvdf lnO{ x/]snfO{ k|]dn] cflzifsf] xft /fv]

oL ;fgfx¿ dsxf“ cfpg b]pm, k|e'n] eg]y] .

#v'zL ljrf/ / gd| :jefj Ps–csf{nfO{ b]vfO{ bof

x] k|e', d]/f] Xbodf tkfO{sf] :ju{ agf];\ .

$o; /x/nfUbf] ;+;f/df O{Zj/sf] k|]d / dlxdf

h;n] e]6\5 Tof] wGo xf];\ ;a 7fp“df O{Zj/ 5g\ .


58 rfnl lbgsf s n g

58= rfnL; lbgsf:s]n G

!rfnL; lbgsf ef]sf b]vL z}tfg cfO{ k|e'5]p

eGgnfUof], æoL 9'·fnfO{ /f]6L agfO{ vf“b} hfpmÆ .

b[i6 z}tfgsf] jrg ;'gL pQ/ lbP k|e'n]

æ/f]6Ln] dfq} af“Rg] 5}gf}, arfOG5f}+ jrgn]Æ .

@Pp6f cUnf] 7fp“df k'¥ofO{ eGg nfUof] /fHo b]vfO{,

æPs}kN6 k|0ffd\ u/] lbg]5' d ltdLnfO{Æ .

æb'i6 z}tfg, n]v]sf] 5 t}n] cfºgf O{Zj/nfO{

k|0ffd\ ug"{, ;]jf ug"{, ug"{ :t'lt pg}sf]Æ .

#dlGb/dfly r9fO eGgnfUof] z}tfgn]

æv|Li6 xf} eg] xfdkmfn, cfO{ ;dfp“5g\ b"tn]Æ .

pQ/ lbP, æb'i6 z}tfg, k/LIff gu/\ O{Zj/nfO{

nlHht eO{ efluuof] PSn} 5f8L k|e'nfO{Æ .


59 f nfo kfkdf s n d

59= ;+;f/nfO{ kfkdf:s]n D

;+;f/nfO{ kfkdf km;]sf] b]vL k|e' cfP ;+;f/sf] p$f/ ug{ egL

!;'v–r}g / :ju{ egL :ju{ /fHonfO{ Tofu]/ -@_

hGd lnP uf]7}df -@_ latfP hLjg b'Mvdf -@_

xfdLh:tf kfkLnfO{ arfpgnfO{ k|e' cfP ;+;f/sf] p4f/ ug{ egL .

@b'Mv s:tf] ;xL–;xL k|rf/ u/L lx8], xfO{–xfO{ -@_

/f]uL, gf·, ef]sfx¿nfO{ r}g, hLjg lbP/ -@_

cGwfnfO{ Hof]lt lbP/ -@_ d[tnfO{ hLjg lbP/ -@_

#xft–kfpdf sf“6L 7f]sL qm";df pgnfO{ df/], xfO{–xfO{ -@_

lz/df sf“8] d's'6 klx/fO{ /Qmwf/f aufP qm";df aln eP/ -@_

kljq /ut lbP/ -@_ p4f/ u/] xfdL ;anfO{ clt si6 ;x]/

d'lQm lgZro kfp“5f} hlt cfp“5g\ ljZjf; u/]/ .


60 pb ssf k ldnf s n g

60= pb]ssf] k|]ldnf]:s]n G

pb]ssf] k|]ldnf] v|Li^ o]z" /fhfsf] wGojfb dlxdf :t'lt xf];\ ;j{bf

!lktfn] k'qnfO{ ;+;f/df lbg'ef]’ of] slt pb]ssf] k|]d O{Zj/ lktfsf],

o]z" v|Li6 k|ldnf] k|]dn] :ju{ 5f]8\g'ef]’

u]t;dgL klg k|]dn] hfg'ef]’ .

@k|]dn] qm";sf] d[To" ef]Ug'nfO{ hfg'ef]’ d[To"af6 t];|f] lbg af}/L p7\g'eof]

o]z" v|Li6 hLljt 5g\, d pgdf lhp“b5'

tg–dgn] pg}sf] ufpg]5' uLt hosf] .

#pb]ssf] k|]ldnf] v|Li6 o]z" /fhfsf] wGojfb dlxdf, :t'lt xf];\ ;j{bf

hfg'ef]’ :ju{nf]sdf lkmg]{5g\ afbndf

lnP/ xfdLnfO{ k'¥ofp“5g\ To; 7fp“df .


61 pbfp lbjo s n a

61= pbfP lbJo:s]n A

pbfP lbJo p4f/s w/tLsf] cGwsf/df

Hof]ltd{o v|Li^ plbt eP d'lQmsf] k|sfz lnP/ -2_

!3f]/ cGwsf/df Hof]ltljxLg eO{ xhf/f}+ 7f]s/ vfO{

af6f] e'n]sf Jofs'n lg/fz lga{n ofqLnfO{

af6f] b]vfO{, kfp 8f]x¥ofO{ k'¥ofpg k/d]Zj/sxf“

lbJo p4f/s Hof]ltd{o k|sfz pbfP o; w/tLdf .

@lrGtf / kL/sf] ef/n] ba]sf] hut\sf] ;'gL rLTsf/,

kfk, b'u{Gwdf lg:;fl;Psf] cfTdfsf] ug{ p4f/,

dfgjtfnfO{ x/fO;s]sf] hLjgsf] ug{ ;'wf/

pbfP tf/s, k|sfzdo tf/s, arfpg ;+;f/ ;f/f .

#k/d k|e'n] s?0ffn] ubf{ k|bLKt v|Li6 k7fP

;+;f/n] cGwf kf/]sf] cf“vf vf]NgnfO{ v|Li6 cfP,

cGwsf/af6 Hof]ltlt/ g} kmsf{pg v|Li6 pbfP

z}tfgsf] aGwgaf6 pDsfpg k|tfkdo v|Li6 hGd] .

$dxfg\ k|e'sf] s?0ff kfpg] of]Uosf] d lyOg“

d kfksf] /f]uL g/s hfgfn] x'Gyof] :ju{ z"Go <

lsg k|e'n] dnfO{ v"a vf]h] < lsg dlxdf lbg <

cjfs\ d x'G5' cg'u|x b]vL, gem'sL d ;lQmg“ .


62 ju sf dlxldt s n g

62=:ju{sf] dlxldt:s]n G

:ju{sf] dlxldt l;+xf;g %f]*\g'ef]

a]yn]x]dsf] k'/fgf] uf]& v|Li^n] /f]Hg'ef]

dflg;nfO{ o:tf] Kof/ o]z"n] ug'{ef] -2_

ltgnfO{ cNufpg :jo+ xf]lrg'ef] -2_

! kfkLnfO{ arfpg :jo+ kfk aGgef]’ d[To"b08 klg k|e'n] ef]Ug'ef]’ -@_

hojGt hLjg lbg v|Li6 af}/L p7\g'ef]’ xNn]n"ofx k|e' o]z"sf] -@_

@ t'/xLsf] ;fy dlxldt afbndf cfpg]5g\ k|e' v|Li6 km]l/ of] ljZjdf -@_

lnP/ xfdLnfO{ k'¥ofp“5g\ :ju{nf]sdf xNn]n"ofx k|e' o]z"sf] -@_


63 pb ssf tof tf f s n d

63= pb]ssf] Tof] tf/f :s]nD

!= pb]ssf] Tof] t/f rlDsof] cfsfzdf

hGdg'ef], k|e' cfh ufO{sf] uf]7df, xfd|f] hLjgdf .

xf];\ xf];\ k|e'nfO{ dlxdf xfd|f] hLjgdf

xf];\ xf];\ k|e'nfO{ dlxdf cgGtsfn;Dd

@= pb]ssf] Tof] alnbfg k|e'n] hf] lbg'ef]

>flkt q"m;df dg'{ef], k|e' lbg' Ps j/bfg, xfdLnfO{ d'lQmbfg

#= pb]ssf] Tof] cfzf kfpF5f}+ hf] k|e'df

cfpg]5g\ afbndf t'/xLsf] ;fydf, lng xfdLnfO{ pgs} /fHodf


64 hoho wgo s n g

64= hoho wGo:s]n G

!hoho wGo o]z" xfd|f] d'lQmbftf, ;[li6 ;a, crDdsf] k|]d ;'gfpm

eh–eh, b"tx¿ :ju{df ufp“5g\ pgsf] gfdnfO{ Ohht / dfg a9fpm

uf]7fnfem}+ o]z" e]8f ;DxfN5g\, sf“wdf af]sL ;fgfnfO{ Nofp“5g\ 3/

cfpm ;a l;of]g 8f“8fdf a:g] ljZjf;L :t'tL u/ o]z"sf] hohosf/ .

@hoho o]z" x'g\ xfd|f d'lQmbftf, kfksf] nflu /ut axfO{ d/]

xfd|f] cf8 / cgGt hLjgsf] cfzf, eh–eh o]z" hf] qm"; r9]

b'Mv ef]Ug] k|]dk"0f{ d'lQmbftf, sf“8], d's'6n] 3f]Rof] pgsf] lgwf/

nfh, l3g, OGsf/, lgGbf vfO{ xfd|f]nflu ca hojGt :ju{sf] /fhs'df/

#hoho wGo o]z" xfd|f d'lQmbftf, :ju{åf/df u'~hfodfg :j/ ;'gfpm

v|Li6 p4f/s x'g\, cudjQmf, k"hf/L dxf/fh pgnfO{ d's'6 nufpm

d[To" xf¥of], xif{ dgfcf}+ ljZjf;L, x] lrxfg xf], vf]O t hLt t]/f] <

o]z" Ao"“t] / d[To" eof] :ju]{ 9f]sf, o]z" Ao"“t] d'lQmbftf xfd|f] .


65 cfof cfof s n g7

65= cfof}+, cfof}+:s]n G7

cfof}+, cfof}+, cfof}+ xfdL k|e' gfd ;'gL xif{n] -2_

!cfpm bfHo"–efO–alxgL pgsf] :t'lt ufpgnfO{ -@_

pg}n] lbG5g\ d'lQm xfdLnfO{ -@_

@pgL x'g\ xfd|f d'lQmbftf, pgL x'g\ husf tf/0xf/ -@_

pgL x'g\ x/]s vf“rf]sf] pQ/ -@_

#clxn] 5g\ pgL :ju{nf]sdf k/d lktfsf] bflxg] xftdf -@_

PskN6 km]l/ cfpg]5g\ pgL -@_


66 wgo k e o z s n d

66= wGo k|e' o]z":s]n D

wGo k|e' o]z"sf], zflGtbfos h;sf] gfpF

:t'lt u/f}+ af/Daf/ xfd|f] k|e'sf]

!ckf/ 5 k|e'sf] Kof/ cwdL{ hfltk|lt -@_

If0fe/sf] hLjg xfd|f] -@_ ug'{ef]’ km]l/ tf/0f xfd|f] .

@hut\ ;f/f ;+;f/ cGwsf/ kfk}df 5 -@_

Hof]lt agL cfpg'ef]’ k|e' -@_ :juL{o /fHosf] dfu{ agfO{ .

#pb]s 5 k|e'sf] sfo{, s;/L e"nf}+ x] efO -@_

cfglGbt dgn] pgnfO{ ehf}+ -@_ ;'gfO/xf}+ pgsf] hoho ufg


67 hoho hoho s n g7

67= hoho, hoho:s]n G7

hoho, hoho hohosf/ k|e'sf]

dg d]/f] /utn] z'$ eof] . -2_

!qm";}sf] 5]pdf hxf“ /ut aUof]

kfk}n] blaFb} d uP“ Toxf“ -@_

dg d]/f] /utn] z'4 eof] -@_

@lgZro b"/ eof] ;a} kfk

Xbodf /fHo u5{g\ o]z" cfh -@_

qm";sf] 5]pdf k"0f{ k|tfk -@_


68 fhf o z cfp s n g

68= /fhf o]z" cfP :s]nG

/fhf o]z" cfP, xNn]n"ofx cfP -2_

z}tfgnfO{ lhTgsf] nflu /fhf o]z" cfP -2_

!= kfksf] Ifdf kfO{, x'G5' d cflgGbt -@_

dgnfO{ z'4 kfg{nfO{ /fhf o]z" cfP -@_

@= o; ;+;f/df kfk / b'Mv x'G5g\ w]/} w]/} -@_

;To zflGt lbgnfO{ /fhf o]z" cfP -@_

#= o]z" dxf/fhf, dxfk|e' o]z" -@_

xNn]n"ofx ;an] eg /fhf o]z" cfP -@_


69 o z d lqmbftf s n g

69= o]z" d'lQmbftf:s]n G

!o]z" d'lQmbftf x'g\ hut\ qf0fstf{ x'g\ -@_

cfp“5f}+ pgsf] r/0fdf, hLjg pg}df .

@vfln cfzf pg}df, 5}g c¿ s;}df -@_

k|e' lbg'xf];\ d'lQm ;'Gg'xf]; laGtL .

#bof b'Mlvtdfly ef]’ p4f/ d]/f], x] k|e' -@_

k|e' v|Li6sf] u'0f ufcf}+, pgsf] kl5 hfcf}+ .

$wGo O{Zj/ s[kfn', bLg clg bofn' -@_

xf];\ pgsf] dlxdf ;f/f hut\df .


70 o z d f d lqmbft s n f d

70= o]z" d]/f] d'lQmbft:s]n F(D)

!o]z" d]/f] d'lQmbftf, o]z" d]/f] d'lQmbftf

o]z" d]/f] d'lQmbftf, xNn]n"ofx pgsf] ho .

eg ho, o]z" ho -3_ xNn]n"ofx pgsf] ho

@o]z" d]/f] zflGtbftf -#_ xNn]n"ofx pgsf] ho .

#o]z" d]/f] hLjgbftf -#_ xNn]n"ofx pgsf] ho .

$o]z" km]l/ kmls{cfp“5g\ -#_ xNn]n"ofx pgsf] ho .


71 wgo p f s s n c

71= wGo p$f/s:s]n C

!wGo p4f/s s?0ff–;fu/, w]/} g} bofn' :jtGqtf

dh:tf] lgwf]{sf] tkfO{+ c8];, cfp“b}5' k|e' tkfO{ 5]pdf

wGo p$f/s, pb]s p$f/s, a'l$sf wf/f ;gftgsf

cfzf, ljZjf;sf k|sfz, pg}sf], v|Li^ d'lQmbftfs} k|z+;f

@wGo p4f/s, 8/ slQ 5}g, tkfO{+df kfp“5f}+ z/0f, /Iff

v'zL eO{ k'H5' / ljZjf; u5'{, l:y/ eO{ cfp“5' tkfO{ 5]pdf .

#wGo p4f/s, s[kfn' sf]dn, clxn] ;j{b} /xg ddf

tkfO{+ ;xfos 9fn / /Ifs, ;dflt/fVgf];\ tkfO{+ 5]pdf .


72 xbosf fhf s n cm am

72= Xbosf] /fhf :s]n Cm(Am)

Xbosf] /fhf, ho o]z" gfpF, zflGtsf] s'df/ u%'{ k|)ffd\

bz xhf/f}Fdf tkfO{ ;'Gb/, ;'ulGwt t]nem}F dw'/f] gfpF, u%'{ k|)ffd\

!nfvf}Fdf dL7f] 5 o]z" gfp“, rlDsnf] cg'xf/ ;"o{ ;dfg -@_

cj0f{gLo 5 tkfO{sf] k|]d,

d cwdL{n] rfv] Tof] k|]d === u5'{ k|0ffd\

@af]Ng'ef]’ k|e' tkfO{, eP“ dug, clenfifL eO{ cfP“ r/0f -@_

xlif{t x'“b} k|e' u5'{ k|0ffd\, d cof]Uon] kfP“ hLjgbft .

#dnfO{ arfpg'ef]’ lbP/ k|f0f, a'emfOlbgf];\ k|e' :juL{o k|]d -@_

e]6Lsf] ¿kdf ;Dk"0f{ hLjg r9fp“5', x] k|e' ulb{gf];\ u|x0f .


73 ehf dl f gfd s n g

73= ehf}+ dL&f] gfd :s]nG

ehf}+ dL&f] gfd, k|e' o]z" gfd,

Kof/f] k|e' o]z"nfO{, u/f}+ cfb/ dfg, ehf}+ dL&f] gfd

!= ;f/f e"nf]s e/sf kfkLx¿nfO{, o]z" dfq 5g\ z'4 ug{nfO{ -@_

pgsf] dL7f] jf0fL ;'g dg nufO{, r9fpFb} Xbo e]6L pgnfO{

xf xf xf xf ehf}+ dL7f] gfd .

@= o]z" xfd|f] nflu ;+;f/df cfP, xfd|f] cfTdfnfO{ clt k|]d u/] -@_

q"m;df sf]vfaf6 /ut aufP, w'gnfO{ xfd|f] kfkL Xbo

xf xf xf xf ehf}+ dL7f] gfd .

#= g/seGbf 7"nf] b08 s]xL 5}g, hxfF ;w}F cfuf] uGws lgEb}g -@_

kmsf}{+ cfh ;a} r9fcf}+ v|Li6nfO{ dg, /dfpFb} u/f}+ pgsf] ehg

xf xf xf xf ehf}+ dL7f] gfd .


74 ufcf o z hlsf houfg s n f d

74= ufcf}+ o]z"hLsf] houfg :s]nF/D

ufcf}+ o]z"hLsf] houfg, ufcf}+ o]z"hLsf] z'egfd

!= o¿zn]d zx/sf], a]yn]x]d ufj}Fdf

cfh hGd] afns h;sf] o]z" gfd -@_

zflGtsf] /fhf o]z"nfO{ k|0ffd -@_

@= ODdfg'Pnn] hGd lnP, xfd|f] ej ef] pHofnf] -@_

kfksf] ljgfz eof], ;Ton] lhTof] -@_

;Tosf] /fhf, o]z"nfO{ k|0ffd -@_

#= d;Lx o]z"sf] hGd eof], 3[0ff, x]nf 6f9f eof] -@_

k|]d hGDof], k|]d a9Øf], k|]d a9\b} uf] -@_

k|]dLnf] /fhf, o]z"nfO{ k|f0ffd -@_


75 s g ps lbg s n c

75= s'g} Ps lbg :s]n C

!s'g} Ps lbg k[YjL kfk;fu/ x'Fbf, s'g} Ps lbg–:ju{ wgL o]z"

:ju{nf]saf6 cfO{ sGofaf6 hlGdFbf dfgj ¿k lnP, pbfx/0f d]/f] .

k|]d u/L cfP, dbf{ arfP, ufl*Fbf kfk d]/f] x^fOlbP

Ao'FtL pgn] dnfO{ lgbf]{if &x/fP, cfpg]%g\ o]z" xf] v'zLsf] lbg

@s'g} Pslbg pgnfO{ snj/L nu], s'g} Pslbg qm";df 6f“u] o]z"

luNnf ;+s6 / x]nf vfP/ af]s] ;a kfk, d'lQmbftf d]/f] .

#s'g} Pslbg pgnfO{ lrxfgdf /fv], s'g} Pslbg pgnfO{ cf/fd ldNof]

:ju{b"t cfP/ kx/f u/], lg/fzfdf cfzf p4f/s d]/f] .

$s'g} Pslbg d/0faf6 lhOp7], s'g} Pslbg lrxfgsf] 9'·f kN6of]

o]z" Ao"“t] d[To"dfly, hojGt :ju{ kms]{, dxfk|e' d]/f] .

%s'g} Pslbg t'/xL zAb ;'lgG5, s'g} Pslbg kmsL{ cfp“5g\ o]z"

hohosf/ pgsf] cfsfzdf u'l~hG5, qftf o]z" dxf/fhf d]/f] .


76 v li d f d lqmbftf x g s n g

76= v|Li^ d]/f] d'lQmbftf x'g\ :s]n G

v|Li^ d]/f] d'lQmbftf x'g\, pgL x'g\ ldq kfkLsf]

;bf :t'lt xf];\ k|e'sf] cfb/ dlxdf pg}sf]

!= o]z" ;+;f/sf] Hof]lt x'g\, o]z" :ju{sf] af6f] x'g\

o]z" tf/0fxf/ x'g\ kfkLsf] s]jn ;xf/f x'g\ -@_

@= Tofu] o]z"n] :ju{–;'v, p7fpg kfkLx¿sf b'Mv

lbP o]z"n] q"m;df k|f0f u/fpg kfkLx¿sf] qf0f -@_


77 xf ggf s n g

77= xf];Ggf:s]n G

!xf];Ggf, hf]/ xf];Ggf ufp“y] afns ;fgf

u'~Hof] v'zLsf] :t'lt cUnf] ejgel/,

o]z" h;n] cflzif lbP ;asf Kof/f eP

ufP :t'lt afnsn] pQd ;fwf tf}/n] .

@k5ØfP eL8 ;fy nfuL h}t"g 8f“8faf6}

vh"/sf] kft xNnfp“b} rsf]{ ;f]/ lgsfNb},

:ju{b"tn] u/] :t'lt gLnf] cfsfzb]lv

pRr :yfgdf xf];Ggf, lktfnfO{ dlxdf .

#:ju{df xf];Ggf xf], ufcf}+ uLt k'/fgf] of]

v|Li6 xfd|f d'lQmbftf :ju{sf k|e' /fhf .

;w}F :t'lt ug{ kfcf}F tg–dg / :j/ ;a nfcf}F

pgsf zflGtsf /fHodf cgGt xif{ dgfcf}+ .


78 lrgg k a n s n f d

78= lrGg'k%{ ;a}n] :s]n F(D)

lrGg'k%{ ;a}n] -2_, lrGg'k%{ ;a}n] o]z" sf] x'g\

!pgL zflGt lbg] v|Li6 x'g\, hut\sf x'g\ tf/0fxf/

ltd|f–d]/f d'lQmbftf lrGg'k5{ ;a}n] .

@pgL d]/f Kof/f ldq, dgdf v'zL lb“b5g\

d]/f] hLjgsf pHofnf], lrGg'k5{ ;a}n] .

#pgL lgis+ns cjtf/, k'q x'g\ k/d]Zj/sf

km]l/ kl5 cfpg] /fhf, lrGg'k5{ ;a}n] .


79 k e o z xfd f s n d

79= k|e' o]z" xfd|f:s]n D

!k|e' o]z" xfd|f], k[YjLklt, Kof/f] O{Zj/sf] k'q / dflg;sf]

tkfO{nfO{ x] k|e', :t'lt r9fp“b5', dlxdf, cfgGb, ho d]/f] .

@rp/ v"a /dfOnf 5g\, jg t emg\ /dfOnf 5g\,

j;Gtsf] zf]efn] 9fs]sf] o]z" em\g /fd|f 5g\,

o]z" emg\ z'4, 5g\ h;n] x6fp“5g\ b'Mv xfd|f] .

#3fd clt /fd|f] 5, h"g c;fWo /fd|f] 5,

cfsfz 5 tf/fn] e/]sf]

o]z" emg\ rlDsnf, o]z" x'g\ pHofnf, pgL x'g\ :ju{sf k|e' .


80 bfpmbj zl o z s n d

80= bfpmbj+zL o]z" :s]n D

!bfpbj+zL o]z" v|Li6sf] :t'lt u/, x] efO -@_

:ju{af6 cf]lnPcfP arfpg xfdLnfO{ -@_

xf];Ggf xf];Ggf, cfgGb hut\df .

@dflg; cjtf/ u/L wf/0f cfP g/nf]sdf -@_

cdf]n k|f0f TofuL ;anfO{ kf/]gg\ zf]sdf -@_

xf];Ggf o]z" gfp“ lbP :ju{ nf]s .

#lktf O{Zj/, dlxdf pgsf] ;f/f ;+;f/df -@_

rGb|, ;"o{, ;[li6 ;f/f ldnL eg"g\ dlxdf -@_

xf];Ggf, xf];Ggf gof“ o¿zn]ddf .


81 o z sf gfd s n d

81= o]z"sf] gfd %:s]n D

o]z"sf] gfd % ;f/f ;+;f/df ;a}nfO{ ug{ p$f/

!= b'lgofFdf cfO{, q"m;}df r9L b]vfP cfºgf] Kof/

cfTdf arfpg, zflGt lbg o]z" eP alnbfg .

@= :ju{sf] d'lg, dfG5]sf] aLrdf s'g} cf¿ gfd} 5}g

o]z" gfd dfq, ;f/f b'lgofFdf kfkLnfO{ ug{ p4f/ .


82 of ult v a s n d

82= of] uLt v"a:s]n D

!:ju{b]lv sf] pq] < o]z" d'lQmbftf

u/La g/sf] rf]nfdf o]z" d'lQmbftf .

of] uLt v"a hf]/l;t ufpm pgn] p$f/ NofP%g\

o:tf] k|]dL %}g, sf]xL o]z" d'lQmbftf

@qm";df aln eP sf] xfd|f] p4f/ ug{nfO{ <

#kfksf] dfkmL lbg] sf] ljZjf;LnfO{ arfpg <

$:ju{df lj/fhdfg\ sf] < s;nfO{ xfdL k|]d u/f}+ <

%:ju{b]lv cfp“5g\ sf] cfºgf ;anfO{ n}hfg <


83 o z j bfgsf s n g7

83= o]z" j/bfgsf] :s]n G7

!o]z" j/bfgsf] d"n–wf/f, u¿F of]Uo k|z+;f

bof–vf]nf nuftf/ alu/x]5 ddf

:t'lt ug{ lbgf];\ dnfO{ :ju{b"tn] u/] em}+

k|e' v|Li6sf] k|]d / enfO 5 cufw ckf/ ;w}+ .

@olt~h]n d]/f] p4f/s tkfO{ x'g'ef]’ cfkm}

/fvL æPj]g\Ph/Æ :df/s cl3 a9\5' :ju{d}

aufn 5f]8\g] e]8fh:tf] dnfO{{ vf]h] o]z"n]

gfzb]lv arfpg cfºgf] cdf]n /ut axfP .

#O{Zj/sf] cg'u|x x]/L C0fL cfkm"nfO{ 7fG5'

Tof] cg'u|x ;f·nf];/L af“wf];\ r~rn dg d]/f]

cfºgf] ;'/df hfg vf]Hg] dg 5 d]/f], 5}g l:t/

lngf];\ dg, x] lngf];\ k|e', :ju{sf] nflu /fVgf];\ b[9 .


84 wgoxf k e s n g

84= wGoxf];\ k|e' :s]n G

wGo xf];\ k|e' ltdLnfO{, ;gftg /fhfnfO{ -2_

s?)ff ltd|f] ck/dkf/} % ;bf -2_

!:juL{o :ju{ TofUof} ;+;fdf cfP/

qm";}sf] b'Mv ;x]/ alnbfg eP/ -@_

lbof} lg df]If kfkLnfO{ cd"No /Qm axfO{

bofn' lktf ltdLnfO{ a9fO xf];\, a9fO -@_

@hut\sf lbJo k|sfz xf}, oyfy{ ky xf} -@_

b'MvLsf Ps lxt}ifL xf}, :g]xsf /fhf xf} -@_

hLjgsf ltdL wf/f xf}, tf/0fxf/ xf}

lktf / k'q cfTdfdf, ltdL k/d]Zj/ xf} -@_

#lgs[i6 t'R5 eP/ z/0fdf cfp“5' -@_

x] k|e' o]z", ltdLdf d b[li6 p7fp“5' -@_

;+si6do hLjg kydf, ;j{bf ;fy b]pm

hojGt hLjg latfpg], x] k|e' ;fdy{ b]pm -@_


85 o z gfpf s n g

85= o]z" gfpF:s]n G

!o]z" gfp“ ckf/, k|]dsf] ;a}eGbf >]i7 of] xf]

h;df ;asf 3'“8fn] 6]Sg'k5{ cjZo .

@o]z" gfp“ cdf]n, k|]dsf] kfkL hgsf] nflu xf]

h;df lbP5g\ s/f/ pgn] ub{5g\ p4f/ .

#o]z" gfp“ hf] bof xf], hf] afnsnfO{ lbOof]

h;n] ef]Uof] dxfb'Mv, xfdL ;anfO{ lbg ;'v .

$o]z" gfp“ hf] lbOof] d'lg ;f/f :ju{sf]

kfkL o;df kTofp“bf 5f]8fOG5 g} ;bf .

%o]z" gfp“ ckf/, k|]dsf] O{Zj/, dfG5] gfp“sf] ef]’

o;df cf>o ug]{ xLg, cfp“b}5f}+ tkfO{ clwg .


86 xf xf xnn n ofx s n d

86= xf xf xNn]n"ofx :s]nD

xf xf xNn]n"ofx, ldnL xfdL ehf}+, ehg k|e'Ho"sf] -2_

!= pgL /fhfx¿sf /fhf, pgsf] r/0fdf cfcf}+ cfh -@_

pgsf] :t'lt ufcf}+, pgsf] dlxdf ufcf}+ -@_

tg—dg;fy pgnfO{ ehf}+ .

@= o]z" v|Li6 ;+;f/df cfP, xfd|f] kfksf] ef/ p7fP -@_

pgdf ljZjf; u/f}+, pgsf] z/0f k/f}+ -@_

kfpF5f} d'lQmbfg, xfdL ;a cfcf}+ .

#= hflt–hfltsf dflg; cfcf}+, k|e' o]z"sf] u'0f ufcf}+ -@_

pgn] kfkL dgdf e5{g zflGt k"/f -@_

pgn] kfkLnfO{ lbG5g\ hLjg .


87 hoho o z s n f

87= hoho o]z":s]n F

hoho o]z" -2_ d[To"dfly ho, hohosf/

;[hgxf/, kfngxf/, tf/)fxf/ hoho o]z" -2_

!b'MvLsf] b'Mv x/g]jfnf Xbodf zflGt lbg]jfnf

hof ;a eg, b'Mv d]l6of], hohosf/ ;[hgfxf/ .

@dg'io :j¿k wf/0f u/L gLr u/LanfO{ lbg'egf]’ 5'6sf/f

hoho qftf, ho ;'vbftf hohosf/ .

#d[To' aGwg tf]8\g]jfnf, ;a} hLjg lbg]jfnf

/f]uL czflGtsf] Ps cfwf/ hohosf/ .

$hohosf/ u/f}+ ;a} Kof/ g/–gf/L Ps;“u k'sf/

gf/f nufpm hohosf, hohosf/ .


88 f sf rp df rf lt s n g

88= ;+;f/sf] rp/df rf/lt/:s]nG

!= ;+;f/sf] rp/df rf/lt/ x]bf{, kfk}sf] /f;}—/f;, nf} x} larf?F .

@= z}tfgn] 8fS5 z/L/n] lvFR5, kfk}sf] hLt—afhL, nf} x} larf?F .

#= kfksf] kmn vfof}+ lg/fz} eof}+, cfTdfsf] ;j{gfz, nf} x} larf?F

$= cfTdfsf] s'ut lktfn] x]/L, k'q kf] lbP bfg, nf} x} larf?F .

%= kfk xfd|f] lnO{ o]z" g} d/], /utn] lslgof}+, nf} x} larf?F .

^= tLg lbg lat], tL af}/L p7], arfP cfTdfnfO{, nf} x} larf?F .

&= o]z"sf] u'0f xfdLn] kfof}+, cfTdf k7fP bfg, nf} x} larf?F .

*= kljq cfTdf ;a}n] n]pm, pxfFsf] hoho ufcf}+, nf} x} larf?F .


89 tlt xf k e v li sf s n d

89= :tlt xf];\ k|e' v|Li^sf] :s]nD

:tlt xf];\ k|e' v|Li^sf], cfb/ / k|z+;f

dlxdf pg}sf], xf];\ ;bf;j{bf -2_

!= kms]{/ x]5'{ ljut lbgx¿, jt{dfg lgofN5' -@_

cflzif\sf] em/L hLjg}el/ -@_ a;]{sf] yfxf u5'{

cf}wL /dfpFb} k"0f{ Xbon], v|Li6sf] a9fO u5'{ -@_

@= cToGt k|]dL, clt ;fdyL{, v|Li6 d]/f 5g\ ;fyL -@_

d]/f] cljZjf; cf} xf/df klg -@_ o]z" 5g\ ljZjf;L

o;sf/0f eG5', ho xNn]n"ofx, wGojfb r9fpF5' -@_

#= lg/fzdf cfzf, b'Mvdf zflGt, c;xfosf ;xf/f -@_

/fhfx¿sf klg v|Li6 /fhf -@_ d]/f d'lQmbftf

ho k|e' o]z", ho d'lQmbftf, hoho xNn]n"ofx -@_


90 u f hohosf s n a

90= u/f}+ hohosf/:s]n A

u/f}+ hohosf/ xfd|f k|e'sf], pg} x'g\ xfd|f ;f“rf] uf]7fnf]

xlif{t Åbo lnO{ wGojfb r9fpm“, elQm;lxt ;an] b08jt\ u/f}+

!kfksf] b08 eoª\s/ g/s, sdfO of] d]/} lyof] -@_

wd{–sd{sf Rofb/n] 9fsL kfk 9flsO“b}gYof]

y'sfO / s'6fO ;xg'ef]’ hlt -arfpg k|f0f lbP_ @

@x]b{5' snj/L 8f“8fnfO{, 6f“luP k|e' qm";df -@_

xftdf sf“6L, खुट्टfdf sf“6L, lz/df tLj| kL8f

;x] ;a kL8f, b'Mv czflGt -lyP ;a d]/} lglDt_ @

#crDd}sf] /x]5 k|]d o]z"sf] d b'i6 3[l0ftk|lt -@_

ha kfkdf y]’ v|Li6 d]/f d/] ;a d]/f kfknfO{ af]sL

z'4 dnfO{ kfb}{, ax]sf] /utn] -wdL{ dnfO{ t'NofP_ @

$klys g/ssf] v|Li6n] lkm/fp“bf :ju{sf] ofqL ag] -@_

:ju{ d]/f] b]z ef]’ oxf“ k/b]zL a9\5' k|ltkmn cl3

b]Vbf k|e'nfO{ kL8f e'Ng]5' -c;Ld lj>fd kfpg]5'_ @


91 r fpf k e wgojfb s n g

91= r(fpF%' k|e' wGojfb :s]nG

r(fpF%' k|e' wGojfb cfh q"m;sf] Tof] k|]dsf] lglDt

y'sfO / s'^fO ;xg'ef] hlt tL ;a lyP d]/} lglDt -2_

!= sfF8] d's'6 klx/L lz/df, xtkfpnfO{ h8L q"m;df -@_

x'g'ef] aln d]/f] g} lglDt lgbf]{if kf7f]sf] ¿kdf -@_

@= kL8f tkfO{+nfO{, zflGt dnfO{, q"m; tkfO{+sf], d's'6 d]/f] -@_

d[To' tkfO{+nfO{, hLjg dnfO{, k|]d dnfO{ lsg o:tf]< -@_

#= b]V5' dlxldt :ju{ d]/f], t/ xf]Og sdfO d]/f] -@_

xif{>' emfb}{, k|z+;f u5'{, of] t xf] bfg tkfO{+sf] -@_

$= 3[l0ft kfknfO{ u5'{ 3[0ff, sf/0f oxL xf] nfg] q"m;df -@_

;hfpF5' l;+xf;g k|e' Xbodf, /xg'xf];\ k|e' o;df -@_


92 xbosf d f fhf o z nfo s n d

92= Xbosf] d]/f] /fhf o]z"nfO{ :s]nD

Xbosf] d]/f] /fhf o]z"nfO{ w]/} g} dfof %

pxfFsf] rf]vf] k|]db]lv dnfO{ -s]n] kf] %'^fpF%_ -2_

!= lbg—lbgsf] d]/f] hLjgdf, v|Li6sf] cfZro{ sfd b]Vb5' -@_

x/]s c;Dej oz]"df ;Dej ePsf] b]Vb5' -@_

@= h·ndf lkP, k'vf{n] kfgL ;gftg rट्टfgsf] -@_

cfP/ lkcf] hLjgsf] kfgL, Tof] rट्टfg o]z" xf] -@_


93 f nfo l h g s n a

93= ;+;f/nfO{ l;h{g]:s]n A

;+;f/nfO{ l;h{g] d]/f k|e', kfkLnfO{ d'lQ lbg] d]/f k|e'

cj0f{gLo ckf/, ;f“r} g} ljzfn, d]/f, ltd|f, xfd|f, ;asf Kof/f k|e'

!pgsf] sd{nfO{ hf“r, pgsf] jrg ;'g -@_

hfb" xf]Og snj/L, dGq xf]Og jrg

t/ cnf}lss k|]d, ;+;f/nfO{ === k|e' .

@pgsf] dlxdfnfO{ gfk l;4 5g\ pgL k"0f{ -@_

k/d]Zj/sf] k|lt¿k ;[li6sf] h]7f] x'g\

:ju{ wtL{sf] lz/, ;+;f/nfO{ === k|e' .

#pgsf] z/L/nfO{ x]/ rf]6}rf]6 5g\ ;f/f -@_

xft /fvL 5fd pgsf s/–kfp

rfv cnf}lss k|]d, ;+;f/nfO{ === k|e' .


94 t lt xf s n g

94= :t'lt xf];\:s]n G

!:t'lt xf];\, d z'4 eP“, o]z" v|Li6sf] /utn]

snj/Lsf] To; wf/fdf, w'g'ef]’ dnfO{ v|Li6n] .

kfksf] ;a} aGwg 5'6\of], k|e' o]z" wGojfb

d's'6 pxf“n] lbg'x'G5 dnfO{, ;Dk"0f{ p4f/sf] ;fYf

@:t'lt xf];\, ob{gsf] lglDt hxf“ d bkmg eP“

o]z" v|Li6sf] ;fydf d/L, gof“ hLjg–bfg kfP“ .

#:t'lt xf];\, k]lGtsf];sf] lbgdf, cfpg'ef]’ kljq cfTdf

zflGt, cfgGb, k|]d, ljZjf; ;fy /xg'x'G5 ;j{bf .

$:t'lt xf];\, k|e' o]z"sf], :ju{af6 cfpg'x'G5

kljq d08nLnfO{ ;fy lnO{, km]l/ :ju{ lkmg'{x'G5 .


95 lxhf sf lbg s n d

95= lxhf]sf] lbg:s]n D

lxhf]sf] lbg laltuof], ef]ln slxn] gcfpnf

cfhsf] lbg hf] xftdf 5, u5'{ k|e'sf] k+z+;f

!cg'u|x o]z"sf] gbLem}+ alu/x]sf] -@_

d]/f] lglDt k|z:t cgGt;Dd k'Ug]5 .

@k|]dsf] wf/f o]z"sf] l;Ty}df eml//x]sf] -@_

x/ lbg, x/ /ft yfxf u5'{, d'6'el/ k|]d r9fp“5' .

#sf]dn s[kf xh'/sf] em/gf;/L al;{Psf] -@_

a'emL k"0f{ Xbosf] txb]lv Kof/f] u5'{ .


96 d n rf lbzfdf x s n f g

96= d}n] rf/ lbzfdf x]/]+ :s]nF/G

d}n] rf/ lbzfdf x]/F, cfsfz w/tLdf x]/]F

ltdLh:t} d'lQmbftf, d}n] st} -kfOFg_ 2 d}n] rf/===

!= k'msfnL aGwg ;f/f, cfºgf] /utn] wf]P/ @

l;Q}Fdf sf];]nL cgGt hLjgsf] ltdL dnfO{ lbOhfg'ef]

xfd|f] kfksf] nflu x] ;fyL, aln ef] O{Zj/sf] k'q

ltdL eG5f} alnbfg o:tf] d}n] st} -b]lvgF_ @ d}n] rf/===

@= cGwsf/leq a;]/ ph]nL yfxf s] ug]{ < @

ltdLnfO{ Hof]ltsf] /x:o vf]n]/ b'lgofFsf] aQL agfpF5g\

cljZjf;df xf]Og x] efO, cGt/ 5 hLjg–d[To'sf]

Tofu] pgnfO{ k/fO{ ;DemL c? sf]xL -5}g g}_ @ d}n] rf/===


97 ho xf o z fhfsf s n d

97= ho xf]; o]z" /fhfsf] :s]nD

ho xf];\ o]z" /fhfsf], d'lQmbftfsf], p$f/stf{sf] -2_

!= pxfFn] xfdLnfO{ k|]d u/L q"m;sf] ;a} b'Mv ef]Ug'ef],

x/kfksf] aGwgnfO{ tf]8L xfdLnfO{ :jtGq ug'{ef] .

@= k'/fgf] hLjg ;a e'nL gofF hLjg v|Li6df lhpg]5',

lktfsf] x/k|lt1fnfO{ ;DemL v|Li6sf]

kfOnf] d k5Øfpg]5' .


98 to gb l dflg s n g

98= ;To, ;'Gb/, l;$ dflg; :s]nG

;To, ;'Gb/, l;$ dflg;, x'g'x'G% k|e' v|Li^

pxfF;Fu ;f^]F d}n], cgGt cgGtnfO{ rf]vf] k|Lt 2

!= l;4 O{Zj/, l;4 dflg;, d]/f] hLjg :jfdLnfO{ -@_

cGt/fTdfb]lv >4f, elQm 5 tkfO{+nfO{ .

@= tkfO{+ d]/f], d tkfO{+sf], cgGtnfO{ xfd|f] k|Lt -@_

b'Mv–;'vdf lbnf]Hofgn], /ftlbg ufpF5' v|Li6sf] uLt .


99 dxfg k e clt prrdf s n f e

99= dxfg\ k|e' clt pRrdf :s]n F/E

dxfg\ k|e' clt pRrdf b"tu)fn] u%{g\ dlxdf

x] k|e' tkfO{+sf] d)*nL cf/fwgf u%f}{F tkfO{+nfO{

!= k|]dsf] 7"nf] /x:ofnfO{ dlxdf uf}/jsf] TofunfO{ -@_

;DemG5' S|'m;sf] b'MvnfO{, ck{G5' ;jf{· tkfO{+nfO{ -@_

@= cfpg'ef] k|e' xfd|f] dfemdf, hl8Psf] dg–dlGb/df -@_

e/k"/ 5', el//xG5', emg\ ghLs x'g rfxG5' -@_

#= dlxdf, cfb/ / wGojfb ;j{bf ub{5' b08jt\ -@_

tkfO{+sf] uDeL/ k|]dsf] ;fu/df 8'a]F k|e' d -@_


100 xif dgfpm s n d

100= xif{ dgfpm :s]n D

xif{, dgfpm, cfgGb dgfpm, p4f/ xfd|f] of]

tf/f rlDsnf b"tu0f x“l;nf O{Zj/ dfgj ef]’

!h;sf] gfp“ o]z" xf] kfkLnfO{ arfpg]

dflg;sf] ;ट्टfdf gof“ hLjg–bfg u/L cfºgf] agfpg] .

@lt/]/ kfksf] bfd d[To" Wj;+ kfg]{

d[To"sf] ;ट्टfdf agfO{ kmf6s :ju{ / k[YjL hf]8\g] .


101 x o zj ltd f s n d7

101= x] O{Zj/ ltd|f] :s]n D7

x] O{Zj/, ltd|f] of] ljrf/ d]/f] lglDt clt cgdf]n 5

ltd|f] s?0ff d k|lt ;bf;j{bf alg/xg]5

!cfh r9fp“5' wGojfb k|e'nfO{, d]/f] lha|f]n] ltd|f] k|z+;f

a9fO, :t'lt / u'0fflb ufpg]5' sf/0f ltdL d]/f] d'lQmbftf .

@ljgfzsf] s'08df k'lu;s]sf]nfO{ bof ef]’ ltd|f] arfpg] dnfO{

;+si6 / d[To"b]lv arfpgnfO{ lbof} qm";df alnbfg o]z"nfO{ .

#u/]]y+] d}n] kfk b'i6 hut\df d}n] ;xg'kg]{Yof] b08 o;df

t/ ;x] o]z"n] si6 qm";df lbgnfO{ gof“ hLjg ;+;f/df .

$;lQmg“ k|e' a:g r"k oxf“ gu/Lsg k|z+;f ltd|f]

gr9fO{ x'Gg wGojfb ltdLnfO{ ;Dem]/ cyfx k|]d v|Li6 k|e'sf] .


102 t lt xf s n dm

102= :t'lt xf];\ :s]nDm

:t'lt xf];\, k|e'sf] hohosf/

!= e'Ng]5}g d, Tof] b[Zo k|e' o]z"sf], snj/L elgg] 7fpFdf pgL

6fFluPsf] xftkfp / z/L/ pgsf] rf]6}rf]6n] k"0f{ lyof] -@_

d}n], hfg]F, tL ;a} sf/0f d]/f] cwd{ xf] -@_

@= e'Ng]5}g d, Tof] jrg eg]sf] v|Li6n], snj/L elgg] 7fpFdf

uDeL/ k|]dsf] efjn] k'q t]/f cwd{ ;a} kfksf] C0f

ltl/;s]F -@_ p4f/ 5 t]/f] nflu oxfF sdfPF hf] d}n] -@_


103 hljgsf jfdl k e nfo s n d

103= hLjgsf] :jfdL k|e'nfO{ :s]nD

!= hLjgsf] :jfdL k|e'nfO{ dlxdf xf];\ ;w}F

d ha e'N5' tkfO{+nfO{ snj/Ldf 8f]¥ofpm .

e'N%' ha unuyfsf] si^sf] k|fy{gf tkfO{+sf]

e'N%' ha k|]d tkfO{+sf] snj/Ldf *f]¥ofpm

@= b]vfpm dnfO{ rxfg pgsf], b"tu0fn] 3]/]sf]

hxfF o; s7f]/ Xbo lnO{, u5'{ ck{0f pgnfO{ .

#= dl/odn] lrxfgdf bfg lnO{ tkfO{+nfO{ vf]h]yL

Xbosf] bfg lnO{ d klg vf]Hg;s"F clg .

$= 5' k|e' af]SgnfO{ tof/ cfºgf] Tof] q"m;sf] ef/

ug]{5' hLjg b'Mvkf/ zlQm b]pm tf/0fxf/ .


104 d fu cfpmg s n dm

104= d;Fu cfpmg :s]n Dm

!d;“u cfpmg, zf]s u?“ d'lQmbftfsf] 5]j}df

xfdLx¿ ljnfk u?“, v|Li6 k|e' qm";df 6f“luP .

@dfG5]n] lgGbf ubf{df, s] cf“;' cfp“b}g xfd|f] <

x] efO, sqf] ;fx; Yof], v|Li6 k|e' qm";df 6f“luP .

#;ft} v]k af]n] k|]dsf] aft, tLg 306f;Dd r"k /x]

dfG5]nfO{ d'lQm lbgnfO{ v|Li6 k|e' qm";df 6f“luP .

$x] s8f dg, ca kmls{g", ltdL ck:jfyL{ 3d08L

d[To"df pgnfO{ ;'lDkOof], v|Li6 k|e' qm";df 6f“luP .

%kmf6]sf] Xbo ca dfu, clg lbOG5 ltdLnfO{

o:tf] dgb]lv x'G5 k|]d, v|Li6 k|e' qm";df 6f“luP .


105 tof q m df sn d

105= Tof] q"m;df :]sn D

!Tof] qm";df ha x]b{5' h;df dfl/g'ef]’ o]z"

wg–;DklQ d t'R5 7fG5' 3d08 TofuL g/d x'G5' .

@o]z"n] ef]u] d[To"–b08 vfnL o;df u5'{ 3d08

dnfO{ nf]Eofpg] yf]sx¿ d pgsf] nflu TofUb5' .

#nf} pgsf] lz/, xft, kfpb]lv x]/ b'Mv / k|]d ld;L aUof] .

5 lz/df sf“8f a'g]sf] s] cl3 o:t} d's'6 lyof] <

$;a ;+;f/ eP tf d]/f], Tof] klg t'R5 bfg x'Gyof]

nf} oqf] k|]dsf] of]Uo bfg xf] hLjg, cfTdf, hLp / k|f0f .


106 o z x v li sf q m sf s n em

106= o]z" x} v|Li^sf] q"m;}sf] :s]nEm

!= o]z" x} v|Li6sf] q"m;}sf] d/0f -@_ Xbo t n} n} 5]8\g] ut

P lbb}, Xbo t n} n} 5]8\g] ut

@= x]/g lbb}, ;'gg lbb} -@_ /utsf] n} n} wf/}–wf/

x] lbb}, /utsf] n} n} wf/}–wf/ .

#= d'6' t d]/f] /x]g lbb} -@_ eOuof] n} n} r"/}–r"/

x] lbb}, eOuof] n} n} r"/}–r"/ .

$= uO{ a:5' dtf qm";}sf] d'lg -@_ lz/}df n} n} yfK5' wf/

x] lbb}, lz/}df n} n} yfK5' wf/ .

%= v|L6}sf] d/0f kfk}sf] x/0f -@_ k5'{ d n} n} v|Li6sf] kfp

x] lbb}, k5'{ d n} n} v|Li6sf] kfp .

^= lktf / k'q, kljq cfTdf -@_ dlxldt n} n} dlxldt

x] lbb}, dlxldt n} n} dlxldt .


107 ho ho ho ho s n d

107= ho ho ho ho :s]n D

!ho ho ho ho oz"sf] ho -@_, alnbfg hf] eOuof]

a]lx;fa, pgsf] Kof/ 5, ho ho o]z"sf] ho -@_

@ljZjf; Nofcf}+ xfdL o]z"df -@_, alnbfg hf] eOuP

pgsf] /utsf] af6f]n] ;a xfd|f] kfk d]6] -@_

#x]/ x]/ v|Li6 o]z"nfO{ -@_, qm";}df hf] d/]

qm";}df cfºgf] k|f0f lbO{ xfdLnfO{ arfP -@_

$O{Zj/b]lv o:tf] bof -@_ ;+;f/nfO{ arfP -@_

cGTodf pgn] cfºgf k'q lbP u/] p4f/ -@_


108 g kfnl kfkl dgnfo kvfnl s n am

108= g]kfnL, kfkL dgnfO{ kvfnL, :s]nAm

g]kfnL, kfkL dgnfO{ kvfnL, o]z"sf] %]pdf hfcf}+ -2_

!= lknft';n] o]z"Ho"nfO{ sf]/f{ nufOlbP -@_

qm"; af]Sg s'/]gL efOn] -o]z"nfO{ ;3fOlbP_ @

@= ;a} ldnL o]z"Ho"nfO{ sfF6L 7f]lslbP -@_

;a} xfd|f] kfksf] ef/L -o]z"n] af]lslnP_ @

#= q"m;sf] åf/f aUof] 7"nf] /utsf] wf/f -@_

kfkL ;a} k|j]z ug]{ -oxL xf] d'lQmsf] åf/_ @

$= unuyfsf] kxf8}df alnbfg eP -@_

Kof/f] k|e' o]z"Ho"n] -k|f0f bfg ul/lbP_ @

%= z'qmjf/sf] t];|f] kx/ o]z"n] k|f0f Tofu] -@_

d[To' gLbdf k/]sf] k|e' -t];|f] lbgdf hfu]_ @


109 lsb f g vf nfkfl s n g

109= lsb|f]g vf]nfkfl/ :s]n G

!lsb|f]g vf]nfkfl/ Ps ;f“em xfd|f] k|e' v|Li6n]

b'Mlvt x'“b} of] laGtL u/] -@_ To; af/Ldf cfºgf] nflu

;Defjgf eP of] Kofnf d b]lv tsf{O{lbg'xf];\, t}klg OR5f tkfO{sf] .

@;a}n] v|Li6nfO{ 5f8] ks8fO“bf pgL,

;fdgf u/L lgi7'/L dfdnf -@_ cbfntdf pgL Psn},

cflv/df o]z"nfO{ jxf“ b08–cf1f lbP ;a}n], a/Aaf d'Qm u/fOof] .

#k|e' qm";df 6f“luP rf]/ / 8fFs"sf] ;“u

kfksf] af]em / b'Mv ;x“b} -@_ unuyfdf /Qm axfP

ta pgn] eg], ca ;dfKt eof] d]/f] sfd, x] lktf, lngf];\ d]/f] k|f0f .

$hLjg v|Li6n] lbgnfO{ u/] d[To" ;fdgf

yfxf 5 s] ltdLnfO{ ;f] s'/f -@_ hL, hf] snj/Ldf ltd|f] nflu

kv{G5g\ cfh v|Li6 eGb} ltdLnfO{ dw'/ :j/}df cfpg kfpg]5f} hLjgdf .


110 x wgo lz s n c

110= x] wGo lz/ :s]n C

! x] wGo lz/ kljq, sf“8], d's'6, nf’sf],

b'Mvdo b[Zo Tof] s:tf], /ut au]sf],

ylst k|e'sf] d'vdf, dflg;n] y's]sf],

j}hgL j:q nufO{, lgufnf] lbPsf] .

@x] wGo k|e' o]z", 3[l0ft ltdL eof},

;+;f/sf] Joy{ 7fGof], bf]ifL g} 7x/fof],

d[To"sf] b08 ef]uL, k|f0f alnbfg lbof},

kfk sf/0f d]/}, d]/f] ltdLn] b'Mv ;xof}+ .

#wGo eGg' k|e'nfO{ zAb 5}g d]/f],

hlt b'Mv, ;+si6 d]/f] nflu ;xof}+,

k|fy{gf oxL xf] d]/f], nf} n]pm, ck{0f u5'{,

lgM:jfy{ ltd|f] k|]dsf], ho ho ;w}+ ufp“5' .


111 snj l ff fsf s n g

111= snj/L *fF*fsf] :s]nG

snj/L *fF*fsf] dxfb'Mv ;xg'k¥of] k|e'n]

  • dh:tf] kfkLnfO{ arfpg' q"m;}df k|f)f lbP

    != sltsf] lgGbf, sltsf] y's, sltsf] egfO ;x]/ -@_

    Tof] ux|f}+ q"m; af]s]/ unuyf k'¥ofP .

    @= l;kfxLx¿ ldn]/ o]z"nfO{ q"m;df r9fP -@_

    pg}sf] j:q k'msfO{ lr7\7f nufP .

    #= xft}df sfF6L, kfj}df sfF6L 7f]s] b'Zdgx¿n] -@_

    sf]vfdf efnf xfg]sf] ;x] k|e' o]z"n] .

    $= ha q"m;df r9fP o]z"sL dftf dl/od -@_

    ?Fb}–?Fb} cfOk'lug\ o]z"sf] 5]j}df .

    %= x] bfHo"–efO, x] lbbL–alxgL, kZrfQfk u/f}+ xfdLn] -@_

    lbg]5g\ xfdLnfO{ d'lQm k|e' o]z"n] .


112 xl of ff f s n g

112= xl/of] *fF*f :s]n G

!xl/of] 8f“8f Pp6f lyof] aflx/ zx/sf]

v|Li6 k|e' dfl/P xf] arfpg ;anfO{ xf] .

@;+s6, Sn]z ef]Ug'ef]’ s:tf] j0f{g 5 c;fWo]

ljZjf; u5f}{+ xfdL o:tf] xfd|}nflu ;x] .

#xfd|f] kfk Ifdf lbg' bfg k|f0f cfºgf] lbg'ef]’

kfcf];\ ;f/f hut\n] qf0f arfO{ /utn] hf] .

$5}g c¿ sf]xL tf/0fxf/ kfk ef/ lng] husf]

vf]N5g\ pgn] dfq} :ju{åf/ k|j]z lglDt ;asf] .

%k|]d slt ;fx|f] u/]5g\, xf]cf}+ p:t} Kof/ ug]{

pgdf u/ ljZjf; ;a} hg, u/f}+ sfd v'z kfg]{ .


113 b mlvt dflg s n c

113= b'Mlvt dflg;:s]n C

!æb'Mlvt dflg;Æ s:tf] gfd, o]z" 5f]8L :ju{nf]s

lt/] kfksf] d'lQm bfd, xNn]n"ofx, d'lQmbftf .

@ef]u] lgGbf nfh x}/fg, d]/f] ;f6f] lbP Hofg

/utåf/f Ifdfbfg, xNn]n"ofx, d'lQmbftf .

#bf]ifL, gLr, cgfy xfdL, aln O{Zjsf] pgL

k"/f d]n–ldnfk clg xNn]n"ofx, d'lQmbftf .

$qm";df dfl/Psf lyP, æca l;l4of]Æ s/fP

clg :ju{nf]s kms]{, xNn]n"ofx, d'lQmbftf .

%o]z" hudf km]l/ cfO{, 3/ k'¥ofpnfg\ xfdLnfO{

ta ufcf}+nf v"a /dfO{, xNn]n"ofx, d'lQmbftf .


114 slt crddsf s n d

114= slt crDdsf]:s]n D

slt crDdsf] Kof/, O{Zj/ ;[hgfxf/

:ju{sf] ;'vnfO{ Tofu]/ cfP kfkL argpg tof/ -@_

!g/ ¿k wf/0f u/]/ pgn] k|rf/] ;';dfrf/ -@_

kfkLsf] kfksf], b'Mvsf] p7fP pgn] ef/ -@_

cfZro{sd{ u/]/ pgn] b]vfP dlxdf ckf/ -@_

oL ;asf] abnL kfP pgn] qm";}sf] ux|f} ef/ -@_

@clGtd 38Ldf u]t;dgLdf r]nfu0f;“u eP -@_

lg/Gt/ k|fy{gf u/]/ pgn] kl;gf aufP -@_

x'g ;s] of] srf}/f db]lv x6fO b]pm egL -@_

t/} klg tkfO{sf] OR5f k"0f{ xj;\ eg] -@_

#o]z" ks8fO{ a/Aaf 5'8fOof], sxf“ lyof] of] Gofo -@_

j}hgL j:q nufP pgnfO{ qm";df r9fpgnfO{ -@_

n8\b} / k9\b} unuyf k'u] /f]dLsf] df/f vfO{ -@_

sli6t kLl8t k|e'n] cfºgf] k|f0f lbOxfn], xfO{ -@_


115 ckf k e s n g

115= ckf/ % k|e' :s]n G

ckf/ 5 k|e', k|]d snj/Lsf] j0f{g s;/L u/f}+ <

wGojfb vfln lbG5' tkfO{nfO{, c? d s] r9fpm“ <

!p4f/ ug{ d Ps kfkLsf], qm"; ef/L af]Sg' ef]’,

;dk{0f u/L cfb/, k|z+;f, luNnf g} /f]Hg' ef]’ .

@>flkt :yfg Tof] snj/Ldf, sf]xL lyPg k|e'sf]’

t} klg sqf] p2]Zo lyof], åf/ vf]Ng] d'lQmsf] .

#kfkL lknft'; clt g} lgi7'/, bf]ifL d]6\g rfxGYof],

rf]/ klg Toxf“ k|e' tkfO{sf] lgGbf g} ub{Yof] .


116 b v sf f s s n em

116= b]v]sf %f} s] :s]n Em

b]v]sf 5f}+ s] ltdLn] d]/f d'lQmbftfnfO{

;'g]sf 5f} s] ltdLn] pgsf] dw'/ jf0fLnfO{ -@_

!wdL{nfO{ t xf]Og t/, arfpg cfP kfkLnfO{,

d[To"b]lv kf/ tf/L, cgGt hLjg lbgnfO{ -@_

@xfdLnfO{ kL/ s] 5, r9] o]z" qm";df,

xft–खुट्टf em'l08P sf“6Lsf] ulx/f] rf]6;fy -@_

#lz/af6 aUof] /ut, plgof] efnf sf]vfdf,

lgbf]{if lyP k|e'hL, ;xg' lyof] xfd|f] kfk -@_


117 kfklsf nflu s n a

117= kfkLsf nflu :s]n A

kfkLsf nflu k|e'Ho" -@_ qm";}df aln eP

lgisn+s /ut axfO{ kfkLnfO{ d'lQm lbP -@_

!e'ln/x]5f} b'i6 of] hut\df bfO xf], 8'la/x]5f}+ k|ltlbg kfkdf

kfknfO{ n'sfO/fv]/ bfO xf], kfpg]5f} s;/L cd/ hLjg of] <

@kfksf af]emfn] nflbPsf xf] bfO xf], cfpm o]z"sxf“ lj>fd k|fKt ug{

bLg hgnfO{ pgn] dgdf r}g lbG5g\, O{Zj/sf k'q o]z"sf] s/f/ 5 -@_

#rf}8f g} xf] af6f] g/ss'08 k'Ug] bfO xf], ;f“3'/f] 5 dfu{ :ju{df k'Ug]

o]z" Ps dfq ;f“rf] af6f] x'g\ pg}n] s]jn :ju{ k'¥ofp“5g\ -@_

$latfO/x]5f} 5foft'No hLjg bfO xf], b'Mv, czflGt kfkn] e/k"/ of]

bLg eO{ pgsf] /utn] kfk wf]O dfu, ltdLn] t'?Gt} d'lQmbfg kfpg]5f} -@_


118 hffb g o z s n em

118= hfFb}%g\ o]z" :s]n Em

hf“b}5g\ o]z" snj/Llt/ ltd|f]–d]/f] kfksf] ef/L af]s]/

dfof s:tf], cg'u|x s:tf], gfk]/ gfKg} g;Sg]

!;x]/ kL/–dsf{, rf]6 sf]/f{sf] vf“b}

ef]s} / Kof;L agL, psfnL–cf]/fnL lx“8\b}

qm";sf] ef/L af]s]/ na{l/b}+, wkm{l/b}+

hf“b}5g\ lhp“bf] aln eP/ .

@y'sfO / lgGbf ;x“b}, luNnf / d'Ssf vf“b}

cGtdf em'08fP qm";df, au] /utsf] wf/f

ltd|f]–d]/f] kfk w'gnfO{ dfkmL dflulbP lktfnfO{ .


119 k e o z v li sf s n f g

119= k|e' o]z" v|Li^sf] :s]nF/G

k|e' o]z" v|Li6sf] cgdf]n /ut d'6'df ;'?? -@_

pxfFsf] dfof gla;{ a}gL, -dg ?G5 w'??_ -@_

!= d, ltdL, xfdL ;a}sf] nflu cfºgf] k'q lbPsf] -@_

Tofu]sf] k|f0f ;Demgf /fvf}+, /utn] n]v]sf] .

@= /utsf] wf/f cfnf] 5 a}gL, unuyf kxf8df -@_

ltd|f] / d]/f] lglDtdf u'y]F sfF8f Tof] lz/df .

#= af]s]sf] lyP bogLo q"m;, dgdf u'gg -@_

Xbodf clÍt k|e'sf] b]g, ltdLn] ;Demg .

$= ge'nf}+ a}gL si6sf] 3'6sf] o]z"n] lkPsf] -@_

;a}df lyof] p4f/ pgsf] k|f0fbfg lbPdf .

%= k|e'sf u'0f gd| / bLg, d'6'df ufF;f}g -@_

Hof]ltsf ;Gtfg ag]/ lkm/f}+ af]s]/ af;gf .


120 cfh lhop s n c

120= cfh lhOp&] :s]n C

!cfh lhOp7] o]z" g}, x=== Nn]n"ofx, xfd|f] a8f lbgdf, ho x=== Nn]n"ofx,

h;n] qm";df lbP k|f0f, x=== Nn]n"ofx, xfd|f]nflu u/] qf0f, x=== Nn]n"ofx

@ufcf}+ wGojfbsf] ufg, x=== Nn]n"ofx, :ju{sf] /fhf v|Li6sf] dfg, x===

qm"; lrxfgsf] af]s] ef/, x=== Nn]n"ofx, pgsf] af6f] 5 p4f/, x===

#;x] pgn] b'Mv g}, x=== Nn]n"ofx, dnfO{ d'lQm lbgnfO{, x=== Nn]n"ofx

ca :ju{df /fhf eO{, x=== Nn]n"ofx, b"tn] ufp“5g\ pgsf] ho, x===


121 k e v li s n c

121= k|e' v|Li^:s]n C

!k|e' v|Li6 lhOp7] g} b"t / dfG5] eGb5g\

:ju{]b"t / dfG5] hft ;an] xNn]n"ofx eg

k|]dsf] qf0fsf sfd l;l4P, k|e' ljhoL eP

km]l/ db}{gg k|e' xfd|f] zf]ssf lbg lat] .

@kx/f, 9'·f 5fk Joy{ ef]’, g/ssf] b}nf] kmf]l/of]

d[To"n] Joy}{ v|Li6 /f]Sof], v|Li6n] :ju{sf] åf/ vf]n] .

qf0fsf] nflu dg'{ef]’, hojGt /fhf 5g\ lhp“bf

d[To" sxf“ 5 lvn t]/f], lrxfg sxf“ ho t]/f] <

#cfºgf] hojGt k|e'nfO{ k5ofp“b}–k5ofp“b} hfcf}+

xfdL v|Li6em}+ agfOof}+, pgLh:t} p7\g] 5f}+

hu / :ju{ xfd|f] ef]’, :ju{b"t / dfG5] xf]

b'j} nf]ssf] :jfdLsf] ho ho ufcf}+ ;w}+sf]


122 af l p k e s n f d

122= af}/L p&] k|e' :s]n F(D)

af}/L p7] k|e' xfd|f], ho ho ufpm“ pgsf]

z}tfgdfly hojGt x'“bf p4f/ ef]’ ;asf]

!d[To" aGwg tf]8L pgn] hut\ p4f/ u/fP -@_

xfd|f] kfksf] bfu d]6fpg -@_ qm";df k|f0f Tofu] -@_

;fgf–7"nf hut\ ;anfO{ pgn] arfP .

@t];|f] lbgdf af}/L p7\bf pgsf zq' nhfP -@_

cljZjf;L ljZjf; ub}{ -@_ pgsf kfp k/] -@_

;To–p4f/s o]z" eGb} ufp“–7fp“ ;'gfP .

#O{Zj/ k|]dL k'q lbg], s] r9fpg] pg}nfO{ -@_

;+;f/ pgs}, :ju{ pgs}, -@_ ;f/f ;[li6 g} -@_

wGojfb r9fp“m xfdL ;an] r"0f{ / bLg dg eO{ .


123 lrxgleq lyp s n a

123= lrxgleq lyP:s]n A

!lrxfgleq lyP v|Li6 k|e' d]/f, ;do k"/f] x'g klv{/x]y]

lrxfgb]lv v|Li6 p7], hosf] Wjlg;“u v|Li6 p7]

cGwsf/sf] /fHonfO{ x6fO{sg Hof]ltdf /fh ug{ ;Gtx/;“u

v|Li6 p7], v|Li6 p7], xNn]n"ofx v|Li6sf] ho

@9'·fdf 5fk nufO{, kx/f /fv] Joy}{df lrxfgnfO{ /Iff u/]

#d[To"n] ;s]g /f]Sg k|e'nfO{, af}/L p7] o]z", hojGt eO{


124 cfpm cfpm s n d

124= cfpm cfpm, :s]n D

cfpm–cfpm, bfHo"–efO, ldnLh'nL ufcf}+ -@_

!o]z" d'lQmbftfn] d[To" ho u/],

cfpm–cfpm, ;a} efO, cfgGb dgfcf}+ .

@z}tfgdfly hojGt eO{ km]l/ lhOp7],

cfpm–cfpm, efO–alxgL, pgs} ho dgfcf}+ .

#d[To"–aGwg tf]l8sg ;anfO{ arfP

cfpm–cfpm, v|Li6Lo efO, hohosf/ dgfcf}+ .

$tLg} lbgdf af}/L p7], zq' nhfP

cfpm–cfpm, Kof/f efO, hosf] zAb ;'gfcf}+ .

%ljZjf; u/L sDd/ s;L v|Li6s} kl5 hfcf}+

cfpm–cfpm, lk|o alxgL, pg}nfO{ k5ofcf}+ .

^k|]dL O{Zj/ k'q lbg] pgs} u'0f ufcf}+

efO–alxgL ;a ldnL wGojfb r9fcf}+ .


125 ho xf tkfo sf s n d

125= ho xf];\ tkfO{+sf] :s]n D

!ho xf];\ tkfO{sf], o]z" uf}/jdo kfpg'ef]’

cgGt d[To'df ljho rlDsnf] :ju{b"tn] 9'·f kN6fP ,

hxf“ tkfO+sf] nfz lyof], sfqf] dfq lyof].

sf]M ho xf];\ tkfO{sf],o]z" uf}/jdo kfpg'ef]’ cgGt d[To'df ljho

@nf} lhp“bf] o]z" lrxfgb]lv cfO{ kfk / b'Mv

d]6fp“5g\ e]6L xfdLnfO{ v|Li6Lo d08nL u/f];\ k|e'sf] ho

ho,xl6uof] ;anfO{ d[To' sfnsf] eo .

#k"/f] e/f];f /fV5f}+, t/0fxf/ x] k|tfkL k|e' lbg'xf];\ uf]xf/

hojGteGbf hojGt xfdL ;a agf}+ d[To' vf]nf

t/L :ju{nf]s k;f}+ .


126 d lhpfbf d lqmbftfsf s n g

126= d lhpFbf] d'lQmbftfsf]:s]n G

!d lhp“bf] d'lQmbftfsf] ;]jf ub{5' o]z" ;+;f/df 5g\ eg]/ hfGb5'

d b]V5' pgsf] bof d ;'G5' pgsf] :j/ / ;fydf a:g] o]z" u5{g\ uf]xf/ .

sf]M lhp“bf], lhp“bf] 5g\, o]z" v|Li6 lhp“bf]

xf];\ cu'jfO lbG5g\ dnfO{ / ;·lt dL7f]

lhp“bf], lhp“bf] ptfg{ kfkb]lv

d s;/L lgZro hfGb5' dgd} lhp“5g\ pgL

@d rf/}lt/ x]/L Kof/ pgsf] b]Vb5' b'Mv k/] klg cfzf d u5'{

o; nf]ssf] cf“wL ;fu/df x'G5g\ cu'jf,

cfpg]5g\ km]l/ o]z" v|Li6 cGTodf .

#/dfpm–/dfpm ljZjf;L uLtdf u/L k|rf/,

v|Li6 dxf/fhfnfO{ xf];\ cgGt hohosf/

x/ vf]Hg] hgsf] nIo e]ट्टfpg] hgsf] cf8,

v|Li6 dfq u5{g enf] p4f/ / Kof/ .


127 ufcf ufcf ho s n g

127= ufcf}+ ufcf}+ ho:s]n G

ufcf}+–ufcf}+ ho uLt, ufcf}+ tfnL ahfP/ ufcf}+ -@_

o]z" /fhf af}/L p7] xNn]n"ofx, /dfP/ ;'gfpm ;dfrf/ -@_

!lrxfgdf lyof] Tof] 7"nf] 9'·f, x6\of] x]/ s;/L Tof] -@_

/f]dL /fHosf] df]x/, aGwg /fVg ;Sb}g Psnf}t] k'q O{Zj/sf] .

@g/f]pm–g/f]pm, ljnfk gu/, ufnLndf b]pm ;dfrf/ -@_

ls v|Li6 af}/L p7] jrgcg';f/ t'?Gt ;'gfpm of] k|rf/ .

#xGgf s}kmf k"/f Gofosf] ;ef 8/n] eP Jofs'n -@_

cGwsf/sf] zlQm gi6 x'gfn] ;fx|f] cflQof] z}tfg .

#ljZjf;Lx¿ lz/nfO{ pef] p7fcf}+ cfp“b}5g\ dxf/fhf -@_

g/l;+uf, l;tf/ / tanf ahfcf}+, k'sf/f}+ xNn]n"ofx .


128 cfhsf lbg s n g

128= cfhsf] lbg :s]n G

!cfhsf] lbg v'zL dgcf}+ ;a}n], xfd|f] k|e' d'lQmbftf km]l/ lhOp7] -@_

cfhsf] lbg el/of];\ v'zLn] ;+;f/ -@_

xfd|f] k|e' d'lQmbftf km]l/ lhOp7] -@_

@qm";df xfd|f]nflu lbP v|Li6n] k|f0f, cfºgf] /utsf] af6f]n] lsg xfd|f] k|f0f -@_

v|Li6nfO{ wGojfb r9fcf}+ dgn] hoho ufcf}+ -@_

cfºgf] /utsf] af6f]n] lsg xfd|f] k|f0f -@_

#hfGg'k5{ dgdf xfdL ;a}n], xfdL klg af}/L p7\5f}+ cGtsf] lbgdf -@_

clxn] k|e' o]z" 5g\ ;bf /xG5g\ -@_

xfdL klg af}/L p7\5f}+, cGtsf] lbgdf -@_

$xfdL kfkLx¿nfO{ pgn] lbP ;'v, wGo O{Zj/sf k'q :ju{sf] /fhfnfO{ -@_

k|e' cfp“5g\ Pslbg tof/ a; ;bf -@_

wGo O{Zj/sf k'q :ju{sf] /fhfnfO{ -@_


129 g x g s n g

129= ;'g x} ;'g :s]nG

;'g x} ;'g, of] va/ l5d]sL bfHo" efO,

af}/L p7] o]z" xfd|f hLt xfd|} ef]

!= o]z" xfd|f slt Kof/f q"m;df uO{ dg'{ef]

t];|f] lbgdf afFr]/ pgn] wd{ ;fFRg'ef] .

@= lz/ e'mSof] z}tfg / e"m6f] ;fIfL af]Ng]sf]

cfb/, k|z+;f, dlxdf a9Øf] xfd|f] o]z"sf] .

#= cfpm ;a} cljZjf;L bf]wf/}df k/]sf

af6f], ;To, hLjg ldN5 xfd|f] o]z"df .


130 af l p g epsf s n d7

130= af}/L p&\g'ePsf]:s]n D7

af}/L p7\g'ePsf] k|e'nfO{ hLjg e]6L r9fp“5'

k'g?Tyfg / hLjg k|e' xf] eg]/ ljZjf; u5'{

!xfd|f] kfksf] nflu k|e' qm";df 6f“lug'ef]’

jrg cg';f/ t];|f] lbgdf af}/L p7\g'eof] .

ca pk|fGt k|e' o]z"nfO{ qm";df gx]/f}+

lhp“bfnfO{ d'bf{x¿sf] aLrdf ca gvf]hf}+ .

@rf]/em}+ g} cfpg] k|lt1f 5f8L k|e' hfg'ef]’

k|fy{gf ub}{ hflu/xg] ;Nnfx lbg'eof] .

Hof]lt hLjgsf] ckgfpgnfO{ pxf“df /xg'5,

;+;f/sf] ;'v–zflGtnfO{ xf]Og, k|e'nfO{ x]g'{5 .


131 ho ho ho s n d

131= ho ho ho :s]n D

!ho ho ho ho o]z"n] lbG5g\ -@_

k"/f] d'lQm, o]z"n] dnfO{ l;Ty} lbG5g\ -@_

@ho ho ho ho o]z" cfpg]5g\ -@_

ltdLnfO{ lng, dnfO{ lng l5ट्टै cfpg]5g\ -@_

#ho ho ho ho o]z"n] lbG5g\ -@_

k"/f] d'lQm o]z"n] dnfO{ l;Ty} lbG5g\ -@_


132 nf o z cfpf g s n g

132= nf} o]z" cfpF%g\:s]n G

!nf} o]z" cfp“5g\ afbndf cf]nL{, Tofu] qf0fsf] nflu k|f0f

af6f]df pgsf nfvf}F ljZjf;L ldnL u5{g\ :t'lt, dfg

ufpm xNn]n"ofx -#_ hudf cfO{ /fHo unf{g\ .

@cf“vfn] x/]s x]g]{5 v|Li6nfO{, :juL{o u2L a;]]sf]

h;h;n] pgnfO{ y's] luHofO{, qm";df xft kfp 5]8\g] hf]

unf{g\ lanf}gf -#_ b]Vbf d;LxnfO{ ;f“rf] .

#cfldg ;gftg :juL{o qftf ho, tkfO{+sf] ;bf xf];\

k/fqmd dlxdf lnO{ d'lQmbftf hudf /fHo ug'{xf];\

l5ट्टf] cfpgf];\ -#_ xNn]n"ofx, o:t} xf];\ .


133 ha cfpnfg s n c

133= ha cfpnfg\ :s]n C

!ha cfpnfg\, ha cfpnfg\ lgh xL/f a6'Ng

;a} xL/f, d"No xL/f o]z"sf g} x'g\

h:tf tf/f laxfgsf] rDsb} /xb}

o:t} log} rDsG5g\ v|Li6sf] d's'6df .

@tL a6'N5g\, tL a6'N5g\ :ju{ /fHosf ;a xL/f

hlt /fd|f / rlDsnf o]z"sf g} x'g\

h:tf tf/f laxfgsf] rDsb} /xb}

o:t} log} rDsG5g\ v|Li6sf] d's'6df .

#g/–gf/L, s]6f–s]6L v|Li6;“u k|]d ug]{

xL/f log}, xL/f Kof/} o]z"sf g} x'g\

h:tf tf/f laxfgsf] rDsb} /xb}

o:t} log} rDsG5g\ v|Li6sf] d's'6df .


134 o z rff cfpg x g s n g

134= o]z" rfF*} cfpg'x'G% :s]n G

!o]z" rf8} cfpg'x'G5, afbndf, ox"bLx¿ cfp“b}5g\ To;a]nf -#_

t'/xL km'lshfg]5, To;a]nf -#_, kfkLx¿ s] ug]{5g\ To;a]nf -#_

@ljZjf;L d'bf{ p7\g]5g\ -#_, dlxdfsf] z/L/ x'G5 -#_

b'Mv z'¿ x'G5, ;+;f/df -#_, xfjfdf d08nL hfg]5g\ -#_

#;a} eQm e]6 x'g]5g\ -#_, :juL{o d's'6 kfpg]5g\ -#_

y'dfsf] ehg x'g]5 -#_, cf“z' ;a} k'l5lbg]5g\ -#_

$o]z"nfO{ b08jt\ ug]{5g\ -#_, hohosf/sf] Wjlg x'G5 -#_

h}t"gdf o]z" cfpg]5g\ -#_, o]z"n] /fHo ug]{5g\ -#_

%cflv/ Gofo x'g]5 -#_, kfkL cfuf]df hfg]5g\ -#_

ltdL s] x'g dfU5f}+ -#_, kZrftfk ul/xfn -#_

^gof“ :ju{ / gof“ k[YjL -#_, h;df a]x'nf–a]x'nL a:5g\ -#_

d[To", zf]s, si6 x'b}g -#_, z}tfg km]l/ x'g]5}g -#_

&= O{Zj/ ;adf x'g'x'G5 -#_, xNn]n"ofx ;an] eG5g\ -#_

;w}+ cfglGbt x'g]5g\ -#_, ;a} hg tof/L xf]pm -#_


135 kffr fgl s n g

135= kfFr} !fgL :s]n G

!kfFr} 1fgL, kfFr} d"v{ sGof tof/ eP, k|e' e]6\g hfgnfO{ .

j:q nfP lemnLldnL l;·f/–k6f/ kf/], k|e' e]6\g hfgnfO{ .

@x'??? /f“sf] afnL xf“:b}–v]Nb} k'u], k|e' e]6\g hfgnfO{ .

b'nxf cfpg' l9nf] x'“bf, ;a} p3], ;'t], k|e' e]6\g hfgnfO{ .

#la;]{ d"v{ s'df/Ln] kmfNt' t]n} lng', k|e' e]6\g hfgnfO{ .

t]n} ;Sof], /f“sf] lge], yfn] ;a} dfUg, k|e' e]6\g hfgnfO{ .

$1fgLx¿ eGg nfu], hfpm l5ट्टै lsGg, k|e' e]6\g hfgnfO{ .

xtf/ nfpg, l5ट्टै dfUg, bf}8L–bf}8L cfpg, k|e' e]6\g hfgnfO{ .

%ha uP lsGg egL ta cfP b'nxf, k|e' e]6\g hfgnfO{ .

1fgL s'df/L /f“sf] ;RofO{ ho ho u/] xNnf, k|e' e]6\g hfgnfO{ .

^ha k'u] /fhdxndf 9f]sf–b}nf ;a aGb, k|e' e]6\g hfgnfO{ .

kx/f rf}sL rf/}klट्ट cfpg' x'Gg sf]xL hg, k|e' e]6\g hfgnfO{ .

&d"v{ s'df/L ?b} eG5g\ vf]n–vf]n 9f]sf, k|e' e]6\g hfgnfO{ .

t]n} Nofof}+, /f“sf], Nofof}+ e]6L, Nofof}+ kf]sf, k|e' e]6\g hfgnfO{ .

*leqaf6 ;f]Wb} eG5g\, sf] xf}, lsg cfof}+ < k|e' e]6\g hfgnfO{ .

b'nxf cfp“5g\ hfGb}lyof}, sxf“ x/fO/x\of}, k|e' e]6\g hfgnfO{ .

(o:t} v|Li6n] eG5g\, hfu ehL d]/f] gfp“, k|e' e]6\g hfgnfO{ .

kZrftfkL Xbo laGtL ;w}+ ;'Gg kfpm“, k|e' e]6\g hfgnfO{ .


136 jul o dlxdfdf s n a

136= :juL{o dlxdfdf:s]n A

sf]M :juL{o dlxdfdf, rlDsnf] j:qdf, k|e' cfpg]5g\ ;+;f/df afbnsf] ;jf/Ldf -@_

!cGtsf] lrGx b]Vg]5f}+, k|e'sf] cfudgdf, b'Mv, n8fO“, clgsfn x'g]5g\ ;+;f/df

kfk, b'Mv Hofbf a9\g]5g\ ;f/f ljZje/df, lgZro g} k|e' cfpg]5g\ t'/xLsf] ;f]/df .

@dftfsf] ue{af6 g} dflg; kfkdf hGdG5g\, b'i6, 5nL, kfkL Xbo ePsf ;a} x'G5g\,

Xbosf /f]u oL g} x'g\ M

rf]/L, xTof, Jolerf/, s'b[li6, lgGbf, b'i6tf, nf]e, 8fxf, s'ljrf/ .

#o:tf l3gnfUbf kfk lnO{ :ju{ k:g ;Sb}g,

bfg, k'08, k|fy{gf u/]/ z'4 x'g ;Sg]5}g,

o]z"n] cfkm\gf] k|f0f lbP kfkLx¿ Arfpg,

qm";}df /ut aufP l3gnfUbf kfknfO{ w'g .

$hLjg dflg;sf] s] 5 / knsdf k|f0f lg:sG5,

s'6'Da, wg–;DklQ 5f]8L g/sdf kg{ hfG5g\,

lsg g/sdf kb{5f} < v|Li6 tof/ 5g\ arfpg,

kfk–dfu{b]lv kms{, cfpm ljZjf; u/L d'lQm n]pm .


137 o z rff k ml s n c a

137= o]z" rfF*} k]ml/ :s]n C(A)

o]z" rf“8} km]l/ cfpg]5g\, ;To O{Zj/sf] of] jf0fL 5,

pgsf] cjfO cf} cGtsf lrGx, Ps–Ps u/L k"/f x'“b}5g\,

o]z" rf“8} km]l/ cfpg]5g\

!kfk, b'Mv cf} ;+si6 al9/x]5g\, n8fO{, xnrn hut\df eO/x]5g\

hflt–hfltsf] lj?4df p7\g]5g\, /fHo–/fHosf] lj?4df p7\g]5g\ .

@ljgfzs e'O“rfnf 7fp“–7fp“ hfg]5g\, ?9L, clgsfn ;+;f/df x'g]5g\,

cfsfzdf 8/nfUbf nIf0f x'g]5g\, pb]ssf dxfg\ lrGx b]lvg]5g\ .

#v|Li6 o]z" lah'nL em}F :ju{af6, ljZjf;LnfO{ p7fpg cf]n{g]5g\,

xfdL /Qmn] lslgPsf pgL;fy /xL, xhf/ jif{;Dd /fHo ug]{5f}+ .

$kZrftfk u/L k|e' o]z"dfly, ljZjf; u/L /utn] ;a kfk wf]O{ dfu

k/d]Zj/sf wfld{s ;To /fHodf, k|j]z ug{nfO{ cfh g} tof/ xf]pm .


138 rff cfpg g sf c

138= rfF*} cfpg]%g\ sf]*{C

rfF*} cfpg]%g\ o]z" /fhf -2_

:juL{o b"tu)f ;fydf lnO{, afbnsf] ;jf/Ldf cfp]%g\

xNn]n"ofx -4_ d]/f] o]z" /fhf k]ml/ cfpg]%g\

!= ;fgf–;fgf df]tL ;anfO{ a]rL c;n df]tLnfO{ lsg]h:tf]

ljZjf; ug]{ x/]s ;anfO{ :juL{o /fHo klg x'G5 o:tf] .

@= n'lsPsf] uf8\wgnfO{ e]6L cfºgf] ;f/f e"ld a]r]h:tf]

lsGg]nfO{ Tof ax'd"No e"ld :juL{o /fHo klg x'G5 o:tf] .


139 o z v li s n f d

139= o]z" v|Li^:s]n F(D)

o]z" v|Li6 ca rf“8} cfpg]5g\, lrGx ;a} k"/f x'b}5g\

-dflg; kfk / 1fgåf/f cGwf agL k|e'b]lv 6f9f eO/xg]5g\_ @

!-;a dflg; kfk}n] el/Psf 5g\ kfk}df al9/x]5g\_ @

-kfks} sf/0fn] gfz Pslbg x'G5g\_ @ -cgGt d[To" / b08 ef]Ug]5g\_ @

@-ha k|e' cfsfzdf k|s6 x'g]5g\ Ps cb\e't 36gf 36\g]5_ @

-tof/ ljZjf;L ;a p7fOG5g\_ @ -d"v{, nfkjfx ;a 5f]l8Og]5g\_ @

#-;+;f/sf] dfofdf 8'Abf–8'Ab} g} d[To"n] r'8L n}hfG5_ @

-dgn] rfx]sf] ;a lrh 5f]l8G5g\_ @ -l/Q} xft lnO{ d[To"–3f6 t5{g\_ @

$-s] ltdL rfxG5f} ;DklQ, ;fdfg < :juL{o Jofsdf /fVg yfn_ @

-k/b]zL xf} ltdL sfnf] ;+;f/df_ @ -:jb]znfO{ ;DemL ;+2if{ u/_ @

%-g;Dem cfkm"nfO{ oxL ;+;f/sf], ;ts{ agL cnu /xL_ @

-gq o; ;+;f/;“u} Gofodf k5f}{+_ @ -cgGt–cgGt;Dd bfx|f ls6\g]5f}+_ @


140 cl a s n c

140= cl# a( :s]n C

cl3 a9, v|Li6Lo hjfg xf]

;donfO{ gkv{ efO xf], -xfd|f b'nxf cfp“b}5g\_ @

!clGtd lrGx b]lvb}5, eljiojf0fL k"/f x'b}5 -@_

;f+;fl/s hLjgnfO{ TofuL cfpm k|e'df gof“ eO{ -@_

@hLjg k|e'df ck{0f u/L ;Dk"0f{ jrg kfng u/L -@_

k|e'sf] of] qm"; p7fO{ cl3 a9 pgdf eO{ -@_

#hojGt hLjg latfp“b} hfpm k|e'sf] sfddf Jo:t eO{ -@_

pgdf ;bf cfzf /fVb} a9 cem ylst geO{ -@_


141 d f dlt o z s n b a

141= d]/f] dLt o]z" :s]n B(A)

-d]/f] dLt o]z" dlxldt afbndf dnfO{ lngnfO{ cfp“b}5g\_ @

-;gO{sf] ;f]/n] k[YjL 9fsL dnfO{ lngnfO{ cfp“b}5g\_ @

!-lg/fz–lg/fz ¿kx¿df d':sfgsf] 5lj emNsg]5_ @

-t'/xLsf] ;f]/x¿ ;[li6el/ ul~hg]5g\_ @

@-b'Mv / Joyf af]s]sf] ;[li6 t'/xLsf] nodf ufpg]5_ @

-b'Mvsf] ;fu/ ag]sf] d'xf/df xf“;f]sf] /]vf b]lvg]5_ @

#-;a} cf“vfn] b]Vg]5g\, ;a} sfgn] ;'Gg]5g\_ @

-t/ o]z"df hf] hLljt 5g\, dlxldt afbndf k'Ug]5g\_ @


142 cfk mgf cftdfn x o z s n f g

142= cfk\mgf] cfTdfn] x] o]z" :s]nF/G

!= k|e' tkfO{+kट्टि x]5f}{+ ca k|fy{gf ;'Gg'xf];\

h:tf] k]lGtsf];df eof] k]ml/ cfTdf vGofOof];\ .

cfk\mgf] cfTdfn] x] o]z", xfdL Kof;fnfO{

lkofpg'xf];\ ca xfd|f] dgdf cfk\mgf] OR%f k"/f ug'{xf];\ .

@= cfºgf] cfuf] xfd|f] dgdf vGofO{ ;fkm ug'{xf];\

;a} sf7 / v/ / k/fn cfuf]n] gfz ug'{xf];\ .

#= nf]e / 3d08 cfºgf] x'G5 dgaf6 lgsfNg'xf];\

o;sf] kl5 xfd|f] Xbo dlGb/ x'G5 tkfO{+sf] .

$= xfdLdf 5fk cfºgf] nufP/ zlQmdfg\ agfpg'xf];\

cfºgf] dlGb/df x] k|e', cflTds zAb ;'gfpg'xf];\ .

%= cflTds j/bfg xfdLnfO{ lbO{ xfdL;Fu a:g'xf];\

/f]uLx¿ lgsf] xf]pmg\ ;anfO{ 5'6sf/f lbg'xf];\ .

^= wGojfb / xNn]n"ofx xfd|f] ljGtL ;'Gg'xf];\

cem w]/} ug'{x'G5 cfldg, cfldg, o:t} xf];\ .


143 kljq cftdf s n g

143= kljq cfTdf :s]n G

!kljq cfTdf, cfpg'xf];\ t'Nofpg d]/f] dg lgbf]{if

xf]O/xg Hof]lt, cu'jf rnfpg ;f]r, aft, a]xf]/f .

@b]vfpg' Hof]ltsf] ;Totf / lx8“" b]vfOPsf] em}+

nufpg" d]/f] dgdf 8/, d lx8"“ cf1fsf] cg';f/ .

#;w}+ kfkb]lv /fVg" b"/, ?·]/ k"/fk"/

lnOlxF8\g' O{Zj/ eP 7fp“, d pgsf] cf8df lj>fd kfpm“ .

$lnOlxF8\g' kljqtfdf, d a:g kfpm“ O{Zj/sxf“

lnOlxF8\g' jrgsf] cG;f/, d l;s" pgsf] 1fg ckf/ .

%lnOlxF8\g' u/L pksf/, d kfpm“ vf“rf]sf] uf]xf/

lnOlxF8\g' cfkm"sxf“ dnfO{, cg'u|x lxtsf d"n tkfO{ .


144 v li o z s n c

144= v|Li^ o]z":s]n C

!v|Li6 o]z" hut\ 5f]8\bfdf lbOuP labf eO{

Ps zflGtbftf cu'jf ;fy} a:gnfO{ .

@;a lrGtf pgn] yfDb5g\, b'/ ub{5g\ ;a 8/

/ :ju{sf s'/f af]Nb5g\ hLjg cd/ .

#/ xfd|f] enfO hlt ef]’ / xfd|f] ;a} ho

/ ;f]r lktfsf] s'/fsf] x'g\ pg}s} .

$x] cfTdf ;a cg'u|xsf, xf];\ b[li6 bofsf]

/ xfd|f] cof]Uo Xbodf jf; tkfO{sf] .

%xf];\ lktf k'qsf] a9fO, xf];\ klg cfTdfsf]

xf];\ :t'lt dlxdf tLgnfO{, hf] Ps} x'g\ .


145 kljq cftdf s n f d

145= kljq cfTdf :s]n F(D)

!kljq cfTdf cu'jf, ;w}+ a:g'xf];\ ;fydf

oxf“ k/b]zL hf] 5', nf} 8f]¥ofpg'xf];\, k|e'

ylst k|f0f /dfpg]5 ;f]/ tkfO{+sf] ;'g]/

o;f] eGb} u/]sf], cfOh tFnfO{ 8f]¥ofp“5' .

@;fydf a:g'xf];\, ;w}+ uf]xf/ lbO/xg] tkfO{+

cGwsf/sf] dfemd} k|e' g5f]8\gf];\ dnfO{

ha cf“wL rNb5, ha ;fgf] x'G5 dg

eGg' xj;\ lj:tf/}, cfOh 8f]¥ofp“5' tFnfO{ .

#d]/f] a]nf cfOk'Ubf hfg] tkfO+{5]p jxf“

ha :ju{nfO{ ;DemG5' cfzf ub}{ Ogfdsf]

a;Lsg of] 7fp“d} x]5'{ ha tkfO{+nfO{

eGg' xj;\ la:tf/}, cfOh 8f]¥ofp“5' tFnfO{ .


146 x kljqqftdf s n g

146= x] kljqqfTdf :s]n G

!x] kljqfTdf, Xbodf kmnfpgf];\ cfºgf] kmn

x] efjLjQmfsf] k|]/0ff, hLjg / k|]dsf] d"n .

@x] kljqfTdf, h;b]lv af]Ny] efjLjQmf

/x:o a'µg kfcf}+ egL vf]lnlbg'xf];\ tfNrf .

#x] :juL{o 9's'/, hudfly km}nfpgf];\ kv]6f

xfd|f] ;f+;fl/s /ft x6fO{ pHofnf] xf];\ cfTdf

$ha O{Zj/–cfTdf dgdf cfO{ km}nfp“b5g\ Hof]lt

ta cfkm}åf/f O{Zj/nfO{ lrgf}+nf ;a xfdL .


147 o zj oxff s n c

147= O{Zj/ oxfF:s]n C

!O{Zj/ oxf“ pkl:yt 5f}+ cflzif\ clxn] lbgnfO{

d]3n] x]/, 3]b}{ cfof], OR5f k"/f xf];\ ltd|} .

xfdL :ju]{ alKt;df dfU5f}+ 3g3f]/ j[li6 u/

lk|o o]z" kv{b} 5f}+ dg hufpm oxL kx/

@cg'ej ef]’ pkl:yt 5f}+, e}’ uf] kljq e"le

t/ cem} a9\tf dfU5f}+, cfpm dgdf o;3/L .

#pkl:yt 5 ca laGtL 5, Nofp“b}5f} ca ljZjf;nfO{

cfTdf cfh hnfpm dgdf, clxn] cfºgf] xft a9fO{ .

$Kof/l;t Xbo ca b]Vb5f}, clxn] vf]n e08f/nfO{

Pp6f u/fpm j[li6 7"nf], cflzif\ clxn] b]pm k7fO{ .


148 dfrf k mnfcf s n a

148= ;';dfrf/ k}mnfcf}+ :s]n A

!;';dfrf/ km}nfcf}+, hxf“ klg kfp“b5f}+

b'Mlvt, kLl8t dflg;nfO{ / kfkn] ba]sf

v'zLsf] of] va/, k|To]sn] k|rf/ u/f}+, cfTdf cfPsf 5g\ .

cfTdf cfPsf 5g\ dgdf xfd|f], gof“ 5 hf] sxf{/ lktfsf] Xbodf

v8f 5, v'zLsf] va/ b]pm hxf“ klg hf“b5f}+, cfTdf cfPsf 5g\

@cGwsf/sf] /ft ;Sof], pHofnf] lbg eof]

eof] ljnfk 6f9f v|Li6sf] cg'u|xdf

kxf8 d}bfg sxL+ Hof]lt, clt rDsfO{ cfTdf cfPsf 5g\ .


149 fv d v li sf s n g

149= /fV%' d v|Li^sf] :s]n G

!/fV5' d v|Li6sf] jrgdf ljZjf;, pgsf] >]i7 gfddf lgTo dlxdf xf];\

d]/f] uLt 5 ;bf pgsf] :t'lt xf];\, /fV5' v|Li6sf] jrgdf ljZjf; .

/fV5', /fV5', /fV5' v|Li6sf] k|lt1fdfly e/f];f

/fV5', /fV5', d /fV5' pgsf] jrgdf ljZjf;

@5 ljZjf; To; jrgdf hf] 6Nb}g, ha låljwf / eosf] af9 p7\5 .

pgsf] hLljt jrgn] lhTg]5' d, /fV5' v|Li6sf] jrgdf ljZjf; .

#ljZjf; u/L jrgdf d b]Vb5', kfknfO{ wf]Olbg] /ut o]z"sf]

v|Li6n] lbPsf] 5'6sf/f uLt ufp“5', /fV5' v|Li6sf] jrgdf ljZjf; .


150 hljgsf tof f l s n c

150= hLjgsf] Tof] /f]^L :s]n C

!hLjgsf] Tof] /f]6L ef“r]/ b]pm, h;/L ef“Rg'ef]’ ;d'b|5]p

kljq k':tsdf vf]h ub{5', 5' vf]hL tkfO{+s}, x] k|f0f k|e' .

@hLjgsf] Tof] /f]6L dnfO{ h'/f];\,

tkfO+{sf] Tof] jrg dgdf a;f];\

/ ;'w|f];\ d]/f] dg, x'“ k/:jfyL{, ;a d]/f] a]xf]/f tkfO{+dfly .

#Tof] jrg vf]lnb]pm, d b]Vg kfpm“,

Tof] jrg vf]lnb]pm, d a'µg kfpm“

tkfO{+sf] ;·tdf ;“u} lxF8\b}, ddf tkfO{+sf] ¿k k|sfz x'Fb} .

$k|e' ;To cjtf/, cfzL{jfb b]pm, h;/L /f]6Ldf ufnLnsf] 5]p

ta aGwg 5'6\nf ;f“unf] ef“rL, zflGt ta kfpFmnf ;To zflGt .


151 x k ddo k e s n g

151= x] k|]ddo k|e' :s]n G

!x] k|]ddo k|e', tkfO+{sf] jfSo -cd[tt'No 5_ @ k|e', cd[tt'No 5

;'g]/ k|]ddo tkfO+{sf] jfSo -k|f0f d]/f] /xG5_ @ k|e', k|f0f d]/f] /xG5 .

@3f]/ cGwsf/df dfu{ / Hof]lt -tkfO{+sf] jfSo 5_ @ k|e', tkfO{sf] jfSo 5

5 eg] s]xL z+sf olb -tkfO{+;fy 5g\ o]z"_ @ k|e', tkfO{+;fy 5g\ o]z" .

#b'O wf/] v·t'No tkfO{+sf -t]lhnf jfSo 5g\_ @ k|e', t]lhnf jfSo===

zq' xftb]lv /Iff u/f];\ -5 lga{n xfd|f] dg_ @ k|e', 5g\ lga{n xfd|f]===

$zf]s / ;Gtfk, kfk / hLjg -oL ;asf jf; 5g\_ @ k|e', oL ;asf===

tkfO{+sf] zfGtk"0f{ jfSon] -/fVg'xf];\ xfd|f] k|f0f_ @ k|e', /fVg'xf];\ xfd|f]===


152 k e lxf f s n c

152= k|e' lxF*\%f}+ :s]n C

!k|e' lxF8\5f}+ hlt, jrg x'G5 aQL

h;n] ljZjf; nfp5, xif{ Hof]lt kfp“5 .

@ha zq' cfp“5, jrgsf] ;Demp“5

;fx; lbg lzIff, d'lQmsf] k|ltIff .

#cfp“bf d]3 c“Wof/f], ha 3/ 5 6f9f]

ofqL jrg lnG5, af6f] b]vfOlbG5 .

$jrg s] sf] t'No < slt ax'd"No <

;'v–ljnf;sf] sf/0f dfG5]nfO{ ;fwf/0f .

%k/d]Zj/sf s'/f a'emf}+, jrg k"/f

tkfO{;“u k|]d u/L a;f}+ ;w}+el/ .


153 ged efo xf s n g

153= ged{ efO xf] :s]n G

!ge{d efO xf], b'lgof“sf] hfndf, gk/ alxgL, z}tfgsf] vfndf,

Tof] xfd|f] ;f/f] b[i6 b'Zdg xf], Tof] 5f]8\g ;f“Rr} efO xf], v'zdg xf]

@dg kmsf{pm efO xf], of] kfk}b]lv, kZrftfk u¿F /f]O{–/fO{ xf] ls,

cfzf tf u¿F efO xf] v|Li6}df, ;'v kfp“5f} lk|o efO xf], :ju{nf]sdf

#5f]l8b]pm efO xf], rfnrng a'/f], gu/ a}gL, g/fd|f] s'/f],

k|]d ub}{ k|e' v|Li6nfO{ k5ofpm, g/fd|f] rfn / :jefj ;Rofpm

$k|]d u/ efO xf], ;a;“u Ps}, ho ho xf];\ k|e', of] ltd|} cf1}

cfk;df ldlna; ;a};fy, x]/, d x'G5', ;a lbg ltd|f];fy .


154 cnuf rf f s n g

154= cNuf, rf}*f :s]n G

!cNuf, rf}8f kvf{nleq :juL{o zx/df

o'u–o'u, b]z–b]zsf ;a} ;Gt a:5g\ cfgGb ;fydf .

@kljq em'08, Ps b[9 ;]gf, Ps >]i7 ljrf/ ;asf]

ufp“5g\ Ps /fu, u5{g Ps sfd Ps dxf/fhfsf] .

#tkfO{+sf] jrg ;f“rf] 5 k':tf–k':tfb]lv

:jtGqtf, ;To / k|]d logsf] /fHo 5 a9\b} .

$g k}/f], g 7"nf] enn] gi6 x'G5 Tof] kx/f

hxf“ 5 Tof] zx/ dxfg\, cd/, cgGt ;bf .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

!%%=

!d08nLsf] ;t cfwf/ x'g\ k|e' v|Li6 o]z"

hn ;fy} jrgåf/f Tof] ;[li6 xf] pgsf] .

p;nfO{ b'nxL agfpg v|Li6n] :ju{nf]s Tofu]

/ p;sf] Hofg arfpg /Qm cfkm\gf] axfP .

@b]z–b]zsf] ePklg d08nL x'G5 Psgf;

Ps cflTds hGd dfgL, Ps k|e', Ps ljZjf; .

Ps gfd kljq dfG5, Ps ef]h kljq vfO{

Ps nIolt/ hfG5 sbd cl3 a9fO{ .

#kl/>d, o'4, qmflGt / b'Mvsf] dfem}df

p;n] cgGt zflGtsf] u5{ k|ltIff

cfp“bf o; nf]ssf] cGt v|Li6 bz{g kfpg]5

/ d08nL hojGt cf/fddf a:g]5 .

$lqPs O{Zj/ k|e';fy 5 Pslqt lgZro

;fy} 5 ;Gtx¿;fy ;·t /x:odo .

x] wGohg, kljq tLh:tf gd| xf]cf}+

/ xfdL :ju{leq k|e';fy a:g kfcf}+ .


156 x k e ju s n f d

156= x] k|e' :ju{ :s]n F(D)

!x] k|e' :ju{ / hut\sf tkfO{+sf] :t'lt dlxdf

of]Uo wGojfb c;fWo 5 x] ;j{bftf .

@3fd, xfjf, km"n / kmn lg/f]u h'g–h'g j/bfgsf] u¥of}+ ef]u

tL ;asf dfgf}+ u'0f ;a hg, x] ;j{bftf .

#;+;f/sf] nflu lbg'ef]’ bfg cfºg} PSnf] k'qsf]

emg\ ;a yf]s lbg'xf]nf, x] ;j{bftf .

$lbg'ef]’ cem} cfTdf bfg / b]cf];\ ;a ;RrfOsf 1fg

agfOlbO{ gof“ dg eO{ kmnbftf .

%kfk df]rg kfof}+, k|f0f p4f/, cg'u|x /Lt :juf{lwsf/

of]Uo ;f6f] lbpm s'g k|sf/, x] :ju{bftf .

^x/fOG5 vr{ ck:jfy{sf hf] C0f tkfO{+nfO{ lbpmnf

Tof] dfq /xG5 ;bf, x] ;j{bftf .

&h'g wg lbpmnf tkfO{+nfO{ a9fOG5 ;o u'0ff ;o

tkfO{+nfO{ lbG5f} t /dfO{, x] ;j{bftf .

*tkfO{+n] hLjg lbg'ef]’, r9fpm aln lhp“bf]

tkfO{+sf] bfgsf] ;f6f] of], x] ;j{bftf .


157 cg u xn k d zj sf s n f g

157= cg'u|xn] k/d]Zj/sf] :s]n F(G)

!cg'u|xn] k/d]Zj/sf] 5f}+ kfP ;a} s'zn If]d

of] bof xfdLdfly ef]’ t u/f}+ pgsf] ;]jf k|]d .

:t'lt ufO{, :t'lt ufO{, o; lbgnfO{ dfgf}+ k|e's}

k|folZrt eP o]z" g}, dfkm lbg'xj;\ kfkLnfO{

:t'lt ufO{, :t'lt ufO{, o; lbgnfO{ dfgf}+ k|e's}

@/dfO{ hfcf}+ luhf{3/, cf/fwgf u/f}+ O{Zj/sf]

x] O{Zj/ ug'{xf];\ uf]xf/ / xj;\ ;]jf dgkbf]{ .

#tkfO+{n] lzIff lbg'xf];\ / ugf]{;\ cfºgf] wd{ k|sfz

lglZrGtnfO{ hufpg'xf];\, lg/fzb]lv dg zfFGt /xf];\ .

$ha k'luhfnf d/0fsfn, ta xf]cf}+ v'zL / lg8/

/ hfcf}+ tkfO{+sxf“ s[kfn / kfcf}+ lj>fd ;bfe/ .


158 oxj sf nflu s n g

158= oxj]sf] nflu :s]n G

!oxj]sf] nflu ho ho u/f}+, cfgGb;fy pgsf] ;]jf u/f}+

ufp“b}–ufp“b} pgsf] ;fd' cfcf}+, oxj] k/d]Zj/ egL hfgf}+ .

pgL xfd|f] ;[hgxf/, pgL xfd|f] tf/0fxf/

pgL xfd|f] kfngxf/, ;'G5g\ pgn] xfd|f] k'sf/

@pgsf] vs{sf xfdL e]8f xf}+, wGojfb ub}{ 9f]sfleq k;f}+,

:t'lt ub}{ cfugdf k;f}+, wGo egf}+, pgsf] gfdnfO{ .

#oxj] dxfg\ k|e' enf] 5g\, pgsf] s?0ff ;bf /xG5,

pgsf] ;Totf k':tf–k':tfdf cd/ /xg]5 .


159 lg gt xg s n g

159= lg/Gt/ /xg] :s]n G

lg/Gt/ /xg] k|]d v|Li6 o]z"sf], cg'u|x c;Ld ckf/

ufpg]5f}+ dlxdf ODdfg'Pn k|e'sf] xf];\, pxf“sf] hohosf/

!kfksf] bf; lyof}+ xfdL g/ss'08sf] efuL

kfk} ghfGg] d;Lx o]z" k|e'n] ;a} bf]if x6fpg'eof] -@_

@wGojfb o]z"nfO{ gr9fO{ ;S5f}+ sxf“ < xfd|f] pxf“ ;[hgxf/

tf]8\g'ef]’ 8/nfUbf] zlQm ;a kfksf], x6fpg'ef]’ 3f]/ cGwsf/

cof]Uo ePklg Hof]ltsf ;Gtfg xfdL -@_

o:tf] qf0fstf{ k|]dL o]z" k|e'nfO{ r9fcf}+ ;a}n] wGojfb -@_

#cfglGbt 5f}+ cfh, zlQm kfksf] eof] gfz, 5'6sf/f b}lgs hLjgdf

;Dk"0f{ XbonfO{ z'4 :jr5 kf/]/ lbg'ef]’ v|Li6n] uLt gof“

hohosf/ d;Lx o]z", ufpg]5f}+ Kof/f] k|e' -@_

af6f]df tkfO{+sf] h:t} ePklg :t'lt ufp“b} g} hfg]5f}+ -@_


160 o f df s n c

160= o; ;+;f/df :s]n C

!o; ;+;f/df hlt 5g\ ;fgf–7"nf ;a} hg

wGo eg o]z"nfO{ ;a} eg pgsf] ho .

@kfksf] ef/ p7fpgnfO{ :ju{df k'¥ofpgnfO{

xfd|f]nflu lbg ;'v o]z" cfO{ ;x] b'Mv .

#qm";df d/] o]z" g}, aln eof] k|e's}

d'lQm 5 v|Li6 o]z"df ljZjf; u/ pg}df .

$ho ho u/f}+ o]z"sf], qf0fsf] sfd ;a l;l4of]

cfpm ;a} kfkL hg lgsf] kf5{g\ dgsf] /f]u .


161 f f f sf s n g

161= ;f/f ;+;f/sf :s]n G

!;f/f ;+;f/sf dflg; xf], k|e'sf] hohosf/ dgfcf]

u/ v'zL;fy ;]jf pgsf], pgsxf“ cfO{ ehg ufcf] .

@k/d]Zj/ xfd|f k|e' x'g\, xfdLnfO{ l;h]{ eGg] hfg

xfdL ;a} pgsf] xf}+ k|hf / pgsf] vs{sf e]8f .

#åf/leq wGojfb;fy cfcf], rf]sleq cfO{ v'zL xf]cf]

O{Zj/nfO{ wGojfb r9fcf], gfd pgsf] eg wGosf] .

$sf/0f k|e' x'G5g\ enf, ;w}+el/ pgsf] s[kf /xG5

pgsf] ;Totf / k':tf}+;Dd l:y/ /xnf .


162 ufpm v li lo s n d

162= ufpm v|Li^Lo:s]n D

ufpm v|Li6Lo em'08, ;a} ldnL, k|e'sf] :t'lt

!Xbo jL0ffsf] tf/ ahfO{ -@_ :t'lt–dlxdf b]pm d'lQmbftfnfO{,

cfºgf] ;[hgxf/nfO{ -hohosf/ u/f}+, ;f]/df ;f]/ ldnfO{_ @

@O{iof{ / å]ifsf] hfn RoftL -@_ Pstfsf] ;"qdf ;a}nfO{ af“wL

k|]dsf] ;Gb]z af“8L, -sl7gfOnfO{ k/ ;f/L_ @

#cGwsf/ of] husf] Hof]lt clg -@_ ld7f; lbg] g"g agL

xfdL g"g agL, -qm";nfO{ cUNofcf}+ ;fIfL agL_ @


163 xhf f f lha f ep s n g

163= xhf/f}F lha|f eP:s]n G

!xhf/f}F lha|f eP x'GYof] eHg' v|Li6 tf/0fxf/,

hf] /fhf, O{Zj/ x'g\ d]/f], xf];\ pgsf] hohosf/ .

@x] k|e' O{Zj/ bofn', ;3fpg'xf];\ dnfO{,

k[YjLel/ u¿F egL o]z" gfdsf] a9fO .

#o]z" gfdn] x6fp“5 8/, d]6fOlbG5 b'Mv,

;'lgG5 kfkLnfO{ dL7f] xf] hLjg, zflGt, ;'v .

$5'6sf/f lbO{ s}bLnfO{ kfk–zlQm tf]8\b5g\ .

pgsf] /utn] z'4 eP dh:tf] 3[l0ft hg .

%o]z"sf] jf0fL ;'g]/ gj hLjg kfp“5 nfz

/dfp“5g\ b'Mlvt r"0f{ dg, bLg ub{5g\ ljZjf; .


164 o zj nfo k h f s n g

164= O{Zj/nfO{ k'h"F:s]n G

!O{Zj/nfO{ k'h" kljqtf nfO{sg b08jt\ u¿F k|rf/L k|tfk

cf1f dgfO{ / bLgtf r9fO{sg pg}sf] gfp“ lnb} hf] cfkm}–cfkm .

@lkmqmLdf ef/ xfn" O{Zj/sf] r/0fdf, pgn] Tof] x[bodf af]S5g\ p7fO{

zf]s d]l6lbG5g\, k'¥ofp“b5g\ z/0fdf kfp 8f]¥ofO{ df/]sf] em}+ .

#O{Zj/sf] dxndf ljgf8/fO{sg 5f}+ cfpg;Sg] bLg–xLg

dgdf eO{ vfln ;RrfO / wg k|]dsf] NofO{sg u|x0f ul/G5f}+ oL dfq r9fO{

$olt g} Nofcf}+ tf o]z"sf] gfp“df O{Zj/n] lnG5g\ tL sf/0f pgsf] xif{sf]

lbg lbG5g\ zf]ssf] ;f6f]df sdfOsf] ;f6f] ljZjf; bl/nf] .

%O{Zj/nfO{ k'h" kljqtf nfO{sg b08jt\ u¿F k|rf/L k|tfk

cf1f dgfO{ / bLgtf r9fO{sg pg}sf] gfp“ lnb} hf] cfkm}–cfkm .


165 dfpm v zl xf pm s n d

165= /dfpm v'zL xf]pm :s]n D

!/dfpm, v'zL xf]pm, d'lQmbftf cfP, x]g{ hfpm sf]qmf], qm"; / lrxfg o]z"sf]

pgnfO{ eh, xfd|f] abnL o]z" dg'{ef]’

pgnfO{ eh, xfd|f] nflu v|Li6 Ao'“tg'ef]’

@/dfpm v'zL xf]pm ca pHofnf] eof], afbn ;a xl6uP /ft uO;Sof] .

#/dfpm, v'zL xf]pm, v|Li6n] /ut axfO{, kfksf] b08 lt/]/ arfP xfdLnfO{ .

$/dfpm v'zL xf]pm, l;Q} kfOG5 d'lQm, ;a cGofoLsf] ;f6f] d/] GofoL .

%/dfpm v'zL, xf]pm, o]z" d/]kl5, km]l/ lhp“bf] eP Ao'“tL d[To"b]lv .

^/dfpm, v'zL xf]pm, o]z" u5{g\ dfly, cGt/laGtL k/d]Zj/nfO{ xfd|f] nflu .

&/dfpm, v'zL xf]pm, kf7f] k/d]Zj/sf], km]l/ cfpg]5g\, pxf“ hf] dfl/g'ef]’ .


166 k d zj lktfsf s n g

166= k/d]Zj/ lktfsf] :s]n G

k/d]Zj/ lktfsf] hohosf/ ufpm“, xfdLnfO{ agfpg] pgL g} x'g\,

cfˆgf] 1fg / zlQmsf] pg}n] ;a} ;[li6 u/]

!cWof/f] z"Godf Hof]lt rDSof], lbg / /ft O{Zj/n] 5'6fP,

;a} tf/f / h"g / 3fd, e"ld / cfsfz pg}sf sfd .

@8f“8fsf aLrdf vf]nf au], 3f“; / ¿v–kft pAhfP,

slt ;'Gb/ ;+;f/, of] pgnfO{ cf}wL hflt nfUof] .

#kfgLdf df5f v]Ng yfn], cfsfzdf r/fsf ;f]/ ;'lgP,

;fgf–7"nf k|f0fL l;h]{ ;a} /fd|f / pgsf lghL .

$cflv/df ;[li6 dflg;sf] ef]’, O{Zj/sf ¿kdf ;[li6 eof],

ædl;t ldnf];\ z'4 / ;fkmÆ dflg;k|lt O{Zj/sf] cfz .

%O{Zj/l;t g} ldnf}+ xfdL pxf“sf lgod Xbon] dfgL,

;To s'/f xfdL dfgf}+ hLjg cd/ xfdL kfcf}+ .


167 cgwsfdf s n c

167= cGwsfdf :s]n C

cGwsf/df e'ln/x]sf dfgjnfO{

Hof]lt b]vfpg] :t'lt dlxdf 5 k|e'nfO{ -@_

!lgisnË alnbfg lgbf]{if k|e'sf] cd"No /Qm p4f/sf] af6f] aGof]

;f6f]df o;sf] tkfO{+nfO{ s] r9fpm“, :t'lt–dlxdf 5 k|e'nfO{ .

@d[To"dfly ho k|fKt u/L lktfsf] bflxg] xft a;L laGtL ug]{

;f6f]df o;sf] tkfO{+nfO{ s] r9fpm“, :t'lt dlxdf 5 k|e'nfO{ .

#k|ltkmn hLjgsf] /Ifs tkfO+{, lgM:jfy{ k|]dsf] ;To Hof]lt

cgGt, zflGt / cfzf xfd|f], :t'lt dlxdf 5 k|e'nfO{ .


168 o z d f k e s n g

168= o]z" d]/f] k|e' :s]n G

!o]z" d]/f] k|e' egL hfGb5', kfkdo OR5f d]/f] o;y{ dfb{5'

o]z" d'lQmbftf, x] qf0fstf{, d]/f] Kof/f] v|Li6nfO{ k|]d u5'{ ;bf .

@pb]ssf] k|]d k|e' dnfO{ ug'{ef]’, qm";sf] c;Ld b'Mv ;xL dg'{ef]

;a} d]/f]nflu s:tf] k|]d, dxf o]z"nfO{ k|]d u5'{ o;}n] ;bf .

#:t'lt hLjgel/ ub}{ /xG5' / k|]ddf tkfO+{sf] ;w}+ /xG5'

5fof d[tsf] k5{ ha, hLjgdf Kof/ u5'{ tkfO{+nfO{, x] o]z" ;bf

$u'~hf];\ ejg pHhjn :t'ltn] d]/f],

lj>fd kfO{ cgGt hLjg cfgGbsf]

nfO{ d's'6 rlDsnf] ufp“5' dlxdf,

d]/f] Kof/f] v|Li6nfO{ k|]d u5'{ ;bf .


169 ho xf k e sf s n g

169= ho xf];\ k|e'sf]:s]n G

ho xf];\ k|e'sf], ho ho ho ho xf];\

!k/dlktfsf] r/0fsdndf, cfpm lz/ em'sfO{,

k|0ffd\ u/f}+, b08jt\ u/f}+, dgsf] uj{ x6fO{ -@_

d;LxL k|]d hf] dgdf hufpm dgsf] å]if x6fpm,

d;LxL Hof]lt dgdf rDsfO{ hLjg bLk hnfpm -@_

@:ju{nf]sdf :t'lt r9fcf}+ ho ho v|Li6sf] dgfcf}+

tf/0fxf/sf] k|]d k|rf/f}+ dflg;nfO{ v|Li6 lrgfcf}+ -@_

hLjg bLk ;a}n] hnfO{, d;LxL hLjg lnO{

cGwsf/n] k"0f{ of] hudf d;LxL Hof]lt lkmhfcf}+ -@_

#hLjg kydf kfp a9fcf}+ dflg;nfO{ v|Li6df Nofcf}+

o]z", ljZjf;L em'08 xf], cfpm xftdf xft ldnfcf}+ -@_

k|e'sf] x's'd kfng ug]{ lbndf pT;fx hufcf}+

tf/0fxf/sf] oz k|rf/f}+, hudf pRr u/f\cf}+ -@_


170 k e sf t lt u f s n g

170= k|e'sf] :t'lt u/f}+ :s]n G

k|e'sf] :t'lt u/f}+ xfdLn], k|e'sf] :t'lt u/f}+

!k|e'sf] a9fO ;w}+ xf]O/xf];\, pgsf] :t'lt u/f}+, xNn]n"ofx .

@k|e'sf] 3/df ehg xf]O/xf];\, pgsf] :t'lt a9fO .

#;a} sfddf slQ zlQmdfg\, pgsf] zlQm atfpm .

$hosf] hf]8df km's t'/xL, jL0ff, ;f/·L ahfpm .

%l;tf/ ahfO{ /flugL 5]8, 8km / tanf ahfpm .

^d'/nL, ;gO{ /fd|f] ahfpm, l5ªl5ª em\ofnL ahfpm .

&;a} ldnL tfnL ahfpm, k|e'sf] :t'lt u/f}+ .


171 cflb cgt s n c

171= cflb / cGt :s]n C

!cflb / cGt / hut\sf] Hof]lt r/0fdf tkfO{+sf] cfp“b5f}+ -@_

xNn]n"ofx ufp“b}, :t'lt ;'gfpb} lz/ lgx'/fp“b5f}+ .

@cNkmf–cf]d]uf / hLjgsf] /f]6L tkfO{+df hLjg kfp“b5f}+ -@_

xNn]n"ofx ufp“b}, xft k;f5f}+, cfzLjf{b kfp“b5f}+ .

#/utn] wf]P/ ugf]{;\ kljq, k"/f] kljqtf lbg'xf];\ -@_

xNn]n"ofx ufp“b}, cfzf /fVb}, tkfO+{sxf“ cfp“b5f}+ .

$kljq cfTdfsf] bfg lbO{ xfdLnfO{, k|lt1f k"/f] ug'{xf];\ -@_

xNn]n"ofx ufp“b}, hohosf/ ub}{, v'zLn] el/hfcf}+ .

%b'nxf x'g\ xfd|f v|Li6 o]z", l5ट्टै lngnfO{ cfpg]5g\ -@_

xNn]n"ofx ufp“b}, v'zL dgfp“5f}, :ju{df nfg]5g\ .

^el/lbgf];\ k|]dn] of] xfd|f] dgnfO{ / laGtL tkfO{nfO{ ug]{5f}+ -@_

xNn]n"ofx ufp“b}, xfd|f] dg hufcf}+ of] xfdL dfUb5f}+ .


172 cfpm a bfho efo s n c

172= cfpm ;a} bfHo" efO :s]n C

cfpm ;a} bfHo"–efO, v|Li6s} u'0f ufcf}+

!xfd|f] kfksf] ;f6f] pgL eP kf7f]

sqf] k|]d / sqf] bof xfdLdfly u/] .

cfpm ;a} bfHo"–efO v|Li6s} u'0f ufcf}+ .

@v|Li6Lofg bfHo", v|Li6Lofg alxgL, v|Li6 x'g\ xfd|f ;fyL

:ju{nf]sdf k'¥ofpg], d[To"kfl/ tf/L

cfpm ;a} bfHo"–efO, v|Li6nfO{ k5ofcf}+ .

#hlt eof] 36L xfd|f], pgnfO{ ;a} dgfcf}+

kfknfO{ n'sfO{ g/s'08sf] efuL s}n] gxf]cf}+

cfpm ;a} bfHo"–efO :ju{df hfcf}+ .


173 k e lt cffbf s n c

173= k|e'lt/ cfFbf :s]n C

k|e'lt/ cf“bf prfnf}+, o]z"lt/ cf“vf prfnf}+

hxf“ 5 k|]d, v'zL, cfgGb cfzfx¿sf] ;Dk"0f{tf -@_

!JotLt lbgsf] ofb gu/f}+, kfk cwd{ cg]sf] -@_

e'n b]vfpg], e"n ;'wf/ ug]{ bofn' ;fu/ o]z" .

@eljio s] xf], sxf“ d x'G5' kL/ dgdf glng' -@_

k/LIff, b'Mv, ef/ p7fpg] o]z" d;Lx x'g\ ;xf/f .

#rf/}lt/ cGwf/n] 5fof], b'Mv, n8fO“ cg]sf}+ -@_

eoeLt x'G5', sxf“ d hfpm, bofn' ;fu/ o]z" .

$e/f];f hut\df sxL klg 5}g, Joy{ ;f/f Joy{ -@_

tkfO{+sf] r/0f, ;f“rf] z/0f, bofn' ;fu/ o]z" .


174 k e hl ltdlnfo s n g

174= k|e'hL ltdLnfO{:s]n G

k|e'hL, ltdLnfO{ s] r9fpm“, of] d]/f] ;a hLjg ltd|} xf]

wGojfb ltdLnfO{ 5 ;bf, :t'lt n]pm daf6 ;j{bf

!ltd|f] k|]d pb]ssf] hf] ddf k|s6 ef]’

d cwdL{ kfkLsf], cwd{ Ifdf ef]’

a9fO xf];\ k|e' o]z"sf] .

@o]z" v|Li6 /fh ug'{ x/]ssf] Xbodf

rfxG5g\ 8f]¥ofpg hLjgsf] af6f]df

l56f] cfpm k|e' o]z"sxf“ .


175 laxfg ha x fb s n g

175= laxfg ha x'Fb%:s]n G

!laxfg ha x'Fb5, dg hfuL eGb5, o]z"sf] xf];\ a9fO

sfdsfh / k|fy{gfdf o]z"sxf“ hfG5' d, o]z"sf] xf];\ a9fO .

@gLb ha 6b{5, cfTdf pbf; x'G5, o]z"sf] xf];\ a9fO

s'lrGtf cfp“bfdf, Xbo b"/ /fV5' d, o]z"sf] xf];\ a9fO .

#pbf; ha x'“b5', pg}df zflGt 5, o]z"sf] xf];\ a9fO

;f+;fl/s ;'v geP, t} zflGt 5 pgd}, o]z"sf] xf];\ a9fO .

$l;+u} ;+;f/ ldnL, dw'/ /fu prfnL o]z"sf] xf];\ a9fO

ldnL eg"g cfsfz, ;d'Gb| / atf; o]z"sf] xf];\ a9fO .

%ha;Dd 5 ;f;, of] uLt d]/f] /xf];\, o]z"sf] xf];\ a9fO

cgGtsf] :t'lt xf];\, ;bf u'l~/xf];\, o]z"sf] xf];\ a9fO .


176 x d f k f f s n g

176= x] d]/f] k|f)f :s]n G

!x] d]/f] k|f0f, p7\ ;“u 3fd, / k"/f] u/ ;a cfºgf] sfd

cN5L 5f8\ / :t'lt uf, laxfgsf] k|fy{gf r9f .

@latf of] lbg eO{ a'l4dfg\, ;a} lbgnfO{ t cGts} 7fg\

O{Zj/sf] bfgsf] u/ ljrf/, Gofosf] nflu a; t}of/ .

#x] O{Zj/, u5'{ k|fy{gf of], h]–h] u¿Fnf cfh d

Tof] ;adf dnfO{ uf]xf/ b]pm, dgdf kljq cfTdf b]pm .

$c“ cfh d]/f] af6f]n] cfºgf] dlxdf a9fOb]pm

c“ lktf, k'q, cfTdfsf ;w}+sf] k/d dlxdf .


177 zflgtl t lhp s n c

177= zflGtl;t lhP:s]n C

!zflGtl;t lhP v|Li6, xfd|f] hLjg pgdf xf];\

zflGtl;t d/] v|Li6, xfd|f] d/0f pgdf xf];\ .

@;anfO{ lhpgL cgGtsf] v|Li6n] s/f/ lbg'ef]’

xj;\ efO–alxgL xf], xfd|f] labf zflGtsf] .


178 k e o z xfd f s n c

178= k|e' o]z" xfd|f]:s]n C

!k|e' o]z" xfd|f] ;fydf xf]pm, hLjgsf] af6f]df 8f]¥ofpm

xfdLnfO{ cfkm"df ldnfpm, k|e' o]z" xfd|f] ;fydf xf]pm .

ha;Dd e]6\b}gf}+ xfdL k|e' v|Li6sf] r/0fdf

ha;Dd e]6\b}gf}+ xfdL k|e' o]z" xfd|f] ;fydf xf]pm

@k|e' o]z" xfd|f] ;fydf xf]pm, b'Mv / ljktb]lv arfpm

cflTds ef]hg xfdLnfO{ b]pm, k|e' o]z" xfd|f] ;fydf xf]pm .

#k|e' o]z" xfd|f] ;fydf xf]pm, hf]lvd hLjgdf ha cfp“5

v|Li6sf] k|]dL xft ;dfp5f}+, k|e' o]z" xfd|f] ;fydf xf]pm .

$k|e' o]z" xfd|f] ;fydf xf]pm, pRr /fv k|]dsf] em08f

d[To"sf] af9n] t;f{pbf, k|e' o]z" xfd|f] ;fydf xf]pm .


179 tkfo n lbg epsf s n g

179= tkfO{+n] lbg'ePsf] :s]n G

!tkfO{+n] lbg'ePsf] lbg uOuof], ca cf1f lbg'ef]’ xj;\ /ft

laxfg tkfO{+sf] :t'lt ufof}+, la;fcf}+ klg :t'lt;fy .

@xf];\ wGojfb tkfO+{sf], d08nL e"d08n 3'Dbf–3'Dbfdf

g lbp“;f] g tf /ftL ;'tL ;a e"nf]se/ a:5 kx/f .

#;a dxfåLk / 6fk"x'Fbf] ljxfgn] lbg k'¥ofp“b5

slxNo} g6'l·g] laGtL ubf{ g uLtsf] ;f]/ r"k xF'b5 .

$ha xfdL ;'T5f}+ xfd|f] efO ta hfUb5g\ csf]{ c4{df

/ 306f–306f csf{ hgn] prfNb5g\ gfp“ k|e'sf] .

%cfldg x] k|e', /fHo tkfO{+sf] 6Nb}g /fHo ;+;f/sf em}

t} :ofF¶} gdfl;~Hofn;Dd cgGt a9\b}5 a9\b} .


180 x o zj s n g

180= x] O{Zj/ :s]n G

!x] O{Zj/, ho xf];\ tkfO+{sf], bfg cfh w]/} lbg'ef]’

x] O{Zj/ lktf, ca dnfO{ 7Ls /fVgf];\ d'¶Ldf arfO{ .

@dfkm ugf]{; sf/0f o]z"sf] ;a kfk dåf/f cfh h] ef]’

O{Zj/ / efOsf] d]n gkfO{ d gu¿“ cfh /ft ;'tfO .

#l;sfpg'xf];\ o;} lhpgnfO{ d 7fg" dg'{ ;'Tg'em}+

l;sfpg'xf];\ o;} dg{nfO{ d af}/L p7" ;'vdo eO{ .

$lgh sfvdf ;'tfpgf];\ dnfO{, cfkm}n] t]/f cf“vf lrDnfO{

/ hfu"“ w]/} alnof] eO{ tkfO{+sf] ;]jf ug{nfO{ .

%;lsg ;'Tg' eg] t d u¿F enf] ;f]r–lrGtf

x] lktf, k'q, cfTdf tkfO+{ g} dfly Wofg u¿F .


181 ffem x fbf s n c

181= ;fFem x'Fbf:s]n C

!;f“em x'Fbf, ;"o{ c:tfp“bf la/fdL cfP k|e'sxf“

tL cfP s:tf b'v]sf, eO{ lgsf] lt eP labf .

@x] k|e', km]l/ ;f“em eof] / cfof}+ xfdL b'Mlvt eO{

tkfO{+sf] ¿k ck|s6, t} x'g'x'G5 oxf“ tkfO{ .

#u/fpgf];\ xfd|f] b'Mv la;]s, 5g\ slt /f]uL / pbf;

sltsf] k|]d ePg 7Ls, cl3sf] k|]d eOuof] gfz .

$;+f;fl/s ;f]r sltsf] /f]u 5, sltsf] kfk låljwf

5g\ o:tf sltsf s'ef]u, c;fWo] 5g\ tkfO{+ljgf .

%;+;f/ 5 l/Qf] sltn] rfn kfP, t} TofUb}gg\ Tof]

dLtb]lv sltnfO{ cGofo, t} 5}g vf]h tkfO{+ dLtsf] .

^c“ 5}g s;}nfO{ k"0f{ r}g, sf]xL 5}g hf] 5 7Ls lgikfk

/ ;]jf ug{ vf]Hg] hg emg\ kfksf] Vofnn] 5 ljnfk .

&tkfO{+ v|Li6 dfG5] klg eO{ k/LIff b'Mvdf kg'{eof]

;a x]g'{x'G5 dgdf lg rf]6 klg nfhn] n's]sf] .

*v|Li6 cl3h:tf] zlQmdfg\ ;sn tkfO{+sf ;a cx|fpm

o; ;f“emsf] 38L x] O{Zj/, x/]snfO{ kfg'{xf];\ lgsf] .


182 k ml x k e s n g

182= k]ml/ x] k|e' :s]n G

!km]l/ x] k|e' :t'lt ufp“b5f}+, Ps dgsf eO{ laGtL ub{5f}+

tkfO{+sf bof xfdL u5f}{ ofb / 3'“8f 6]sL dfU5f}+ cfzL{jfb .

@3/ hfbfv]l/ ldnfk lbg'xf];\, o; lbgsf] cGt;Dd cflzif\ xf];\

cf]7b]lv kfk / Xbob]lv nfh 6f9f] u/fpgf];\ hf] ;]jf u/] cfh

#o; cfp“bf] /ftdf lbg" d]n / ;'v h;af6 xfdLdf gxj;\ b'Mv

/ gf]S;fgb]lv xfdLnfO{ lgsfNgf];\, x]/rfx ug]{ xf] tkfO+{sf] xfn .

$;+f;fl/s hLjgel/ xfdLnfO{ /Iff u/fpg'xf];\ ha 5 n8fOF

ho lbgf];\ k|e' clg d]n ;w}+ ldnfksf] /fhf ;j{bf tkfO{+ .


183 o nf s ha s n c

183= o; nf]s ha :s]n C

!o; nf]s ha o]z"n] 5f]8\g'ef]’, k|e' hf] lz/ x'g'x'G5 d08nLsf]

ta lbP r]nfnfO{ cf1f o; /Ltn] dfGg' ;j{bf .

@dnfO{ lbOof] o; ;+;f/ / :ju{df ;a clwsf/

o;sf/0f ;a} b]zdf hfpm ;a hfltnfO{ r]nf t'Nofpm .

#gfp“ lktf, k'q, cfTdfsf]df u/ ltgnfO{ alKt:df

d}n] ;a lbPsf] cf1f ltg}nfO{ dfGgnfO{ l;sfpm .

$/xG5' ;a lbg ;fy ltd|f], c“ cGt;Dd hut\sf]

x] k|e', cfºgf] s'/f]em}+ b]pm, cflzif\ o; /Lt dfGg]nfO{ .


184 x k e u f s n g

184= x] k|e' u%f}{+ :s]n G

!x] k|e' u5f}+{ ;dk{0f ljZjf; / k|fy{gf;fy

afnaRrf xfd|f tkfO+{nfO{, nf} lngf];\ O{Zj/ gfy .

@tkfO{+n] cfºgf] d08nLnfO{ lbg'eof] s/f/

To;df log} efu lnP/ kfpmg\ ;a} p4f/ .

#o; k[YjLdf 8'Nbfv]l/ k|]d u/]/ tkfO{+

c·fnf] xfNg'x'bYof] afnaRrfx¿nfO{ .

$P]n] klg lbg'xf];\ cg'u|xsf] of] j/

xfdL / xfd|f aRrfnfO{, x] bofn' O{Zj/ .

%afn /x'~h]n hf]ufpg'xf];\ ;f+;fl/s nf]eb]lv

/ wfld{s kydf Nofpg'xf];\ ltgnfO{ hLjgel/ .


185 hf ljzjf u s n g

185= hf] ljZjf; u%{ :s]n G

!hf] ljZjf; u5{, alKt;df lnG5 Tof] p4f/ kfpg]5

v|Li6sf] d[To"df lnO{ alKt;df gof“ ;[li6 x'G5

v|Li6 o]z"åf/f kfO{ 5'6\sf/f k'Ug]5 :ju{df

hxf“ lgikfkL d08nL k|tfkL;“u x'G5 v8f .

@Ps dgsf eO{ laGtL r9fO{ cfof}+, x] k/d]Zj/

bofsf] ;fydf kljq cfTdf lbg'xf];\ dxfg\ j/

o]z"sf] d/0f ;b\u'0f ;Dem]/ kfk Ifdfbfg lbgf];\

cgGt hLjg kfcf}+ eg]/ pGglt b}lgs xf];\ .


186 o z n cfk mgf s n g

186= o]z"n] cfk\mgf :s]n G

!o]z"n] cfºgf r]nfx¿nfO{ o;/L af]Ng'ef]’,

æ:ju{, k[YjLdf clwsf/ ;f/f dnfO{ 5 lbPsf]

o;sf/0f ltdL ;a} b]zuO{ hfltnfO{ agfpm r]nf

lktf / k'q, kljq cfTdf gfp“df b]pm alKt:df .Æ

@æltdLx¿nfO{ h]–hlt cf1f d}n] u/]sf] 5'

ltgLx¿nfO{ log} ;a s'/f ug{nfO{ l;sfOb]pm

/ æx]/ r]nf, ;a lbg d x'G5' cGt;Dd hut\sf]

ltdLx¿sf ;fydf 5b}5'Æ o]z"n] eGg'ef]’ .

#hf] kfksf] n]lv d¥of}, xfdL s] kfkdf nflu/xf}+ <

s;/L cem} To;}df lhpg] s] xfdL c1fg 5f}+ <

;a xfdL hgf hltn] lnof}+ alKt:df o]z"df

xfdLn] lnPsf lyof}+ alKt:df pxf“s} d[To"df .

$xfdL o;sf/0f alKt:dfåf/f ufl8of}+ pxf“sf] ;fy

O{Zj/ lktfsf] dlxdfåf/f p7\g'ef]’ o]z" gfy

h;/L :jfdL d/]sfaf6 lap“tfOg'eof]

To;/L xfdL 9f“rfdf lx8f}+ gof“ x} hLjgsf] .


187 v li sf bofn s n g

187= v|Li^sf] bofn':s]n G

!v|Li6sf] bofn' aftcG;f r"0f{ / bLg dg eO{

x] k|e', / o:tf] u5'{ d ;DemG5', tkfO{+nfO{ .

@tkfO{+sf] hLp ef“r]sf] :ju{–ef]hg xf];\ d]/f]

d lnG5' gof“ s/f/sf] ;Demfpg] srf}/f] .

#u]t;dgLsf] ;fx|f] b'Mv / ;+s6 Sn]z x]b}{

s] tL ;a s'/f lal;{G5' ;DemG5' tkfO{+nfO{ .

$ha x]5'{ snj/Lsf] qm";, v|Li6 6f“luP To;df

O{Zj/sf y'df alnbfg d /fV5' ;Demgf .

%c“ ;a tkfO{+sf] kL8fsf] / k|]d d;“usf

;f; km]¿~h]n, c“ ;w}+e/ d /fV5' ;Demgf .

^ha d]/f] dg]{ a]nf 5 / d]/f] k|f0f p8fO{

cfºgf] /fHodf cfp“bfv]l/ ;Demg'xf];\ dnfO{ .


188 xfdl v li df kfo s n d

188= xfdL v|Li^df kfO{ :s]n D

!xfdL v|Li6df kfO{ p4f/ u5f}{ ;Dem]/ tf/0fxf/

k|e'sf] d[To"sf] k|rf/ gcfp~h]n .

@hLp xfd|f] ;ट्टf ef“r]sf] 5 :df/s /f]6Ldf lrgf]

vfP/ a9f];\ k|]d xfd|f] gcfp~h]n .

#v|Li6n] xfd|f] Hofg–;hfo ef]u] h'g cdf]n /ut axfP

b]vfp“5 of] srf}/fn] gcfp~h]n .

$/ft ljZjf;3ftsf] cWof/f] / bf];|f] cfudg o]z"sf]

o; k|]d–/Lt–dfnfn] uf“l;of] gcfp~h]n .

%x] wGo lbg / s:tf] ljnf; xfd|f gxf];\ dgdf pbf;

kv{bf a9f];\ wL/ ljZjf; gcfp~h]n .


189 oxff x k e s n g

189= oxfF x] k|e' :s]n G

!oxf“ x] k|e' e]6" tkfO{+nfO{, oxf“ /x:o qm";sf] a'µg kfpm“

oxf“ ;gftg cg'u|x ;dfO{, ylst hLjgdf cf8 tkfO{+df nfpm“ .

@oxf“ k/d]Zj/sf] d /f]6L vfpm“, oxf“ d lkpm“ srf}/f :ju{sf]

oxf“ ;f+;fl/s ef/L d la;fpm“, oxf“ d zflGt kfpm“ kfk–Ifdfsf] .

#ef]h ca l;l4of] p7\b5f}+ xfdL, t/ k|]d tkfO{+sf] ;bf 5 o]z"

/f]6L srf}/f l;l4P klg emg\, ghLs /xg'x'G5, x] k|e' .

$ljgf tkfO{ u'xf/ dnfO{ 5}g, kfP tkfO{nfO{ rflxb}g c?

o;f] eP k'U5, c“ k|z:t 5, zlQm 5 d]/f] tkfO{df k|e' .

%d]/f] xf] kfk, wfld{stf tkfO{sf], d]/f] xf] bf]if, /Qm z'4 tkfO{sf]

of] d]/f] j:q, cf>o / zflGt, k|e' tkfO{sf] /ut / ;'wL .


190 x k e o z s n c

190= x] k|e' o]z" :s]n C

!x] k|e' o]z" l;4 k|]d b]vfpg] xfd|f] of] k|fy{gf ;'lglng'xf];\

tkfO+{n] ev{/ Ps kfg'{ePsf] oL b'j}df cgGt k|]d /xf];\ .

@x] l;4 hLjg latfpg], x] k|e',

b'Mv ha nfUnf kL8f ls ckm;f]r

oL b'j}nfO{ e/f];f, wL/h, 9f9; / ljZjf;sf] hdfgL x'g'xf];\ .

#;+f;fl/s b'Mv p7fpg] :juL{o cfgGb,

:juL{o ldnfk emu8f wkfpgnfO{

log}nfO{ lbgf];\ d[To" ePkl5, tkfO{+sf] ;fd' ;“u;“u} a:gnfO{ .


191 ha klxnf ljjfx s n d

191= ha klxnf ljjfx :s]n D

!ha klxnf ljjfx eof] cfbd / xJjfsf],

O{Zj/ xflh/ x'g' ef]’ ljjfx cflzlift ef]’ .

@cfhsf] of] ljjfxdf O{Zj/ pkl:yt 5g\,

a]x'nf / a]x'nL b'O{nfO{ cfzL{jfb lbg]5g\ .

#x] k/d]Zj/, of] a]x'nL lbb}5f} a]x'nLnfO{,

h;/L cl3 xJjf lbg'ef]’ cfbdnfO{ .

$k|e', oL b'O{sf] Xbo hf]8L Ps agfpg'xf];\

b'Mv, ;'vdf k|e' o]z", s}n] g5f8\g'xf];\ .

%c“, x] kljq cfTdf, pq]/ cfpg'xf];\

oL b'O{df ;w}+ d]n xf];\ k|]dsf] cflzif\ a;f]{;\ .

^v/faLb]lv af“RgnfO{ ;xfotf lbg'xf];\,

ha b'O{n] ;+;f/ 5f]8\5g\ :ju{df 7fp“ lbg'xf];\ .


192 gg fyl of s n g

192= ;'gg ;fyL of] :s]n G

;'gg ;fyL of] dL7f] jrg dg}df u'gg

k|]d}n] NofPsf] d'lQmsf] dfnf -ljZjf;df pgg_ @

!of] ej;fu/ cf“wLn] k"0f{, kfk}n] cWof/f] -@_

cWof/f] husf] v|Li6 dfq xfd|f] d'lQmsf] pHofnf] -@_

@;+;f/sf] Hof]lt tf/0fxf/ O{zk'q lkof/f -@_

Kof/f o]z" z'4sf] lglDt, d'lQmsf] ;xf/f -@_

#l;Q}df NofPsf], l;Q}df n}hfpm eg]/ of] k|rf/ -@_

k|rf/ eof] of] dfgj–wd{ arfpg ;+;f/ -@_

$z'l4sf] pkfo d'lQmsf] xfd|f] v|Li6 dfq Kof/f] -@_

Kof/f] husf] v|Li6dfly xfd|f] d'lQmsf] pHofnf] -@_

%ljZjf; u/ kfk}nfO{ Tofu ;'g]/ ;+ufn -@_

ehg ;'gL o]z"nfO{ k5ofO{ ;TonfO{ c+ufn -@_


193 gg xj s n f

193= ;'Gg'xj;\:s]n F

!;'Gg'xj;\ Wofg nufO{ o]z"sf] ;dfrf/

Hof]lt lbg] zlQm lbg] o]z" tf/0fxf/ .

@;do cfof] kmls{ x]/ Tof] pHofnf] Hof]lt

cGwsf/nfO{ x]/ tsL{ pHofnf]df kmsL{ .


194 o zj jful o s n d7

194= O{Zj/ :jfuL{o :s]n D7

!O{Zj/ :juL{o lktfn] k|]d u/L nf]snfO{, Psn] 5f]/f]

lbOxfn] hLjg lbgnfO{ efO xf], hLjg lbgnfO{ .

@Psn] 5f]/f] gegL lbP nf]snfO{

ljZjf; u/L ;a}n] n]pmg d'lQmnfO{, efO xf] .

#:ju{af6 o]z" cfP d'lQm lnP/

s;n] lnP d'lQmnfO{ dg} u/]/, efO xf] .

$o]z" k'q eP/ cjtf/ lnOcfP

ljZjf; ug]{ ;a}n] d'lQmbfg kfP, efO xf] .

%b'lgof“ ;+;f/ 5 ;fu/ kfk}sf] 5 Jojxf/

kfknfO{ n'sfO/fv]/ s;/L t5f}{ kf/, efO xf] .

^h;n] ;'G5g\ k|e'sf] chDd/] jrgnfO{

pgnfO{ d'lQm lbg]5g\ chDd/]nfO{, efO xf] .

&O{Zj/ lktf ;fdyL{ ;a} bfg lbgnfO{

dgnfO{ hufO{ tof/ xf}, bfg lbgnfO{ efO xf] .


195 cfpm a s n d

195= cfpm ;a}:s]n D

cfpm ;a}, d'lQmnfO{ vf]hf}+ d'lQm kfO{, :ju{nf]sdf /fh u/f}+

!xfdL ;a} kfkL lyof}+ hfg nfUof}+ gfzdf -@_

gfzb]lv arfpgnfO{ -o]z" cfP hudf_ @

@o]z", tkfO{+ hudf cfO{ ug'{eof] k|]d -@_

k|]d u/L a:g'eof] -cfh xfd|f] ;fydf_ @

#/f]uLx¿ ljZjf; ub}{ cfP pgsf] 5]pdf -@_

ljZjf; u/L lgsf] eO{ -uP cfºgf 3/df_ @

$xfdL ;a} kfkL eof}+ hfG5f}+ Sof/] gfzdf -@_

gfzb]lv arfpgnfO{ -o]z" d/] qm";df_ @

%dflg;sf] kfk lnO{ 6f“l;lbP qm";df -@_

qm";df r9L /ut axfO{ -af}/L p7] cGtdf_ @


196 x k q d f s n c

196= x] k'q d]/f]:s]n C

!x] k'q d]/f] sxf“ 5f} ltdL, klv{/x]5' d

hf]l8Fb}g lx8\bf af6f] clt pT;'s eP/

kms]{/ cfpm d eP 7fp“ e]6\g]5 ltdLnfO{

kms]{/ cfpm d eP 7fp“, :yfg xf] Tof] snj/L .

@dftf–lktf 5g\ / w]/} ;fyL Kof/ kfp“5f} ltdLn]

t/ ;'g tL ;a} Pslbg 5f]8]/ hfg'k5{

d]/f]df cfpm, tof/ 5' d x'gnfO{ ltd|} dLt

cfhef]ln ;bf;j{bf /xg]5' ltd|f] dLt .

#ylst 5 xf]nf b'Mlvt ltd|f] dg lrGtfn] ;+;f/sf]

eljiosf] 8/ dgdf /fvL hfb}5f}+ emg\ 6f9f]

j:q, ef]hg, wg, ;DklQ dl;t 5g\ k|r'/

cgGt zflGtn] kf/L e/k"/ ug]{5', ;a bf]if b"/ .

$x] k'q, d]/f] eg sxf“ 5f}+ cWof/f] x'Fb}5

l5ट्टै g} cfpm a]nf /xb} aGb x'g]5 åf/

;'g d]/f] of] lgDtf]nfO{ gu/ c¿ a]/

kms]{/ cfpm ltd|f] 3/df gq xf]n ca]/ .


197 ltd f dgsf f sf s n em

197= ltd|f] dgsf] (f]sf :s]n Em

ltd|f] dgsf] 9f]sfdf o]z" 9S9sfp“5g\

vf]n ltd|f] 9f]sf pgL cfpg rfxG5g\

!x'g dfUb5g\ pgL ltd|f] kfx'gf cfh

ltd|f] zf]s / lkmqmL pgn] p7fpg dfU5g\ .

@cfpg dfU5g\ pgL leq ltd|f] dgdf

/ft–lbg ltd|f] dgdf pgL dfU5g\ a:g .

#dw'/ zAbn] eG5g\ d/] ltd|f]nflu

5f]8 cz'4 sd{ vf]n åf/f cfp“b}5' .

$ltd|f]nflu d}n] nufP sf“9] d's'6

ltdLnfO{ d dlxdfsf] d's'6 klx/fp“5' .

%vf]Nb5' d 9f]sf dgsf], x] k|e' o]z"

cfO{ o;df /xg'xf];\ dfUb5' d dgn] .

^Kof/f] o]z" eG5g\ ha laGtL ub{5'

;do hf] uOuof] cfp“b}g kmsL{ .


198 g dgdf u gg s n g

198= ;'g]/ dgdf u'gg:s]n G

;'g]/ dgdf u'gg, o]z"df ljZjf; u/g -@_

!s'g gfd 5 ;f“rf] :ju{sf] d'lg dflg;nfO{ arfpg] -@_

gu/f}+ xfdL kfk}sf] sd{ g/sdf n}hfg],

;'g efO xf], g/sdf n}hfg] .

@k[YjL 6N5, :ju{nf]s 6N5, 6Nb}g Tof] jrg -@_

O{Zj/sf] jrg dflg;sf] nflu arfpg cdf]n k|f0f .

#hLjgsf] 9f]sf vf]lNbG5g\ o]z" ljZjf;Lx¿nfO{ -@_

O{Zj/sf] /fHodf cfTdfdf ;w}+ o]z";“u a:gnfO{ .

$o]z"sf] xftdf Gofo 5 xfd|f] O{Zj/n] lbPsf -@_

arfPsf] dflg; 5f]8\b}gg\ pgn] qm";}df lsg]sf] .

%ljZjf; 5 xfd|f] v|Li6 o]z"dfly cl3 g} a9\b5f}+ -@_

ljZjf; u5f}+{ :ju{sf] nflu 7fp“ tof/ ub{5g\ .


199 k e nfo lno s n c

199= k|e'nfO{ lnO{ :s]n C

k|e'nfO{ lnO{ z"Go hLjgdf,

d'lQmsf] cfuf] hnfO{ ltd|f] x[bodf

!hLjg latfcf}+ xf“;]/, kfknfO{ Tofu]/ -@_

d'lQmnfO{ uf“;]/ cd/ eP/ -@_

k|]dsf] ;|f]t pDNofP/ z'is Xbodf .

@kfksf] b08 d[To"b]lv lbgnfO{ 5'6sf/f -@_

axfP pgn] /utsf] wf/f -@_

czflGtsf] kL/ xf]nf ltd|f] Xbodf .

#Pp6} dfq k|e' xfd|f] hLjgsf] ;xf/f -@_

pbo eof] efUo l;tf/f -@_

d'lQmbftf k|e' o]z" r9] qm";}df .


200 f df kfk s n g

200= ;+;f/df kfk %:s]n G

!;+;f/df kfk 5, ;+;f/df b'Mv 5, o:t} xf] klg

x] efO xf], s;/L xfdL hfcf}+nf :ju}{df <

@kfkkl5 b'Mv kfkLsf] ;hfo cflv/df g/s

x] alxgL, o;/L n]lvof] afOan k':tsdf .

#O{Zj/ 5g\ k|]dL, O{Zj/ 5g\ GofoL pxf“sf] pkfo

x] alxgL, ltdL / xfdL af“Rg ;'g g .

$O{Zj/sf 5f]/f Ps dfq lyP ;+;f/df cfO{

x] alxgL, kfk}sf] ;hfo af]s] qm";}df .

%O{Zj/sf] lgufx o]z"sf] k|]dn] af“Rg ;S5f}+

x] alxgL, dg'{ef]’ o]z" xfd|f] ;f6f]df .

^ljZjf; u/ kfkaf6 kmsf}{, d'lQm lncf}+ l;Q}

x] alxgL, ltdL / xfdL hfcf}+nf :ju}{df .


201 d lqmbftfn af nfpfb g s n d

201= d'lQmbftfn] af]nfpFb}%g\:s]n D

d'lQmbftfn] af]nfp“b}5g\ -@_

k|]d}n] af]nfp“b}5g\, ltd|} kfk w'gnfO{

!k|e' 5g\ plePsf Xbo–åf/df -@_

jrg ;'gL vf]ng, Xbo–åf/ vf]ng -@_ Xbo–åf/f vf]ng .

@lsg ca]/ u5f}{ bfHo"–efO xf] -@_

bLbL–alxgL, ;fyL xf} gog vf]ng -@_ Xbo–åf/ vf]ng .

#zflGt bftfn] af]nfp“b}5g\ -@_

k|]dn] af]nfp“b}5g\, zflGt lbgnfO{ -@_ zflGt lbgnfO{ .


202 cfpm o z sxff s n g

202= cfpm o]z"sxfF :s]n G

!cfpm o]z"sxf“ cfh}, x] efO, pgsf] lgDtf] 5 clxn] g}

v|Li6 ghLs 5g\ cflzif\ lbgnfO{, eGb5g\ dsxf“ cfpm .

cfgGb–cfgGb u/f}+nf ;w}+, v'zL xf}nf ha lgikfkL eO{

a;f}+nf lgTo ;“u o]z"s} cgGt 3/}df

@x] kfkL cfpm, k|e'sf] aft ;'gL, ;dfpm k|e'sf] xft

cfp“5g\ hf] pgsxf“ ;a kfp“5g\ ;'v, sfl6G5g\ ltgsf b'Mv .

#cfpm o]z"sxf“ ljrf u/ efO, 5g\ pgL ghLs j/ lbgnfO{

cfpm, ;a l56f] o]z"sxf“ cfpm, cflzif\ ;w}+sf] kfpm .


203 cfpm cfpm s n c

203= cfpm, cfpm :s]n C

cfpm, cfpm, o]z"sxf“ cfpm, pgn] 8fSb}5g\ clxn]

yfs]sf] ;a}, ef/Ln] lyr]sf], kfkb]lv d'lQm pg}df kfp“5

!o]z" v|Li6n] 8fs]sf ;'g]/ Wofg glbPsf] lsg <

;+;f/df b'Mv slt ;xG5f}, d]xgt u5f}{, r}g kfpb}gf} .

@8fSb}5g\ clxn] efO, 7fp“ vfnL 5, df}sf kfp“b}gf} km]l/,

a]nf 5}g, lbg ljlthfG5, ;+;f/df cWof/f]n] 5f]K5,

#o]z" v|Li6sf] gfp“b]lv afx]s d'lQm kfp“b}gf}+ slxNo},

pg}df 5 ;a kfkb]lv 5'6sf/f, lbg;S5 v'zL pgn] dfq efO .


204 o z n xfdlno arfp s n d

204= o]z"n] xfdLnO{ arfP :s]n D

!o]z"n] xfdLnfO{ arfP cfºgf] cdf]n /ut axfP,

;a bf]ifL Yof} 5'6\sf/f gkfO{, v|Li6n] arfP xfdLnfO{ .

x] kfkL hg, of] ;';dfrf/ ;w}+sf] nflu u/ :jLsf/

cfpm qm";sf] 5]pdf ef/L la;fO{, v|Li6n] arfP xfdLnfO{

@kfkb]lv ;a} kfof}+ 5'6\sf/f, v|Li6sf] hg ca eOuof}+ ;f/f

k|]d}n] eG5g\ dsxf“ cfpm, ;w}+sf] nflu d'lQm kfpm .

#O{Zj/sf k'q s:tf] cfglGbt, clwsf/ pgsf] dlxdf;lxt .

d[To" gbL kf/ eO{ lj>fd ug]{5f}+, cfgGb k/dnf]s .


205 ldemb pm a lemb pm s n g

205= ;lDemb]pm, a'lemb]pm :s]n G

;lDemb]pm, a'lemb]pm, x[bodf /flvb]pm laGtL xfd|f]

k|e'sf] lgDtf] 5 tkfO{ bfHo"–lbbL–alxgLnfO{, k|To]s hjfgnfO{

!v|Li6 cfP o; ;+;f/df p7fpg kfksf] ef/

;xL b'Mv, axfO{ /Qm u/fpg d[To" kf/, ug{nfO{ k/d p4f/ .

@hjfgLkgdf ofb u/L, ;Dem ;[hgxf/nfO{

kfkdf 8'aL ;+;f/df e'lna:5f}+ lsg efO, kms{ o]z"sxf“ .

#vf]n ltd|f] Xbosf] 9f]sf, vf]ng, Kof/f] efO

k|e' rfxG5g\ ltd|f] cfTdf, Xbo, z/L/nfO{, cfpg b]pm k|e'nfO{ .


206 cfpm hut sf s n f

206= cfpm hut\sf:s]n F

cfpm hut\sf efO–alxgL, o]z"n] ltdLnfO{ 8fSb}5g\ -@_

!hut\df ltd|f] 3/} 5}g -@_ hutdf ltd|f] dfg klg 5}g -@_

/fHo ltdLnfO{ lbgsf nflu o]z"n] ltdLnfO{ 8fSb}5g\ .

@hut\df ltdL wd{ vf]H5f}+ -@_, hut\df ltdL 3'ldlxF8\5f}+ -@_

hLjg d'lQm lbgsf nflu o]z"n] ltdLnfO{ 8fSb}5g\ .

#lz/df pgsf] sf“8fsf] d's'6 -@_, sf]vfdf pgnfO{ efnfn] 3f]r] -@_

5]8]sf] xft k;f/]/ o]z"n] ltdLnfO{ 8fSb}5g\ .

$cfpm bfHo"–efO, cfpm lbbL–a}gL -@_ cfP/ o]z"df ljZjf; u/ -@_

;a} kfknfO{ lngsf nflu o]z"n] ltdLnfO{ 8fSb}5g\ .


207 x s ljzjf l s n c

207= x/]s ljZjf;L :s]n C

!x/]s ljZjf;L, u/f}+ k|rf/, ;a} 7fp“df u/f}+ of] ;';dfrf/

kfkL dflg; ;an] ;'gf];\ af/Daf/ o]z"sxf“ ;a} cfpm .

o]z" ;a}nfO{ u|x0f ug]{5g\

b]z–ljb]zsf dflg; ;anfO{ lgDtf] 5

s'g} kf/fn] lgsflng] 5}g o]z"sxf“ ;a} cfpm

@x/]s cfpg] dflg; l9nf] gu/f}+, v'Nnf 5 of] kmf6s, aflx/ ga;f}+

of] d'lQmsf] kydf cfºgf kfp /fvf}+ o]z"sxf“ ;a} cfpm .

#olb d'lQm vf]H5f}+, o]z"nfO{ dfg, dfG5]sf] arfp“5g\ pgn] dfq k|f0f

pgdf ljZjf; u/f}+, kfp“5f}+ pgdf qf0f o]z"sxf“ ;a} cfpm .


208 f kfksf s n f d

208= ;+;f/ kfksf] :s]n F(D)

!;+;f/ kfksf] ;fu/df 8'a]sf] lyof], x'g\ hut\sf] Hof]lt o]z"

k|r08 3fdem}+ pgsf] dlxdf rDSof], x'g\ hut\sf] Hof]lt o]z" .

Hof]ltdf cfpm, xf] ltd|} nflu, Hof]lt t k¥of] dnfO{ klg,

cGwf] lyP t/ kfP b[li6, xf] hut\sf] Hof]lt o]z"

@cWof/f]df a:g'kb}{g xfdL, x'g\ hut\sf] Hof]lt o]z"

lxF8\5f} Hof]ltdf cu'jfkl5 nfuL, x'g\ hut\sf] Hof]lt o]z" .

#cfpm ;a h;sf dgdf 5 kfk–cGwsf/, x'g\ hut\sf] Hof]lt o]z"

cfpm b[li6 kfpg' pgsf] jrgcg';f/, x'g\ hut\sf] Hof]lt o]z" .

$3fd nfUg'kb}{g c/] :ju{df, x'g\ hut\sf] Hof]lt o]z"

:ju{k"/Ldf Hof]lt x'g\, k|e' xfd|f, x'g\ hut\sf] Hof]lt o]z" .


209 dg z kfg nfo s n g

209= dg z'$ kfg{nfO{:s]n G

!dg z'4 kfg{nfO{ o]z"sxf“ uof}+ s], v|Li6sf] /utn] z'4 eof}+ s] <

k"/f e/f]; o]z"df /fV5f}+ s], v|Li6sf] /utn] z'4 eof} s] <

ltdL z'4 eof} s] qf0fstf{ o]z"sf] /utn] <

ltd|f] dg ;f“Rr} lgisn+s eof] s] o]z"sf] Tof] cdf]n /utn] <

@lbgx'“ ltdL o]z";fy–;fy lxF8\5f}+ s] pgsf] /utn] z'4 eof} s] <

o]z"sf] cfgGb ltdLn] kfof} s] v|Li6sf] /utn] z'4 eP/ <

#v|Li6 cfp“bf ltd|f] n'uf ;fkm xf]nf s] v|Li6sf] /utn] ;fkm / pHhjn <

ltdL :ju{ hfgnfO{ tof/ 5f} s] v|Li6sf] /utn] z'4 eP/ <

$kfksf] bfu nfu]sf] j:q km'sfOb]pm v|Li6sf] /utn] z'4 x'g cfpm

kfkL dg rf]Vofpg] wf/f aUb}5, v|Li6sf] /utn] z'4 xf]Ohfpm .


210 g e f f s n c

210= %}g e/f];f :s]n C

5}g e/f];f of] lhGbuLsf] -@_, u/f}+ ehg ca o]z"hLsf] -@_

!afnssfn laTof] v]n}df v]nL, hjfgL laTof] k|]d}df e'nL

j[4sfn laTb}5, h~hfndf 8'aL, u/f}+ ehg ca o]z"hLsf] .

@h~hfndf 8'la/xG5f} slt, r]t u/L ca ;'wf/ ult

5}g a]nf efO ca clt, u/f}+ ehg ca o]z"hLsf] .

#kfk / ;Gtfk a9\b5g\ hlt x'g]5g\ gi6 hLjg plt

kmsf{pm dg ca o]z"klट्ट, u/f}+ ehg ca o]z"hLsf] .


211 gg nf ps dfrf s n d

211= ;'gg nf} Ps ;';dfrf/:s]n D

;'gg nf} Ps ;';dfrf/ :ju{b]lv cfP Ps tf/0fxf/ -@_

!ej ltd|f] 8'la;Sof] kfksf] ;fu/df -@_

l56f] laTg] hLjg xfd|f] ldN5 df6f]df, sf] 5 ;f6f]df <

@wGo xfd|f] :ju{–wgL dflg; eO{ cfP -@_

kfksf] af]emf ;a} lnO{ lbP cfºgf] k|f0f, ug{ xfd|f] qf0f .

#j/ x]/, k/ x]/ 5}g s]xL pkfo -@_

u|x0f u/ o]z" v|Li6nfO{, 5}g pgL l;jfo, ;'g d]/f] efO .

$hf] sf]O{ cfp“5 ljZjf; u/L k|e' o]z" v|Li6df -@_

hojGt hLjg laTof] eg] x'G5f} ltdL kmnjGt,

hLjg kfp“5f} cgGt .


212 pe t x f s n d

212= pe} t x]¿F:s]n D

!pe} tf x]¿F :ju{nf]s 5 -@_, pw} tf g/snf]s, x]/ lk|o efO -@_

@ltdLn] eG5f} :ju{ t5'{ -@_, t5f}{ kf] s;/L x]/ lk|o efO -@_

#:ju{ tg'{ v]n7ट्टf 5}g -@_, wfpg'5 v|Li6sxf“, x]/ lk|o efO -@_

$:ju{ af6f] Pp6f 5 vfln -@_, pgL x'g k|e' v|Li6, x]/ lk|o efO @

%v|Li6nfO{ ehL tg'{ 5 kfl/ -@_, dg u/L Ps lrQ, x]/ lk|o efO

^lktfn] lbG5g\ :ju{nf]sdf -@_, a:g' tf lgTolgt, x]/ lk|o efO @


213 tofu v li n s n c

213= Tofu] v|Li^n] :s]n C

Tofu] v|Li6n], qm";}df k|f0f ug{ x/]s kfkLsf] qf0f

!kfk}df k/L cfTdfnfO{ gi6 u/L a:5f}+ lsg lglZrGt

eO{ ;do xF'b} cfcf] cfh o]z"sxf“ cfcf] .

@o]z" d;Lx af]nfp“5g\ x/]s hgnfO{ cfp“5g\ hf] pgLsxf“

sfl6G5g\ ltgsf b'Mv, tL kfp“5g\ cfgGb / ;'v .

#cfp“5g\ km]l/ v|Li6 dlxldt afbndf æwGo hf] cGt;Dd l:y/ /xnf, tL kfp“5g\ hLjgsf] tfhÆ .


214 vf n vf n f sf s n g

214= vf]n vf]n (f]sf:s]n G

vf]n–vf]n 9f]sf, vf]Nb}gf} lsg lg

k|e' cfP ltdLnfO{ d'lQmbfg lbg' lg

!kZrftfk u/, z'4 u/, cfpg ;a} l9nf] gu/ -@_

k|e' v|Li6n] tfl/lbG5g\ ljZjf; u/, kfkdf gk/ .

@a'l4dfg\ d 5', 1fgL eG5g\ ;a} ;+;f/ -@_

zflGt lbg], d'lQm lbg] eG5g\ k|e' o]z" tf/0fxf/ .

#d'lQmbftf cfpg'ef] ;+;f/df Hof]lt ag]/ -@_

bfHo"–efO, lbbL–alxgL cfpmg\ ;a} ljZjf; u/]/ .

$qm";dfly r9\g'eof] xfd|f] k|e' o]z" ljr/f -@_

:t'lt u5'{, r/0fdf k5'{ cfpFb}5', d kfkL cwdL{ .

%bfHo"–efO, lbbL–alxgL, a:5f}+ lsg lglZrGt eP/ -@_

a]nf 5}g, laltuof] slt a:5f}+ kfk} u/]/ .


215 gg x bfh efo s n f g

215= ;'gg x] bfh'efO:s]n F(G)

;'gg x] bfh'–efO, k|e'sf] jrgnfO{

;'gg lbbL–alxgL, k|e'sf] jrgnfO{

!O{Zj/sf] k'q k|e' o]z" v|Li6 arfpg kfkLnfO{ -@_

;+;f/df cfO{ qm";}df r9L /ut} axfP -@_

@of] hLjg xfd|f] glatfpm Joy{ kfksf] aGwgdf -@_

k|e' o]z"df ljZjf; u/L k'Ug]5f}+ :ju{nf]sdf -@_

#d[To"sf] kl5 g/sdf guO{ :ju{df hfg' 5 -@_

:ju{ hfg' k|e' o]z"df ljZjf; ug'{ 5 -@_


216 kfksf ef b lv s n g

216= kfksf] ef/b]lv:s]n G

!kfksf] ef/b]lv s] 5'6\g dfU5f}+< v|Li6sf] /utd} 5 zlQm g}

z}tfgdfly hojGt x'g vf]H5f}+< pb]s zlQm 5 /utdf .

eg ho, ho pb]ssf] zlQm 5 /utdf, /utdf

eg ho, ho pb]ssf] zlQm 5 o]z"sf] cdf]n /utdf

@kfksf] 3d08nfO{ s] 5f]8\g dfU5f}+< v|Li6sf] /utd} 5 zlQm g}

snj/L qm";lg/ z'4 x'g cfpm, pb]s zlQm 5 /utdf .

#lxp“eGbf ;kmf s] x'g dfU5f}+< v|Li6sf] /utd} 5 zlQm g}

/utdf kfk cfºgf kvfNg hfpm pb]s zlQm 5 /utdf .

$s] o]z" /fhfsf] ;]jf u5f}{< v|Li6sf] /utd} 5 zlQm g}

s] v|Li6sf] ho ;w}+ ug{ dfU5f}+< pb]s zlQm 5 /utdf .


217 o z nfo q m dfly s n g

217= o]z"nfO{ q"m;dfly:s]n G

!o]z"nfO{ qm";dfly ;a x]/, xfd|f] b'Mv p;}n] af]s]/

8fSb}5g\ ;anfO{ k|]d u/]/, o]z"nfO{ x]/ .

o]z"nfO{ x]/, x]/ t lhpg] 5f}+

o]z"nfO{ qm";dfly ;a x]/, o]z"nfO{ x]/

@kfksf] af]emfnfO{ ptfg]{5g\, cd/ hLjg kfpg] kfg]{5g\

d[To" gbLb]lv tfg]{5g\, o]z"nfO{ x]/ .

#lrxfgb]lv k|e' af}/]5g\, a9fcf}+ ;a} ha a]nf 5

pgsf] zlQmn] zf]s b"/ u5{g\ o]z"nfO{ x]/ .

$o]z" :ju{nf]sdf a:b5g\, kfkLsf] ;a b'MvnfO{ hfGb5g\

;f“RrL g} k|e'n] 8fSb}5g\, o]z"nfO{ x]/ .


218 hut f s n g

218= hut\ ;+;f/ :s]n G

!hut\ ;+;f/ s]xL klg 5}g ;'g bfHo"–efO -@_

ljZjf; u/f}+ xfdL ;an], d'lQm kfpgnfO{ -@_

v|Li6 o]z" 5g\ v|Li6 o]z" 5g\

v|Li6 o]z" 5g\, tof/ d'lQm lbgnfO{

@nf]e} u5f}{, nfnr u5f}{ ;+;f/sf] yf]snfO{ -@_

oL ;a} yf]s s]xL klg xf]Og ;fydf hfgnfO{ -@_

#cfpm ;a} lkmqmL u/f}+ d'lQm kfpgnfO{ -@_

o]z"afx]s c¿ 5}g, 5}g s]xL pkfo -@_

$cfpm ;a} bfHo"–efO xf], ;'g dg nufO{ -@_

v|Li6 o]z" tf/0fxf/sf] lgDtf] 5 ;anfO{ -@_


219 cfp o z of s n d

219= cfP o]z" of] :s]n D

cfP o]z" of] ;+;f/df kfkLx¿nfO{ arfpgnfO{

u/f}+ ljZjf; o]z"dfly, kfp“5g\ p4f/ kfksf] Ifdf

!o]z" gf;/L hGd lnP a]yn]x]dsf] ufO{sf] uf]7df -@_

5f]8L :ju{ cfP pgL kfkLx¿nfO{ arfpgnfO{ -@_

@;f/f ;+;f/ kfk–;fu/df 8'Ab} lyof] k|e'ljgf -@_

cfpm ;a} qm";sf] 5]pdf d'lQm lbG5g\ o]z" v|Li6n] -@_


220 of f f f s n c

220= of] ;f/f ;+;f/ :s]n C

!of] ;f/f ;+;f/ ;kgfh:tf] 5 -@_

;kgfdf sxf“ lyof}+, hflup7\bf sxf“ 5f}+ -@_

@o:t} g} x] efO xf] xfd|f] xfnt 5 -@_

k|f0f} 5'6]kl5 tf ;+;f/} cb[Zo -@_

#sf]xL 5}g ;+;f/df kfkb]lv arfpg] -@_

o]z"afx]s sf]xL 5}g :ju{df n}hfg] -@_

$5f]l8b]pm efO–alxgL ;+;f/sf] s'sd{nfO{ -@_

nf} u|x0f u/ ;a}n] :ju{sf] af6f]nfO{ -@_

%;+;f/sf] dfofdf e'n]/ ga; -@_

To;f] u¥of} eg] tf g/s'08 cjZo -@_

^cfºgf] of] k|f0f x'Fbf vf]h x} stf{nfO{ -@_

pg}n] ;a} kfkLnfO{ lbG5g\ kfk 5'6fO{ -@_


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@@!=

sf]M cWof/f] hut\df Hof]lt km}nfO{ pHhjn k|e' o]z"

!ltdLn] cwd{ kfknfO{ qm";df d]6fOlbof}

qm";sf] b'MvnfO{ ;x]/ kfkLnfO{ d'Qm u/fof}

ufO/x]5f}+ ltd|f] ;j{u]0fufg, ;lDem/x]5f}+ ofb dw'/f] k|]d .

@lg/fz hLjg lnP/ lalt/x]Yof} To;}

z'is x[bosf] tfgdf hLljt cfzf lbnfof}

ufO/x]5f}+ ltd|f] ;j{u'0fufg, ;lDem/x]5f}+ ofb dw'/f] k|]d .

#kfkdo hLjgnfO{ Tofu] cfTdfsf] bLk hnfp“5f}+

:juL{o cflzif\ lnP/ :t'lt cf/fwgf r9fp“5f}+

ufO/x]5f}+ ltd|f] ;j{u'0fufg, ;lDem/x]5f}+ ofb dw'/f] k|]d .


222 cfxf slt dl f s n c

222= cfxf slt dL&f] :s]n C

cfxf, slt dL7f] jrg, k|e'n] lbPsf] /rgf -@_

!ha d jrg k9\b5' emg\ 7"nf] OR5f a9\b5

ha d jrg ;'Gb5', ta dg v'zLn] eb{5 .

@ha d kfkn] e/]y]+F ta cGwsf/n] 5f]lkPy]+F

k|e'n] dnfO{ af]nfpg'ef]’ clg v'zLsf] va/ ;'gfpg'ef]’ .

#d, ltdL, xfdL, ;a} kfkL lyof}+ clg ;fFrf] k|e'nfO{ lrGbYof}F

k|e' cfP cfkm} :ju{ 5f]8]/, xfd|f] nflu pHofnf] Hof]lt afn]/ .

$qm";df k|e' d'g{eof], xfd|f] kfksf] ef/ p7fpg'eof]

d[To"af6 af}/L p7\g'ef]’ / xfdLnfO{ :ju{sf] 9f]sf vf]Ng'ef]’ .

%cfpm bfHo"–efO, lbbL–alxgL, k|e'sf] dL7f] jrg k9\g

cfºgf kfknfO{ x6fO{ ;fFrf] k|e' o]z"df ljZjf; u/g .


223 dfrf cfh of s n f d

223= ;';dfrf/ cfh of] :s]n F(D)

;';dfrf/ cfh of], x] ldq ltd|f]nflu xf] -@_

!;'g g ;fyL, s] dL7f] jf0fL eg]sf] o]z"n] -@_

cfpmg ;a} yfs]sf] k|f0fL -;+;f/df kfk}n]_ @

@5}g csf]{ :ju{ hfg] af6f] o]z" d;Lxl;jfo -@_

sf/0f pg}n] k|f0f qm";df Tofu] -kfk aGwg tf]8\gnfO{_ @

#cfpmg ;fyL, lgzfgL /fv k|e'sf] qm";}nfO{ -@_

5f]l8b]pm dfof, 5f]l8b]pm lkmqmL -:ju{nf]s hfgnfO{_ @


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@@$=

sf]M efO–alxgL, kfknfO{ wf]O{ dfug o]z"sf] /utn]

!;do k"/f] eOuof] k/d]Zj/n] /fHo ug]{

d'lQm p4f/ kfpg]5g\ h;n] ljZjf; ug]{ .

@:ju{af6 cf]ln{cfP dflg; rf]nf lnP/

kfksf] aGwg vf]lnlbP cfkm\g} /ut lbP/ .

#snj/L 8f“8}df qm";df em'08fO{ df/]

ltd|f] xfd|f] kfksf] ;f6f] /utsf] wf/f aufP .

$;do 5}g efO–alxgL rf“8} pl7cfpg'xf];\

;';dfrf/nfO{ ljZjf; u/L p4f/ d'lQm kfpg'xf];\ .

%kfksf] ej;fu/df /xG5f} slt lbg

k|e' o]z" tof/ 5g\ kf/ tfl/lbg .

^;f“rf] clg Pp6} dfq :juL{o cd/ k|]dnfO{

cfh clg o;} 38L dfu kfpgnfO{ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@@%=

sf]M Pslbg hut\nfO{ 5f]8\g'5, Pslbg d/0fdf kg'{5

cfpg' vfnL clns lbg a:g', Pslbg ;a} yf]s 5f]8\g'5

!wg–;DklQ, dfof, lk/tL hfb}gg\ ;“u} oL

;dofnfO{ Joy{ latfp5f} lsg < ;bf g/xg] tL .

@gfl;g] hut\df ;'v–r}g u5f}{ ;a} of] Joy{ 5

;bf g/xg] hLjgdf e"n] Joy}{–Joy{ 5 .

#dxn agfO{, au}+rf nufO{ a:b5g\ /fgL

au}rfdf ;w}+ a'na'n af]Nb}g, of] klg Joy}{ xf] .

$afnskg tf v]ndf laTof], hjfgL kfkdf 5

d/] km]l/ s] ofb 5}g g/sdf hfg'5 .

%hut\ u'? ;f/f nf]sdf d[To"df k/]

dl/uP ;a} /fhf–dxf/fhf df6f]df ldn] .

^kfksf] Ifdf k|e' o]z"sf] /utdf kfpg]5f}+

ljZjf; pgdf clxn] Nofpm d'lQm kfpg]5f}+ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@@^=

!cfpm ;a kfkL, bLg, bl/b|, nvt/fg, b'Mlvt, cgfy

o]z" ltdLnfO{ arfpg klv{G5g\ k|]d, zlQm;fy .

sf]M v|Li6 5g\ of]Uo, v|Li6 5g\ of]Uo, v|Li6 5g\ of]Uo

v|Li6 5g\ /fhL, g8/fpm, v|Li6 5g\ /fhL, g8/fpm

@cfpm bl/b|, v|Li6 lgDTofp“5g\, n]pm j/bfg k/d]Zj/sf]

kZrftfk / ;To ljZjf; ;a cg'u|x rflxbf]

ljgfk};f, ljgfk};f -@_ o]z"af6 lng cfpm -@_

#cfpm ;a a];/L nflbPsf, kfksf] ;fu/df 8'Ag] cfpm

z'4 x'g' kVof}{ eg] ltdL slxNo} cfpb}gf}

wfld{s xf]Og, wfld{s xf]Og -@_ kfkLnfO{ 8fS5g\ o]z" -@_

$b]xwf/L O{Zj/ o]z" :ju{ kms]{ tf/0fxf/

/fv pg}df e/f];f, pgsf] jrgdf kTof/

vfln o]z", vfln o]z" -@_ u5{g\ kfkLnfO{ p4f/ -@_


227 czflgtsf kl s n d

227= czflGtsf] kL/:s]n D

czflGtsf] kL/ a9\of] w'gL nufP/ -@_

k|e' v|Li6df ljZjf; u/ dgnfO{ hufP/ x}, ;'g g]kfnL

!;'v, zflGt g]kfnLsf] d}nf kvfn]/ -@_

cd/ hLjg ldNg] 5}g, w]/} klv{P/ x}, ;'g g]kfnL .

@d'lQm 5}g ;+;fdf dgn] u'lglnP -@_

bfHo"–efO, lbbL–alxgL, ljZjf; ul/lnP x}, ;'g g]kfnL .

#;'gL ljZjf; gu/]df 7"nf] xfd|f] e"n -@_

d'lQm lbg] k|e' o]z" hLjgsf] d"n x}, ;'g g]kfnL .

$:ju{af6 k|e' cfP d'lQm lnP/ -@_

qm";dfly dg'{eof] hLjg lbgnfO{ x}, ;'g g]kfnL .

%kfksf] af]emf p7fOnfg] csf]{ 5}g sf]xL -@_

Pp6} dfq k|e' o]z" hLjg lbg] pg} x}, ;'g g]kfnL .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@@*=

sf]M Ao'“em–Ao'“em g]kfnL k/d]Zj/sf] jrg ;'GgnfO{

!of] cGwsf/df a;]/ z}tfgsf] hfn–em]ndf km;]/

lsg k|e'sf] vf]hL ub}{gf}+, lsg Ps ;f“rf] O{Zj/ k'Hb}gf} <

@h] ltdL ljZjf; ub{5f}, h] ltdL cfzf /fVb5f}+

lg/fzfdf ltdL k'Ug]5f} / z}tfgsf] em]ndf km:g]5f} .

#cfpg'xf];\ ljZjf; u/L cfpg'xf];\ of] v'zLsf] va/ ;'Gg'xf];\

k|e'sf] jrg k9\g'xf];\, cfkm\gf] cfTdfnfO{ arfpg'xf];\ .

$w]/} jif{cl3 Ps lbgdf a]yn]x]dsf] Tof] ;fgf] ufp“df

k/d]Zj/sf] k'q v|Li6 cfpg'ef]’, ufO{sf] uf]7df hGd lng'ef]’ .

%:ju{df a:g] xfd|f] lktfn] xfdLnfO{ bof ug'{ef]’

xfd|f] of] kfknfO{ b]v]/ cfkm\gf] Psnf] k'qnfO{ k|rf/ u/]/

^o; kfkL ;+;f/df cfP :ju{sf] k|rf/ u/]/

k|e' v|Li6 qm";df dg'{ef]’ xfd|f] kfksf] ef/ p7fpg'ef]’ .

&xfd|f] ;a} b'Mv–si6 ;x]/ df6f]d'lg tLg lbg;Dd /x]/

k|e' km]l/ af}l/P/ p7\g'ef]’ / :ju{sf] 9f]sf vf]Ng'ef]’ .

*k|e' v|Li6n] kfknfO{ lhTg'ef]’ xfdL ;a}nfO{ qm";df lsGg'ef]’

cd"No /ut axfpg'ef]’, ljZjf;L ;a}nfO{ arfpg'ef]’ .

(cfpg'xf];\ x] g]kfnL, cfpg'xf];\, kZrftfk u/L cfh cfpg'xf];\

cfkm\gf] kfknfO{ dflglng'xf];\, k|e'l;t kfksf] Ifdf dfUg'xf];\ .

!)qm";sf] /utdf ljZjf; ug'{xf];\, z}tfgsf ;a} s'/f 5f]8\g'xf];\

k|e'sf] jrg k9\g'xf];\, k|fy{gf c6"6 ug'{xf];\ .

!!=ha k|e' km]l/ cfpg]5g\, ljZjf;L ;anfO{ arfpg]5g\

ljZjf;LnfO{ :ju{ k7fpg]5g\, z}tfg / b'i6nfO{ gfz ug]{5g\ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@@(=

sf]M k|]d u/ lgisk6, bof u/ lgisk6

cfkm\gf] kfknfO{ Tofu]/ k|e' o]z"df

!h'g s'/f 5 kfk / z}tfgn] e/]sf]

ToxL s'/f 5 dg gkg]{ lktf k/d]Zj/sf]

3[0ff u/ Tof] s'/fnfO{ ;w}+ ltd|f] 7fp“df

k/} /fv Tof] s'/fnfO{ k/d]Zj/sf] 5]pdf .

@h'g s'/f 5 /fd|f] ;w}+ k/d]Zj/sf] 5]pdf

ToxL s'/f xf] ug'{kg]{ k/d]Zj/sf] gfp“df

bfHo"–efOdf a/fa// dfof–k|]d u/

sb/ ug]{ efjgf ;w}+ cfkm\gf] dgdf e/ .

#sf]lzz u/ ;a} sfddf cN5L gag]/

k|e' ;]jf ub}{ a; hf]lznf] ag]/

l:y/ a; ;+si6df cfzfdf, cfgGb u/

wL/hL agL ;a} sfddf, k|fy{gf c6"6 u/ .

$dbt u/ ;ef–3/df kljq hgx¿nfO{

wGo eg ;w}+ ltd|f] v]bf] ug]{ hgnfO{

k|e' eG5g\, æabnf lng] sfd ;a} d]/f] xf]Æ

t/ ltd|f] ef]sf] zq'nfO{ ltdLn] v'jfpg] xf]pm .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@#)=

sf]M hut\sf] tf/0fxf/, xfd|f] v|Li6 /fhf -$_ hut\sf]

!xfd|f] lglDt :ju{ 5f]8L cfP hut\df -@_

aln eP xfd|f] lglDt snj/Lsf] qm";df -@_

@kfksf] p4f/ ug{ cfP v|Li6 o]z" /fhf -@_

kZrftfkL x[bonfO{ Ifdf lbG5g\ cfh -@_

#;Totfsf] jrg lbP ;f/f hgtfnfO{ -@_

v|Li6df ljZjf; u/] xfdL kf/ t5f}{ efO -@_

$v|Li6sf] cdf]n jrg kfO{ kfkb]lv kms{ -@_

kfkb]lv kmSof}{ eg] kfp“5f} cfgGb :ju{ -@_


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@#!=

sf]M k|rf/ u/L ;DemfP ltdLnfO{ lnPgf} a'emL

ed{b} uof} lgi7'/ ltdL

!xft, kfp, lz/, sf]vfdf axfP /Qm -cf“z' kl;gf_ @

@cfh of] 38L ut hLjgel/ ;'Gof}+, ;'Gb}5f}+ ;'gL g} /xG5f}+ sxfgL of] d]/f] .

#s] 5 / nfe, eg]/ xfo–xfo lg lg x] k|e', -x] d]/f gfy_ @

$ljZjsf cGo dflg; klg u'? dfGotf, -elQm r9fp“5g\_ @

%:ju]{ lktfsf], x] kl/jf/ rfxGg oL ;a -d ltdLaf6_ @

^r9fPsf], cfGtl/s x[bo wf]O{–kvfnL, -/utn] d]/f]_ @

&jrgcg';f/, ltdL xf} d]/f ckgfof} u/L -:jod\ ltd|f]_ @

*a]/ gu/L, rf8} g} ca cfpg]5' nfG5' -lktfsxf“ d]/f]_ @

(hf“r u/L, x]/g cfkm"nfO{ p7 u/ nf} kZrftfk /f]O{ -@_ ljZjf; u/L .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@#@=

!lxdfnr'nL Tof] kNnf]kl§ ?v ;'Sof] ;n{·}

kfk d]/f] ;DemL sfnf] g} sfnf] dg kmf6\of] en{·}

/f]O{–/f]O{ a;]/, ckm;f];n] e/]/ dg km'6\of] emn{Dd} .

@snj/L 8f8f“ Tof] kNnf]kl§ o]z"sf] qm"; lyof]

Toxf“ ltd|f] ab\nL o]z" g} eO{ cfkm\gf] k|f0f lbg'ef]’

P7, p7 ;fyL xf], kfk dflglnP/ dfkm dfu O{Zj/sf] .

#cf]vn9'·fsf] u0f]z 6f]ndf wfg s'6\y] b]jn] /]

hLjg cf]vndf e"; d]/f] kmfNg' s'6\b}g s;}n] <

eg, eg ;fyL xf] dh:tf] kfkL hg s;/L pDsg] <

$unuyf 7fp“df Kof/f] o]z"n] s'6lk6 ;xg'ef]’

dflg;n] y's], v"a x]nf u/] xfd|f] efu lyof] of]

nf}, nf} lk|o efO, wGojfb lbpm g ;hfo t eO;Sof] .

%b'O{ sf]z psfnf] g]kfnsf] 5f]/f ef/L g} af]Sb}5g=\

ef/L 5 d]/f], dgdf t af]S5' of]eGbf 7"nf] emg\

xfo–xfo u/]/ slxn] la;fpg kfpm“, rf}tf/f sxf“5g\ <

^b'O{ xhf/ jif{ lat]/ uP tfklg clxn] g}

O{Zj/sf] 5f]/f la;fpg lbP hf] xfd|f] kx/}

/fv–/fv pxf“df 7"nf] of] ef/L g}, dg xj;\ xn'·} .

&6f]S;Ln 3f6df kfl/ x} k'Ug' 8'·f t 5 hf]/bf/

hLjg 5f]8\bf :ju{ x} k'Ug' s;/L x'G5 kf/ <

cfd} s] u? < vf]nf 8/nfUbf] 5, sf] x'G5 tf/0fxf/ <

*cr]nsf] dfemL s] afgL u5{g\ 9Lnf] t cfp“b}5g\

d[To"sf] vf]nf xft ;dfpg' Pshgf tof/ 5g\

cfpm, cfpm g8/fpm o]z"n] lbG5g\ kf/ chDd/L hLjg .


233 goff hljg s n em

233= gofF hLjg:s]n Em

gof“ hLjg kfpg'5 cfh,

xfdL ;a}n] o]z"sf] ;fydf lap“emg'5 cfh

!/Lltl/jfhdf 8'asf] dfG5], -@_ v|Li6sf] gf}nf]kgnfO{ x]/

wd{ xf]Og, sd{ klg xf]Og -@_

Xbosf] d'xf/nfO{ qm";lt/ km]/ .

@ha hLjg ef/ x'G5 -@_ d[To"sf] rf]6 /utdf hN5

Joy{ xf]Og, :jfy{ klg xf]Og -@_

v|Li6sf] cfTdf ;a} d'6'df v]N5 .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@#$=

sf]M p4f/sf] lbg 5 cfh g} ldq ;donfO{ gkv{

clglZrt rf]nfsf] e/f];f s] 5 clxn] g} 9Ng ;S5

!b]lv 8/nfUbf] bzf kfkLsf] v|Li6 cl3 ;g'{ef]’ -@_

;xL rf]6 Tof] .>flkt qm";sf], d'lQm åf/ vf]Ng'ef]’ _@_

@lbG5g\ k|e' v|Li6 d'lQm / zflGt k5\tfpg] kfkLnfO{ -@_

l;Q}sf] d'lQm lngsf lglDt cfpm cfh o]z"sxf“ -@_


235 ldq ltdlnfo s n g

235= ldq ltdLnfO{:s]n G

ldq, ltdLnfO{ of] va/ 5 rf“8} g} k|e' cfpg'x'G5

;';dfrf/ ;'gL /fv, cfkm\gf] cfTdfnfO{ arfpm cfh

!ltdL eG5f} ;do 5 d]/f] -@_, t/ ;dor}’ lalt;Sof]

k|e'nfO{ u|x0f ul/xfn, gq cGtdf ?g'knf{ -@_

@clxn] ;'gL e/] ge'n -@_, ;';dfrf/ of] dg}df u'g

ltdL cfkm}nfO{ hf“lrxfn, cfºgf] cfTdfnfO{ arfpm cfh -@_

#ldq k|e'df ljZjf; u/ -@_, cfh g} pgdf cl3 a9

ltd|f] kfknfO{ wf]Olbg'x'G5, pgs} ;Gtfg agfpg'x'G5 -@_


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@#^=

sf]M sxf“ hf“b}5f} ltdL, kms]{/ cfpm k|e'df

5}g ca t ;do, laof“nf] gu/L k|e' o]z"nfO{ ljZjf; u/ -@_

!uO/x]5f} ltdL sxf“, yfxf 5 s] ltdLnfO{ <

k'U5f} sxf“ ltdL, s'g af6f]df hf“b}5f} <

o]z"df cfpm clxn] g}, klv{/xg]5g\ ltdLnfO{ .

@af“r]sf] 5 s] cfTdf, ljrf/ u/]sf 5f} s] <

o;sf/0f cfpm rf“8} g}, cfTdfsf] lkmqmL u/L

klv{/x]5g\ o]z" cfTdf arfpg ltd|f] .

#gu/L l9nf] ca, ;do x'b} rf8} cfpm

pgn] :ju{ nfg rfxG5g\, ljZjf; u¥of} eg] dfq

klv{/xg]5g\ o]z", ca]/ gu/L cfpm .


237 nf g fyl s n g

237= nf} ;'g ;fyL:s]n G

nf} ;'g ;fyL, ;Tosf] jf0fL, of] ltd|} nflu xf],

u/La–wgL ;a}sf] nflu, hLjgsf] kfgL xf],

O{Zj/sf] k'q, cfPy] w/tL s;}n] lrg]g

kfkLnfO{ d'lQmbfg lbg d/], of] s'/f a'em nf}

!dfof / df]x af“r'~h]n;Dd, ;+;f/df b'O{ lbgsf],

wd{ / sd{, ;a} Joy{ 5g\ of] ltdL a'em nf} -@_

lz/df d's'6 sf“8fsf] nfO{, em'l08P qm";df

kfkLnfO{ d'lqmbfg lbg d/], of] s'/f a'em nf} .

@af“RgnfO{ dfG5] ;w}+ g} vf]H5, hLjgsf] ;xf/f

kfksf] jzdf 8'a]sf] dfG5], Pp6} 5 lsgf/f -@_

af6f] / ;To, hLjg 5 x} v|Li6 o]z" k|e'df

ljZjf; u/L, x] d]/f ;fyL, hLjg n]pm pg}df .


238 fyl lbg w s n em

238= ;fyL lbg w]/}:s]n Em

;fyL lbg w]/} 9ln;Sof], kZrftfksf] a]nf lalt;Sof]

;';dfrf/ ;'gfpg hfg] xf] ls qm";nfO{ g} c·flna:g] xf] <

!o]z"sf] hLjgnfO{ x]/, ;/ntfsf] ;hLj zlQm xf] -@_

;f“rf] dfgj hLjgsf] dfq Pp6f pbfx/0f xf]

pxf“s} gh/df t/ xfd|f] cj:yf s:tf]–s:tf] 5

;f]lrb]pm PsIf0f cfh ltdL, :juL{o k|]d lsg ;:tf] 5 .

@eG5g\ ;a} dfgj oxf“ dfltP/ bfgj x'G5 -@_

dfof gkfO{ ?G5g\ eg] kfP/ km]l/ ;':tfp“5g\

dfof k|e'sf] c;Lldt 5, r]tgf xfd|f] sxf“ x/fof]

cg'u|x pgsf] ;bf 5, hf]z xfd|f] lsg ;]nfof] <


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@#(=

sf]M :jfut 5, ltdLnfO{ o]z" v|Li6sf] gfp“df

!cfpm efO, cfpm alxgL, o]z"sf] 5]pdf cfpgnfO{ :jfut .

@snj/L b[Zo ljrf/ u/L x]bf{ clt Sn]z ;xb} :jfut .

#unuyfsf] kxf8}df alnbfg eP xfd|f] lglDt :jfut 5 .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@$)=

sf]M cjtf/ eof] k|e' o]z"sf] pgsf] xf];\ ho

!;f/f hut\sf] x'g d'lQmbftf -@_, af6f], ;RrfO /

hLjgsf] bftf cfpg'ef]’ k|e' -@_ xfd|f] lglDtdf .

@kfkdo hLjg xfd|f] 8'a]sf] -@_ b]vfpg cfpg'ef]’

k|]d O{Zj/sf] cfpg'ef]’ o]z" -@_ zflGt lnP/ .

#pxf“sf] nflu x[bo vf]lnb]pm -@_ lkmqmLsf] hLjg

pgnfO{ lng b]pm, gjLg hLjg lnO{ -@_ hfpm /dfp“b} .


241 g dem oxff of s n c

241= g;Dem oxfF of]:s]n C

g;Dem oxf“ of] hLjg xf“;]/ dfq af“r]sf]

;f]rg dgdf cfkm}nfO{, 5 ltd|f] cfTdf af“r]sf]

lg0f{o cfh} g} ul/b]pm, ef]ln t ca]/ eOhfnf

geP Pslbg of] hLjg /f]O–/f]O /lxhfnf -@_

!n'sfO/fV5f} ltd|f] kfk, af]s]/ sxf“ nfG5f} / <

la;fpg a¿ t'?Gt} lnP/ sxf“ hfG5f} / < -@_

uf]/]6f] ;fgf] ;'l/nf] snj/L 8f“8f k'UgnfO{

gdfg ;+sf]r of] dgdf O{Zj/sf] ;fd' em'SgnfO{ .

@/utsf] yf]kf cfnf] 5 unuyfsf] af6f]df

k|e'n] af]s] bogLo qm";, xfd|f] kfksf] ;f6f]df -@_

alnbfg oxf“ hLjgsf] si6 / kL/ d'6'df

;x]sf] 5 x} pg}n] ltd|f] / d]/f] lglDtdf .


242 nf bfho gg s n g

242= nf} bfHo" ;'gg:s]n G

nf} bfHo" ;'gg, nf} alxgL ;'gg, o]z"sf] jrg

dg}df u'gg, a'lem/fv x[bodf, lrgL/fv o]z"nfO{ -@_

!snj/L 8fF8fdf Tof] Pp6} qm";}df -@_

d'lQmbftf o]z"sf] Tof] z'¢ /utdf -@_

Tof] d'lQm ltd|}nflu xf] . cf] -@_

@hLjg xfd|f] 5f]6f] 5 x}, nfdf] hLjg o]z"df -@_

a'lem/fv cfh g}, gq ef]ln ;do 5}g

xfd|f] o]z" cfpg} nfu]5g\ . cf] -@_


243 n x rof af s n g

243= n x} Rofª\af :s]n G

n x} Rof·af s]xL eG5', ;'lgb]pm x} lrQ nufO{

o]z"sf] k|]dnfO{ a'em]/ dgleq u'lgb]pm x}

!:ju{sf] ;'v–r}g 5f8L dflg;sf] ¿klnO{ -@_

arfpg egL xfldnfO{ xfd|f] abnL dg'{eof] -@_

@O{Zj/sf] gh/df Rof·af xfdL ;a} kfkL 5f} x} -@_

xfd|f] kfk w'gnfO{ o]z"sf] /ut cfn} 5 x} -@_

#;+;f/af6 d'lQm kfO{ :ju{ ;'vdf a:g] xf] eg] -@_

n x} Rof·af ltdL klg o]z"df ljZjf; u/ x} -@_


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@$$=

sf]M lsgeg] O{Zj/n] ;+;f/nfO{ o:tf] k|]d ug'{ef]’

Pp6} gegL xfdLnfO{ pgsf] cfkm\gf] k'q klg lbOxfNg'ef]’

pg}dfly ljZjf; ug]{ sf]xL gi6 x'g kfpb}gg\

t/ cgGt hLjg kfO{ k|e'sf] ;fydf ;bf a:g]5g\

!:ju{sf] d'lg c? s'g} gfp“df p4f/ 5}g efO -@_

;To xf] em'l08Psf] O{Zj/ ltd|f]nflu .

@oxL ;';dfrf/ ;'gfOb]pm ;f/f ;+;f/df cfh -@_

dflg;sf] ?k lnP/ cfpg'ef]’ o]z" d'lQmbftf .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@$%=

!k/d]Zj/n] o]z" k7fP kfk Ifdf r·fO lbgnfO{

lhP d/] Ifdfsf] nflu l/Qf] lrxfg hLljt o]z"sf] k|df0f 5 .

sf]M o]z" hLljt ePsf sf/0f ef]lnsf] 8/ xl6uof]

sf/0f eljio pgn] ;DxfN5g\ / d]/f] hLjgnfO{ ;fy{s agfp“b5g\ .

@gof“ afnsn] cfgGb Nofp“5, v'zL uf}/j ylkG5

cem pxf“sf] hLljttfn] clglZrt eljio ;a} ;'/lIft 5 .

#d[To" gbL t/]/ hf“bf clGtd n8fO ;+3if{;fy

d[To"kl5 ljho kfp“bf pxf“sf] dlxdfsf] Hof]lt d b]Vg]5' .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@$^=

sf]M k|e'sf] :t'lt u/f}+ xfdL ;an]

hohosf/ pgsf] tg–dg–wgn]

wGo xf];\ k|e'sf] hf] xfd|f] ;[hgxf/

dlxdf pgsf], ag] xfd|f] tf/0fxf/

!cGwsf/k"0f{ b'lgofdf e'lna:g]5f} lsg efO, bf]ifL agL

;'g of] k'sf/ hf] cfh eGb5 kmsL{ kfkb]lv dsxf“ cfpm .

@v'Nnf 5 kmf6s, hf] sf]xL cfp“b5g\ bfd s]xL nfUb}g k:g Toxf“

hf] sf]xL cfp“5g\ elgG5g\ wGosf b"/ x'G5g\ kfkx¿ R"0f{ dgsf .

#v|Li6 cfh eGg'x'''''G5 ltdL 5f} sxf“, eg x] ldq xf], k|e' d oxf“

af]emn] blaPsf] kfkn] 5' lkl8t lnP/ hLjgnfO{ u/fpm lglZrt .

$b]Vb5' 9f]sfnfO{ k|e'sf] qm";df, ax]sf] Tof] /ut d]/f]nflu

z'4 x'g kfkb]lv, cfp“b}5' k|e' d, hf“r]/ x[bo w'gf];\ dnfO{ .


247 utn utn s n g7

247= /utn] /utn]:s]n G7

/utn] /utn] o]z"sf] /utn] -@_

!d]/f] kfknfO{ Ifdf ul/b]pm -@_

@d]/f] kfksf] bfunfO{ d]6fOb]pm -@_

#k"0f{ zflGt dgdf el/b]pm -@_

$z}tfgdfly ljhoL x'gb]pm -@_

%lgTo k|fy{gf ug]{{ ;fx; b]pm -@_

^:juL{o Hof]ltsf] /fhdf k:g b]pm -@_


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@$*=

!x[bosf] kbf{ p3f/L x]bf{ kfk}n] /f;} /f; larf? .

@kfk lrQn] ubf{ x[bon] xfbf{ kfk}sf] hLtafhL larf? .

#kfk}n] lhTbf O{Zj/n] kmofSbf cfTdfsf] ;j{gfz larf? .

$cfTdfsf] s'ut O{Zj/n] x]/L k'qsf] lbP bfg larf? .

%kfk xfd|f] x]/L o]z"sf] hoho x[bosf] OR5fn] larf? .

^nf} cfpm, ufp o]z"sf] hoho x[bosf] OR5fn] larf? .

&cflTds} ofqf l;4 u/f} ;an] cflTds} uf]xf/n] larf? .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@$(=

!cGwsf/, aGwg, b'Mvb]lv, o]z" d cfpm“, o]z" d cfpm“

kfpg 5'6sf/f, xif{ b[li6 o]z" d cfp“b}5'

cfkm\gf] /f]ub]lv cf/f]Uodf, cefjb]lv k|z:ttfdf

kfk–e"nb]lv kljqtfdf, o]z" d cfp“b}5] .

@dnfO{ nhfpg] afgLb]lv, -o]z" d cfpm“_ @

tkfO{sf] r/0f 3f]K6f] k/L, o]z" d cfp“b"5'

cf“wLb]lv tkfO{sf] cf8df, husf] zf]sb]lv ;fGTjgfdf

;+s6b]lv k|z+;fdf, o]z" d cfp“b5' .

#lrGtf, 3d08 a]r}gLb]lv, -o]z" d cfpm“_ @

OR5f tkfO{sf] :jLsf/ u/L, o]z" d cfp“b}5'

:jfy{b]lv tkfO{sf] k|]ddf, lg/fzb]lv k/dfgGtdf

kIfLem} p8L kv]6fdf, o]z" d cfp“b}5' .

$d[To"sf] qf; eo°/b]lv -o]z" d cfpm“_

:ju{ 3/lt/ cl3 a9L, o]z" d cfp“b}5'

;Togfzb]lv c;Ld ckf/ cf.odf kfpg zflGt p4f/

x]g{ tkfO{sf] lk|o d'xf/, o]z" d cfp“b}5' .


250 cfpm o z s n d

250= cfpm o]z":s]n D

cfpm, o]z", nf} dnfO{ arfpm, kfksf] of] ef/L cfwLdf -@_

!;f+;fl/s ;fu/sf] x] alnof] dfemL -@_

b'Mv–bb{ a'lemlxF8\g] b'lgofFsf] nflu,

k|f0f lbg], Hofg lbg] k/d pksf/L -@_

;Rrf kSsf wd{ Nofpg] cwd{ kvfnL .

@;'kb]z lbGYof}, k|e' b'lgofF rxf/L -@_

wdL{nfO{ wGo egL kfkLnfO{ ptf/L,

b'Mv–;'v ;fyL ;DemL xf“;'–/f]pm geO{ -@_

qm";dfly r9\of} k|e', hLjg lbg s7} .

#gu/L b]pm l9nf] k|e', nf} g l56f] cfpm g -@_

b'isd{sf] af9L aUof], au] ;a} hg,

gfp lvofpm, kf/L n}hfpm, ;'g cfQ{gfb -@_

x] lhGbuL bftf o]z", /fv cfºg} ;fy .


251 hljgsf s e f f s n d

251= hLjgsf] s] e/f];f :s]n D

hLjgsf] s] e/f];f b'O{ lbgsf] hLjg v]ndf

k|e'sf] :t'lt ufcf}+ -#_

!cfzf ub{5f} Joy{df of] ljBf, a'l4, wgdf -@_

lnP/ 3d08 dgdf nfe x'Gg of] hLjgdf -@_

@x] v|Li6Lo hflt xf], hfu kfkdo hLjgnfO{ Tofu -@_

:juL{o cflzif\ dfu, k|e'sf] lglDt hfu -@_

#s?0ff–;fu/ o]z", pgL x'g\ xfd|f] ;xf/f -@_

k|e'sxf“ xfdL hfcf}+, k|e'sf] :t'lt ufcf}+ -@_


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@%@=

!vNnf] 5 hLjg, gfy clt g} l3gnfUbf]

tkfO{sf] of]Uosf] 5}g :jefj d]/f]

vf]O{ 7f]s/ n8] w]/, nlHht o; hLjgdf

tkfO{sf] lglDt, k|e' nfe 5}g s]xL ddf,

;8]sf] d]/f] b]x dfUg'x'G5 k|e'

yfs] d cfkm}l;t, yfSg'x'Gg, x] k|e' .

@eP d afns v|Li6sf] tfklg 5' xtfz

kljq k|]d pxf“sf] ub{5' lsg gfz,

b'u{Gw kfksf] clt dnfO{ lg;f:b5

hufpg] bf]ifsf] efn] ;w} g} af:b5

rlst d emg\–emg\ 5', ;'G5' ha cfjfh

lkmsf o:tf] hLjgnfO{ bfg 5 o]z"sf] /fHo .

#kTofpg' ufx|f] nfU5 k|]d s:tf] ulx/f],

a]sDdf kmf];|f] dflg; o]z"sf] sfdnfUbf]

wL/hL k|e' d]/f] ems{Ggg\ dl;t

p7fpg'x'G5 dnfO{ n8\b5' ha d

x[bosf] cfzf 6'6f]; of km'6f]; d]/f] dg

oy]i6 v|Li6sf] k|]dn] d x'G5' ;'zf]eg .


253 k e hl chl s n c

253= k|e'hL chL{ :s]n C

k|e'hL, chL{ d]/f] ;'lgn]pm nf} x} r9fP

k|e'hL, nf} x} cfh r9fP, nf} x} r9fP

k|e'hL, dgsf] d}nf] wf]Ob]pm, nf} x} r9fP

!;+;f/ 5 kfk}n] e/]sf] -@_ wgsf] nf]edf ;a} k/]sf] -@_

nf}g laGtL cfh d}n] r9fP -@_

@;+;f/¿kL ;d'Gb| rf}8f 5 -@_, hLjg¿kL gfp k'/fgf] 5 -@_

nf}g d]/f] gfpnfO{ kf/ nufOb]pm -@_

#/ftf–;]tf km"n} km'n]sf -@_dfofhfndf b'lgofF e'n]sf -@_

nf}g husf] dfofhfnnfO{ km'sfOb]pm -@_

$8f“8fkfl/ 3fd} 8'lauf] -@_, rf/} bzf 3f]/ cGwsf/ ef] -@_

nf}g cGwsf/df dnfO{ Hof]lt b]pm -@_


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@%$=

!k|e' bof ca dfuL r/0f xfdL kb{5f}

cfkm\gf kfksf sfon eO{ lnb5f} tkfO{sf] gfp“ ,

@kfkL ;f]r, lgik|]dL s'/f xfd|f] lj?4 5g\ ujfxL .

cof]Uo sd{, lglZrt ;]jf kg]{ sfd gu/]sf .

#k|fy{gf ubf{ klg x[bo tkfO{b]lv ef] 6f9f

dfg–dlgtf] ubf{ cf]7n] u/] jrg sk6sf .

$cdf]n a]nf Joy}{ sf6of], cdf]n 38L cgfxsdf

s/f/ / o'4 la;L{, 6f/L a'l4sf ;Nnfx .

%k|e', bof km]l/ dfuL kZrftfkL 5f} nhfO{

nfe ;dosf] ca u/L lhp“5f} tkfO{sf] eO{ .

^:ju]{ lktf, cflzif\ b]pm pef]af6 sfg nufO{

k|]dL qftf, kljq cfTdf, ;'g xfd|f] bLg b'xfO{ .


255 chl xfd f gof s n d

255= chL{ xfd|f] ;'Gof}:s]n D

chL{ xfd|f] ;'Gof} lg g]kfnsf] 9f]sf vf]Nof} lg k\e'

dgsf] 9f]sf rf8} lg ;asf vf]lnb]pm, k|e' g]kfnL efOsf

!:ju{sf] j}ej Tofu]/ k|e' ;+;f/df cfP lg -@_

ltdL / dnfO{ d'lQm lbg' qm"; p7fP lg -@_

@g]kfnL efO, g]kfnL alxgL ca]/ eO;Sof] -@_

lsg a:5f} lglZrGt eO{ a]nf uO;Sof] -@_

#ljZjf; u/ o]z"df xf}, hLjg cd/ n]pm -@_

v|Li6s} lglDt alnof] eO{ g]kfn lhltb]pm -@_


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@%^=

!d]/f] ;f6f] d'g{ Pshgf y] tof/ ls d kfkLn] kfpm“ hLjg

cfkm\gf]dfly af]s] d]/f] kfksf] ;a ef/, o]z"n] ToflulbP cfkm\gf] k|f0f .

sf]M x]/ qm";dfly Tof] sf“6Ln] 7f]s]sf], slt ux|f} Yof] ;a kfksf] ef/

b'Mv lyof] To;dfly v|Li6 uP snj/L / Toxf“ u/] d]/f] p4f/

@x]/ crDdsf] k|]d ha pgn] wL/h;fy dgsf] d}nf lgsfN5g\ d]/f]

v'zL 5' o;sf/0f o]z" x'g\ d]/f gfy, bf]if ;a} qm";df 6f“lu;Sof] .

#d o]z"sxf“ cfp5', v'zL;“u a:5', lbg–lbg} pgsf] kl5 lx8\5'

:t'lt xf];\, x] k|e' k|fy{gf oxL xf] d]/f], kfk e"n tkfO{n] d]6fpg'ef]’ .


257 wf k e s n c

257= ;'wf/ k|e':s]n C

;'wf/ k|e', xfd|f] of] lrQnfO{

v|Li6 O{Zj/sf] k|]dn] klx¥ofO{, ;'wf/ k|e'

!kfkL hg ;asf] v"a t8gf u/L,

kfk >fk ;asf] h8 gi6 kf/L,

b'i6tf ;anfO{ tL k|]dn] vf/L n}hfpm k|e', of] ej;fu/ tf/L .

@elQmljxLgsf], cfzf/lxtsf], zlQm b]pm k|e' b[9 ljZjf; ug]{,

wd{ljxLgsf] Tof] cNk 1fgsf], ltdL 5f} k|e' ;+s6 xg]{ .

#x] k|e' o]z", ;a b'Mv xg]{, b'MvL hgsf] d+un d"nsf/L,

Xbo s'l6nsf] k|]dn] ;kf/L n}hfpm k|e', of] ej;fu/ tf/L .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@%*=

!x] ;gftgsf kx/f v|Li6, kfpm“ z/0f tkfO{df

qm";df /ut kfgL hf] sfvfaf6 ax]Yof]

z'4 kf/f];\ gLr dnfO{ kfksf] bf]if / jz x6fO{ .

@Joj:yf ug{ k"/f pBf]u k'Ub}gg\ d]/f

pT;fx d]/f] eP ckf/, cf“z' r'x] nuftf/

t} tLaf6 kfOGg qf0f, vfnL arfp“5g\ k|f0f .

#xftdf e]6L NofpGg d, vfnL qm";df e/ k5'{

cfp“5' gf·f] c;xfo, d]/f] p4f/s tkfO{

wf/f dfU5' eO{ xtfz, w'gf];\ gq x'G5' gfz .

$d]/f] /x'~h]n cfo' ha x'G5 lg d[To"

clg :ju{df x]bf{ tkfO{nfO{ l;+xf;gdf

x] ;gftgsf kx/f v|Li6, kfp“ z/0f tkfO{df .


259 k e d tkfo sf s n g7

259= k|e' d tkfO{+sf]:s]n G7

k|e' d tkfO{sf] ;[li6 x'“, tkfOljgf d l/Qf] 5'

knknsf] d]/f] hLjgdf ;fy dnfO{ lbg'xf];\

!;+;f/ 5 ;f/f cfºg} w'gdf dbxf]; kfk}sf] h~hfndf -@_

arfpg'xf];\ dnfO{ olb ;+;f/sf] 5' eg] .

@:ju{nfO{ TofuL cfpg'ef]’ k|e' snj/L qm";}df k|f0f lbgnfO{ -@_

arfpg'xf];\ dnfO{ olb kfkL g} 5' eg] .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@^)=

!x] O{Zj/ cfkm\gf] s?0ffcG;f/ cg'u|x ug'{xf];\ .

sf]dn s[kfG;f/ ck/fw d]/f d]6fOlbg'xf];\ .

@dnfO{ g} d]/f cwd{af6 ;kmf;“u w'gf];\ .

dnfO{, x] O{Zj/, d]/f kfkaf6 z'4 x} ug'{xf];\ .

#lsgls cfkm\gf ck/fwx¿ :jLsf/ u5'{ d .

kfk d]/f] ;bf;j{bf, k|e' d]/} ;fDg]df 5 .

$u/]sf] 5' lg kfk d}n] vfln tkfO{s} lj?4df .

u/]5' ToxL hf] 5 v/faL tkfO{sf] b[li6df .

%x]g'{xf];\, nf} d pTkGg klg eP cwd{df .

cfdfn] dnfO{ ue{wf/0f ul/g\ x} kfk}df .

^cGt:s/0fdf x]g'{xf];\ tkfO{ vf]Hg'x'G5 ;To .

/ leqL dgdf 1fg hfGg] dnfO{ t'Nofpg'x'g]5 .

&lx;kn] dnfO{ d:sfpg'xf];\, x'g]5' d ;kmf .

w'g'xf];\ dnfO{ clg d ;]tf] x'g]5' lxp“eGbf .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@^!=

sf]M k|e' cfp“b}5' d, k|e' cfp“b}5' d, qm";sf] 5xf/Ldf,

tkfO{sf] r/0fdf, kfksf] af]emf lnP/

!hLjg lg/fz 5, ky cWof/f], sxf“ k'Ug' xf], ;DxfNg'xf];\ -@_

k|e' af6f] b]vfpgf];\, snj/Ldf 8f]¥ofpgf];\, tkfO{sf] Hof]lt lbP/ .

@slt phf8 5 kfkdo ;+;f/, sxf“ p4f// 5, arfpg'xf];\ -@_

k|]dn] eg'{xf];\, d]/f] of] hLjgdf, tkfO{sf] k|]d lbP/ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@^@=

sf]M hLjgbftf ljwftf, cfp“b}5' ltd|f] z/0fdf

kb{5' o]z" z/0f, hLjgbftf ljwftf

!Sn]lzt kfkL of] cGwsf/ ejdf -@_ -e6\ls/x]5' kfkL hLjgdf

b"/ ltdLb]lv eP, kfksf] kydf sbd a9fP_ @

kl/0ffd 7f]s/ vfP, lktf k5tfpb} z/0fdf ltd|f] d cfP .

@ltdL s?0ffdo lktf d cwd{ -@_ -bLg, b'xfO{ d]/f] k|e' ;'lgn]pm

/Iff hLjgsf] ul/b]pm wf]O{ k|e' ltd|f] /utn]_ @

of]Uo kfq agfOn]pm, lktf lgj]bg, x[bosf] d]/f] ;'lgb]pm .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@^#=

!o]z"sf] jf0fL ;'g]y], æcfpm ylst, dsxf“ cfpm,

5f} kfksf] af]emn] ba]sf, ddfly af]em la;fpm .

d}n] o]z"sxf“ NofPy] ysfO / kfk / b'Mv,

pgdf d}n] lj>fd kfP, ca dnfO{ ldNof] ;'vÆ

@o]z"sf] jf0fL ;'g]y], æcfpm ltvf{Psf 5]p,

d lhp“bf] kfgL lbg]5' lj>fd u/]/ lkpmÆ .

o]z"sxf“ cfO{ lkP hn Tof] lhpbf] vf]nfsf],

Kof; d]l6of], cfTdf Ao"em\of] ca pgdf 5' lhpbf] .

#o]z"sf] jf0fL ;'g]y], æd husf] x'“ Hof]lt,

dlt/ x]/, ltd|f] xf];\ k|sfz hLjgel/Æ .

pgnfO{ x]/L a'em] d}n], 3fd d]/f] x'g\ o]z"

To; hLljt Hof]ltdf lx8" g;s'~h]n cfo' .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@^$=

sf]M ;'gg ;fyL of] dL7f] s'/f dgdf u'gg

cfgGb} pgL hf] o]z"b]lv gof“ wg kfp“b5 -@_

!hSs} gfp“ ePsf], y'k|} wg p;sf], 7u]/ o:tf] ef]‘

;/sf/sf] lt/f] p7fp“bf p;n] dgk/L rf]b{Yof] .

@hLp p;sf] k'8\sf], dg p;sf] 5'Rrf] l3g u/] ;a}n]

æÅbosf] zflGt s;/L kfpm“Æ vf]Hof] Tof] pkfo lg .

#æo]z"Ho" cfp“bf s;/L e]6\g] <Æ r9of] ?v g]ef/f

æca d b]V5' d]/f] kfk d]6\g] kfp“5' ls p4f/ <Æ

$ha v|Li6 cfP dfl:t/ x]/] eg], æcf]n]{/ cfpm

ltd|f] 3/ hSs} jf; a:g'kg]{, ;“u;“u} xfdL hfcf}+ .Æ

%tn cfO{ hSs} slt /dfof] dg p;sf] km]/]Yof]

æh] hlt 7u], g/fd|f] u/], 7Ls} kfg'{k¥of] .Æ

^p;}sf] 3/df v|Li6 o]z" cfO{ p;nfO{ lbP zflGt

;DklQeGbf kfksf] dfkmL 7"nf] wg ;Dem\of] lg .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@^%=

!o]z" 5]p d cfp“bf pgn] /fV5g\ 5]p

pgn] zflGt lbG5g\ ha 5' pbf; .

sf]M o]z" 5]p d cfp“bf t[Kt 5' ;w}

;fgf gfgL ;anfO{ /fV5g\ 5]p af]nfO{

@o]z" 5]p d cfp“bf u5{g\ pgn] Kof/

laGtL ;'gL d]/f] lnG5g\ kfksf] ef/ .

#o]z" 5]p d cfp“bf lnG5g\ d]/f] xft

d]/f] ;fy–;fy lx8\5g\ ;w} lbg / /ft .

$/fd|f] j:q nufO{ :ju{df ;w}

x]5'{ d v'a /dfO{ k|e' o]z"nfO{ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@^^=

sf]M arfpg'xf];\ k|e' o]z" xfdL kfkLnfO{ -@_

!cfpg'ef]’ k|e' of] g/nf]sdf 5f]8]/ :ju{nf]s .

@x] lktf, k'q, kljq cfTdf, tLg JolQm Ps O{Zj/ .

#b'lgof“ ;anfO{ ljZjf; lbnfpg ug'{ef] pb]s sfd .

$cGwfnfO{ cf“vf, sf]9LnfO{ z'4, d'bf{nfO{ hLjgbfg .

%cflv/L xfdL kfkLsf] nflu lbg'ef] qm";df k|f0f .

^tgn] dgn] wgn] hgn] :t'lt / u/f} dfg .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@^&=

!qm";sf] 5]pdf cfp“5', To;df cfzf kfp“b5'

h;df eof] alnbfg, h;n] x'G5 d]/f] qf0f .

sf]M o]z"df d /fV5' cfzf, aln eof] qm";df vf;

qm";sf] cflzif\ dnfO{ b]pm d]/f] ux|f} ef/L n]pm

@d tf kfkL Sn]lzt lyP, cfgf sd{n] b'Mlvt lyP

vf]Hby] qf0fsf] pkfo, hflGbgy] ;t\ ;xfo .

#k|e' o]z" d]/f] gfy, ;dfT5' dpgs} xft

vfln o]z" ;t cjtf/ o]z"b]lv 5 p4f/ .


268 w if f u dfpf s n f d

268= w]/} If)f u'dfPF:s]n F(D)

w]/} if0f u'dfP, s]xL knnfO{ ;f]r]F lhGbuLsf If0fnfO{ Joy}{–Joy{ kmfn]F

Tof] k|uf9 hLjg cfh km'n]sf] 5, Tof] lg/fz d'6' cfh xf“;]sf] 5

!d]/f] hLGbuLsf] 3fd 5fofdf klg k|e' dnfO{ ;w}F ;fy lbg'x'G5

xf“;f]sf tL If0fdf, cf“z'sf tL If0fdf

k|e' dnfO{ ;wF} xft ;fy lbg'x'G5,

dnfO{ 8/ 5}g ;w}F pxf“sf] e/ 5,

d}n] lxF8\g] af6f]df k|e' x'g'x'G5 .

@kZrftfk u/L d hlt r"/ x'G5', d]/f ;a cgy{ k|e' dfkm ug'{x'G5,

lhGbuLsf bfu / tL sn+snfO{, k|e' ;w}+–;w}+ ;fkm ug'{x'G5,

af“r'~h]n;Dd oxL cfzf u5'{, d'lQmbftf o]z" km]l/ cfpg'x'g]5 .


269 a n eg s n g e

269= ;a}n] eG% :s]n G(E)

;a}n] eG5 :ju{ d} hfG5f} kf] efO xf] s;/L

g]kfn xfd|f] b]z slt /fd|f] v|Li6sf] kfOnf 6]s]/

!psfnL af6f] gwfpFb} kfksf] af]em lnP/

;'vn] af“rf} ;+;f/df, o]z"nfO{ hLjg lbP/ .

@a'µ5g / s;n] /f]Psf], cf“z'sf] 3'6sf] lkP/

;'vsf] dfg] e'n]/, s] xf]n Joy}{ lhP/ .

#xf“;] cf“z' ;'Sb}g, /f]P/ b'Mv n'Sb}g

v|Li6nfO{ ljgfg;DemL, :ju{df xfdL k'Ub}gf} .

$a'l4n] 3d08 u/]/, hLjg oxf“ s] xf]nf

kfkaf6 kZrftfk cfh g}, ef]ln t ca]/ xf]Ohfnf .

%x]/g cfh lktfn] xfdLnfO{ s:tf] k|]d u/]

tkfO{ d]/f] kfksf] ;f6f]df v|Li6 d/]y] .

^qm";sf] aGwg s] dL7f] p4f/ kfpg' hLjgdf

d'v{tf dfq x'g]5 gfz x'g] jfnf hLjgdf .


270 ldemb pm cfh g s n d

270= ;lDemb]pm cfh g} :s]n D

;lDemb]pm cfh g} O{Zj/nfO{, e'lnb]pm cfh g} ;+;f/nfO{

e'n]/ ghfpm ;+;f/df uGws / cfuf] hNb}5 -@_

!kfk ub}{ Joy{df xfdLn] ;+;f/df e'ln/x]5f}F

b'lgof“nfO{ e'n]/ cfh g}, ;lDemb]pm cfh g} O{Zj/nfO{ -@_

@;+;f/sf] /Lltl/jfhn] b'O{–rf/ lbg s]jn /fh u5{

tkfO+{ / d]/f O{Zj/n] cgGt sfn ts /fh u5{g\ -@_

#;f+;fl/s w]/} dfu{n] 8/nfUbf ;fu/df k'¥ofp“5g\

hLjgsf] x/]s dfu{df k|e'n] xfdLnfO{ 8f]¥ofp“5g\ -@_


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@&!=

!k/d]Zj/ lktf slt dxfg\ xfd|f ldq ljZjf;L kfngxf/

pgsf] zlQm / k|]d 5g\ ;dfg\, 5g\ b'j} cgGt / ckf/ .

@v|Li6 cflb / cGt x'g\, pgL h;sf] cfTdf k'¥ofp“5g\ :ju{df

cflzif\ ;Dembf u/f} :t'lt eljiosf] nflu e/f];f .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@&@=

!kfkdf d 8'a]sf] lyP, lans'n eP lg/fz

o]z"l;t dfkm dfu], eO{ zf]sn] xtfz

d]/f] ta k'sf/ ;'gL ;fu/sf] k|e'n]

em§} xft k;f/L dnfO{ arfP .

sf]M p7fP dnfO{ -@_, k|]d u/L v|Li6 o]z"n] p7fP dnfO{

p7fP dnfO{ -@_, kfk;fu/df 8'Abf d, p7fP dnfO{

@d'lQmbftf o]z"nfO{ x]/ t kfkL hg

kfk;fu/sf] 5fnb]lv k|]dn] ptfb{5g\

pgL dflns ;fu/sf], cf“wL–atf;sf] gfy

ltdLnfO{ arfpg hf] k;f5{g\ xft .

#pgnfO{ tg–dg–wg lbG5' d]/f] x'g\ tf/0fxf/

pgsf] z/0fdf a:5' ufP/ hohosf/,

;To k|]d dxfg\ o:tf] k|z+;fof]Uo 5

pgsf] ;To k|]dL ;]jf u5'{ d .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@&#=

!k|e'sf] ;fIfL gnhfO{ lbG5' d ;j{b}

/fV5' Tof] qm";sf] dlxdf cf1f / dfg ;w}

sf]M qm";}df @ dnfO{ k/]Yof] Hof]lt, d]/f] kfksf] ef/l xl6uof]

Toxf“ ljZjf; u/L d}n] kfP b[li6 / P]n]sf] hLjg v'zL ef]

@k|e' o]z" xf] pgsf] gfd, of] gfd u5'{ :t'lt

dnfO{ lg/fzf, nfhb]lv arfp“5g\ k|]d u/L .

#pgsf] ;fdy{ / 5fofdf d[To"sf] lbg;Dd

hf] lhDdf /fv] pgsf]df ;a jxf“ s'zn 5 .

$v|Li6n] u|x0f u5{g\ :ju{df lktfsf ;fd"df

Tof] gof“ o?zn]ddf 7fp“ kfp“5 Tof] cfTdf .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@&$=

!km"n} /fd|f km'Nb5g\, O{Zj/nfO{ b]vfp“5g\

xfd|f] hLjg To:t} 5, :juL{o k|]d b]vfp“b5 .

@/ftL h"g / tf/f 5g\, 3fd lbp“;f] rDsb5

xfd|f] hLjg To:t} 5, :ju]{ Hof]ltn] 3]b{5 .

#;a} dflg; kfkL 5g\ d'lQm v|Li6n] lbP5g\

:ju{nf]sdf ;'v–r}g 5, d'lQm kfpg] tb{5g\ .

$k|]d O{Zj/n] u/]5g\, o]z" k'q lbP5g\

pgdf ljZjf; ug]{ hg, kfkL ;a arfOG5g\ .


275 hflgbgf d s n c d

275= hflGbgF d :s]n C(D)

!hflGbgF d k/d]Zj/n] k|]d lsg ug'{ef]

jf v|Li6n] lsg arfpg'ef] cof]Uo k|f0f d]/f] .

t/ s;dfly ljZjf; /fv] ;f] hfGb5' d / lgZro 5' d

ls pgnfO{ h] d}n] ;'Dk], /fVg]5g\ ;'/Iff;fy

@hflGbg s;/L arfpg] ljZjf; lbP pgn]

jf pgsf] jrg kTofp“bf dgdf zflGt kfP .

#hflGbg s;/L cfTdfn] hu bf]ifL 7x¥ofp“5g\

jf jrgåf/f o]z"nfO{ k|s6 u/fp“b5g\ .

$hflGbg s] cfOkg]{5 d dg{eGbf cl3

ls x'G5 dnfO{ b'Mv jf ;'v, t[lKt jf u/LaL .

%hflGbg d slxn], sxf“ o]z" km]l/ cfpg]5g\

ls d/]kl5 e]6"Fnf ls e]6"Fnf cfsfzdf .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@&^=

!of] Ps pb]ssf] s'/f xf], O{Zj/sf] k'q o]z" v|Li6

:ju{nfO{ TofuL cfpg'ef] dh:tf] kfkL arfpg .

@tL u/La 3/df hlGdP sfd u/], ;'v–b'vn] /f]P

kfkLsf] nflu tL d/], hfg of] s'/f] ;f“rf] xf] .

#of] Ps pb]ssf] s'/f] xf], cU3f]/ 5 pgsf] k|]d ddf

of] emg\ pb]ssf] s'/f xf], yf]/} 5 d]/f] k|]d pgdf .

$tkfO{nfO{ k|]d d ug{ kfP x[bodf k|]dsf] cfuf] afn

cem} d ug]{5' w]/ k|]d, tkfO{sf] bz{g gkfp~Hofn .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@&&=

!o]z" d/] d]/f]nflu, pgsf] u5'{ hohosf/

:ju{nf]ssf] b'MvnfO{ TofuL qm";df af]s] kfksf] ef/ .

sf]M o]z" d/] d]/f]nflu, d ;'gfp“5' ;dfrf/

clxn] clg :ju{ k'uL ufp“5' v|Li6sf] hohosf/

@d}n] 8f“8fdf le/fnf] e]8fem} af6f] e'n]

v|Li6n] e]§fO df/] c·fnf] dnfO{ k|]d;fy 3/ NofP .

#d 7]; vfO{ eP emn:;, lgsf] kf/] rf]6 pgn]

cGwf] lyP qf;n] u|:t, o]z"n] p4f/ u/] .

$d[To" gbL k'uLsg dnfO{ tfg]{5g\ o]z"

:ju{df k;L lk|o hg km]l/ e]6\g kfpg]5' .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@&*=

sf]M o]z" xf] d]/f] kfksf] ef/ p7fpg], qm";sf] b'Mv ;x]/

d eGg ;S5' d :ju{ hfG5' k|e'nfO{ kfP/

!Tof] dxfb'Mv / Tof] dxfsi6nfO{ -@_ o]z"Ho"n] ;xg'ef]

o]z"Ho"n] ef]Ug'ef] -@_ lktfsf] cf1f k"/fu/L :ju{ hfg'ef] .

@x] dxfg\ lktf d]/f], tkfO{n] lbg'ef] -@_ tkfO{sf] Tof] bof

tkfO{sf] Tof] dfof -@_ lgZro xfdL gfz x'g] lyof} Tof] bof gkfP.

#slt lbg 5 / oxf“ d al;/xg' hxf“ -@_ of] ;fgf] k[YjLdf

of] b'Mv ;fu/df -@_ kfpg]5' d}n] Tof] cfgGb k|e'sf] e08f/df .

$cfpg'xf];\ ;a} ;fyL kfpg'xf];\ :juL{o zflGt -@_

cfkm\gf] kfk w'gnfO{, k|e'sf] hg x'gnfO{ -@_

k|e'nfO{ kfO{, :ju{df uO{ cfgGbdf a:gnfO{ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@&(=

!kfksf] aGwg l5gL uof] d lga{Gw 5', lga{Gw

;a kfk klg 6f9f eof], d lga{Gw 5', lga{Gw .

sf]M xNn]n"ofx o]z" d/], d]/f] abnLdf d/]

xNn]n"ofx, xNn]n"ofx d lga{Gw 5', lga{Gw

@cfkm\gf kfk ha dflglnP, d lga{Gw 5' lga{Gw

ta dgdf cfTdf cfP, d lga{Gw 5', lga{Gw .

#s]xL aGwg ca 5}g d lga{Gw 5' lga{Gw

ca s]xL 8/ 5}g d lga{Gw 5' lga{Gw .

$pgsf] :t'lt ufpg]5' d lga{Gw 5' lga{Gw

/ o]z"sf] ;]jf u5'{ d lga{Gw 5' lga{Gw .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@*)=

!O{Zj/n] lbPsf /dfx6 o; kfkL ;+;f/df

ls cfkm\gf] jrgcg';f/ bof kfOg]5

ls k|To]s l5g / k|To]s lbg k|z:t bof kfOG5 .

sf]M xNn]n"ofx xNn]n"ofx xNn]n"ofx o]z"

@cWof/f] ePklg /dfp“5' ;w}

lsgls O{Zjn] dnfO{ 5f]8\b}gg slxNo}

ofqfdf tslnkm ePklg :ju{df k'Ug]5' lgZro .

#d ofqf l;WofPkl5 :ju{nf] cfpg]5'

Toxf“ lg/Gt/ /dfx6 o]z";“u kfpg]5'

;a} kljq hg;“u k|z+;f :t'lt u5'{ d .


281 o z x g d f s n c

281= o]z" x'g\ d]/f] :s]n C

!o]z" x'g\ d]/f] s:tf] ljnf;, lbb5g\ dgdf dlxdfsf] cfz

d'lQmsf] efuL :ju{ d]/f] 3/, pgdf d a:5' ;w}F lg8/ .

of] d]/f] xfn 5, of] d]/f] ufg, u5'{ k|z+;f k|ltlbg} -@_

@k"/f e/f];f cfgGb / ;'v, ca d]/f] dgdf g zf]s g b'Mv

v|Li6af6 eof] bofsf] 1fg, b"tu0f ca u5{g\ k|]dsf] jvfg .

#ljZjf; d /fV5' v|Li6 d]/f] gfy, pg}df a:5' ;'/Iff;fy

pg}df k|]dn] kfp“5' lj>fd hfg]5' cGtdf :juL{o nf]s .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@*@=

!wGo xf];\ d'lQmsf] nflu /utdf eP rf]vf]

o]z"n] wf]P wf/fdf snj/Ldf hf] ax\of] .

sf]M ho ho eg ;a} ldnL kfkb]lv d'lQm kfOof]

o]z"n] lbG5g\ d's'6 Tof] hLjgel/ v'zLsf]

@wGo xf];\ ob{gsf] nflu hxf“ d ufl8Psf] lyP

Kof/f] o]z";“u d/L lrxfgb]lv af}l/P .

#wGo xf];\, cfuf]sf] nflu k]lGtsf];df h'g v:of]

kljq cftdfn] dnfO{ k|]d / zflGt lbg'ef] .

$wGo xf];\ dlxdfsf] /fhf km]l/ kmsL{ cfpg]5g\

clg ;a} cfkm\gf] d08nL cfkmgf] ;“udf nfg]5g\ .


283 o z p d s n g e

283= o]z" %]p d:s]n G(E)

!o]z" 5]p d hfg]5' Hof]ltdf, Hof]ltdf

pgs} ;fy d lx8\g]5', pgs} Hof]ltdf .

lx8\g'5' d -Hof]ltdf_ # lx8\g]5' d Hof]ltdf pgs} Hof]ltdf

@Ifdf lgZro kfpg]5' Hof]ltdf, Hof]ltdf .

;a} kfknfO{ 5f]8\g]5' pgs} Hof]ltdf .

#v|Li6s} ;]jf ug]{5' Hof]ltdf Hof]ltdf

;a} ;fdy{ kfpg]5' pgs} Hof]ltdf .

$z}tfg ug{ ;S5 s] < Hof]ltdf, Hof]ltdf .

hojGt x'g]5' lgZro pgs} Hof]ltdf .

%d[To" ha cfpg]5 Hof]ltdf, Hof]ltdf

dnfO{ s] sf] 8/ x'G5 pgs} Hof]ltdf .

^ha :ju{df k'u'nf Hof]ltdf, Hof]ltdf

ta cfgGb dgfp“nf pgs} Hof]ltdf .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@*$=

!d /fV5' kfksf] af]emf lgbf]{if v|Li6 y'gfdf

v|Li6n] ;a kfk p7fp“b5g\, kfk af]em ;a}sf

d cfkm\gf] bf]if ;a Nofp“5' bf]if d]6\g] o]z"sxf“

/ pgn] wf]Ob]pmg\ d a8f] kfkLnfO{ .

@d cfkm\gf 36L /fV5' e/k"/ v|Li6 o]z"df

hf] d]/f] lgsf] kfg]{ / k|f0f p4f/bftf

d cfkm\gf] zf]s ;a Nofp“5' / lkmqmL o]z"sxf“

hf] d]/f] ;fy lbg] eO{ ;fem] ;a b'Mvdf .

#d k|f0f la;fOlbG5' o]z"sf] sfv}df

pgn] c·fnf] df5{g\ dnfO{ c8]; lbbf

o]z"sf] gfp“ 5 lk|o v|Li6 / Oddfg'Pn

km}nfObf o; gfp“n] u/fp“5 df]lxt dg .

$d o]z"h:tf] xf]pm“, bLg, k|]dL bofn'

d o]z"h:tf] xf]pm“, afns xf]pm“ lktfsf]

d o]z;Dd k'u' :ju{b"tu0f eP 7fp“

/ ;a};“u ldnL lg/Gt/ :t'lt ufpm“ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@*%=

!d}n] o]z" ldq kfP, hf] d]/f] ;a yf]s xf],

d]/f] cfTdfsf] nflu s] pQd j/,

Tof] ;'Gb/ km"n af6f]df laxfgsf] Tof] tf/f

dnfO{ z'4 r· kfg]{ pQd j/

ckm;f];df d]/f] xif{, b'Mvdf d]/f] cfzf

eG5g\ pgn] ;f]r–lkmqmL gu/ .

sf]M Tof] ;'Gb/ km"n af6f]sf], laxfgsf] Tof] tf/f

slt pQd Tof] j/ d]/f] cfTdfsf]

@pgn] d]/f] b'Mv ;a lnP, ;a} ckm;f]; klg

k/LIffdf d]/f] 5 u9 alnof]

;a pgsf] nflu la;]{ d]/f] x[bob]lv

pgsf] ;“udf a:gnfO{ dnfO{ lnP

;+;f/n] dnfO{ 5f]8\bf z}tfgn] b'Mv lbb

v|Li6 k|e' x'G5g\ ;fydf, zf]s gu/ .

#dnfO{ 5f]8\g] 5}gg s}n], g e'Ng]5g\ dnfO{

ljZjf;df a;L dfGg]5' pg}nfO{

clUgsf] b]jnleq s]xL dnfO{ 8/ 5}G

dGg lbG5g\ ef]sfPsf] cfTdfnfO{

d's'6n] klx¥ofpbf bz{g d ug]{5'

aUb5 hxf“ gbL cfgGbsf] .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@*^=

sf]M Tof] wGo h;sf] ck/fw Ifdf ul/of]

/ h;sf] ;a} kfk klg 9flsof]

!k|e' h;sf] kfknfO{ n]vf lnb}g

Tof] wGo xf] h;sf] dgdf s]xL sk6 5}g

@ha;Dd r"k /x] d]/f xf8x¿

s/fp“b}–s/fp“b} ;a} dlSsP .

#lbgdf clg /ftdf x] d]/f] O{Zj/

tkfO{sf] xft ddfly ef/L lyof] .

$c“, af];f] klg d]/f] klUnof] .

hLpsf] ;a} /; klg ;'lsuof] .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@*&=

!Ps ldq d}n] kfsf] 5' Kof/ ug]{ cl3b]lv

k|]d ;"qn] tfg] pgn] dnfO{ ;·tdf af“wL

/ d]/f] x[bo o:tf] 5 slxNo} pgnfO{ gTofuL

d v|Li6sf] x'“, v|Li6 d]/f x'g\ ;bf;j{bfsf] nflu .

@Psldq d}n] kfsf] 5' qf0f lbg' pgL d/]

hLjg bfg / pgsf] ;fy v|Li6 cfkm}nfO{ lbOxfn]

d cfkm\gf ;a} t'R5 dfG5', bftfsf] nflu /fvL

x[bo ;fdy{ hLjg ;a} pgsf ;w}sf nflu .

#Ps ldq d}n] kfsf] 5' pgsf] xf] ;a} ;fdy{

ofqfdf d]/f] cu'jf h;n] :ju{ k'¥ofp“5g\

:ju{ b]zsf] b]V5' dlxdf, Tof] dnfO{ ;fx; lbG5

ca kx/f sfd / n8fO ta lj>fd ;w} x'G5 .

$Ps ldq d}n] kfsf] 5' bofn', ;f“rf] gd|

v"a 1fgL /fhf, cu'jf, ;fdyL{, /Iff ug]{

o:tf] k|]d ug]{b]lv s'g zlQm dnfO{ 5'6ofp“5 <

s] hLjg, d[To", :ju{, gs{ < xf]Og, d pgs} x'G5' .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@**=

!d x'“ d;LxL, /xG5' klg ha;Dd 3fd / h'g 8'Ab}g

d x'“ d;LxL, lbG5' ujfxL ;a ;+;f/ ddf xf“;] klg,

d x'“ d;LxL, 5fk ddf pgsf] pg}sf] qm";df /Qm axfP

d x"“ d;LxL, of] s:tf] v'zL pgn] lsg] d pgsf] eP“ .

@=d x"“ d;LxL, slt crDd, d kfkL lyP“ hf] arfO{P“

d x“ d;LxL, cuf8L qm"; 5, pg}sf] kl5 d lx8\g]5'

;+3{ifnfO{ c?n] 5f]8], d rflx b'i6l;t n8]5'

d;xLsf] gfdn] ;a} kfkdfyL k"0f{ cflTds zlQmn] ho kfp“5' .

#=d x'“ d;LxL oxf“sf] ofqL, of] b'lgof“ xf]Og 3/} d]/f]

of] ofqf d]/f] rf8} l;l4G5 b'Mv / zf]sb]lv cnu x'G5,

d x'“ d;LxL of] s:tf] cfzf ls o]z" km]l/ cfpg'x'G5

dflg; oxf“ xf“;f];\\, of] s:tf] e]b 5, dnfO{ cfkm';“udf nfg]5g\ .

$=d x'“ d;LxL, of] s:tf] uLt xf], hf] d]/f] dgdf cfh p7\of]

of] 7§f xf]Og t/ of] ;f“rf], dgdf a:5g\ cfTdf pg}sf]

d x'“ d;LxL, lsg 8/fpm“ ha d]/f] ;do oxf“ cfOk'U5

ufpb} of] b'lgof“nfO{ d 5f]8\g]5', o]z" vLi6 dnfO{ lng'x'G5 .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@*(

!=xf} zfGt, x] k|f0f, t“lt/ k|e' 5g\

b'Mv zf]ssf] cfkm\gf] qm';;“u wL/h af]s

;a aGbf]a:t O{Zj/nfO{ 5f]8L= hf

;a utdf x'G5g\ pgL kTofpg of]Uo,

xf} zfGt, x] k|f0f 5g\ t]/f] :juL{o gfy

;'v nf]sdf lnO{ lx{8fpg] sf“9] dfu{ .

@=xf} zfGt, x] k|f0f, O{Zj/sf] 5 :jLsf/

u'xf/ cfpg]5 uP lbgdf em},

g cfz, g e/f];f s}No} klg 5f]8\

hf] P]n] e]b k5fl8 k|s6,

xf} zfGt x] k|f0f, 5g\ dfGg] 5fnf, atf;

pgnfO{ h;af6 t“}n] u5{;\ cfz .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@()

sf]M ufp{b} /xG5' hLjg ofqfdf s]jn o]z"sf] 5 :t'lt

wGoafb dfgf}, x] ljZjf;Lu0f ldn]sf] 5 d'lQm

!= xf] s:tf] cfgGb kfk–Ifdf zflGt ltgsf d pd]b\jf/

df}sf 5 dnfO{ ;'gfpg ;anfO{ o]z"sf] ;';drf/,

vf]nf] x} bfgsf] Kof/f] k|e' s;/L ax]sf]

pkof]u h';sf] ug{ ghfgL z/0fdf k/]sf] .

@= hLjg x} d]/f] ;don] ;Lldt s;/L rnfpg'

l;sfpg'xf];\ k|e' k|To]s lgd]ifnfO{ sfdnfUbf] agfpg',

tkfO“sf] ;]jf ug]{ cj;/ ldn]sf] 5 dnfO{

emnemn aNg] Hof]tL d ag"“ ;Tosf] kmn kmnfO{ .

#=bfgf d}n] kfP“ cfTdf / :ju{sf]

;+;f/d} a;L ag]“ d ofqL :juL{o dfu{sf],

ljZjn] h:tf] cfzf ulb{g kfpfnfO{ d'lQmbfg

cfzf xf] d]/f] hLjgsf] d's'6 k|ltkmn dxfg\ .


291 jg kfvf s n am

291= jg kfvf:s]n Am

jg–kfvf u'~hfOb]pm x} d'lQmn] Pp6f uLtn]

;Tosf] ;Gb]z elgb]pm uLtsf] efsfn] -@_

!kfksf] >fk d]6\gnfO{ o]z"hL cfpg'ef]

dfG5]nfO{ gof ¿k lbg /ut axfpg'eof] -@_

:ju{sf] 9f]sf vf]n]5 pg}sf] s[kfn]

dfof u/]/ kfkLx¿nfO{ pg}n] arfP

atfOb]pm ;a}nfO{ a'emfOb]pm ;a}nfO{, ;DemfOb]pm ;a}nfO{ .

@xf/sf] hLjg 5}g oxf“ cGw]/L hut\df

a]df]n 5}g dfG5] ;a w/tLsf] cfFugdf -@_

vf]Hg]x¿nfO{ hLjg 5 snj/L kfvfdf

s] g} kf] lyof], dfG5]sf] df]n cfºg} cf“vfdf

atfOb]pm ;a}nfO{ a'emfOb]pm ;a}nfO{, ;DemfOb]pm ;a}nfO{ .


292 ogb gl h tf s n d

292= OGb|]gL h:tf :s]n D

OGb]|gL h:tf /Ëla/ËL ltd|f Kof/f–Kof/f ;kgfx¿

d'lQmbftf o]z";“u k|lt1f agf];\ cflzif\sf] hLjg kfO{

OGb|]gL h:tf /Ëla/ËL

!;lDemx]/ hLjg g} pgsf] bfg xf], d"NoxLg t 5}g of] bfd k/]sf] xf] -@_

j]cy{ gxf];\ hLjgdf l;Ty}df kfPsf] d'lQm of]

df};dem} abnL–abnL lxF8\g] ltd|f] lhGbuLsf sfdgfx¿sf]

d'lQmbftf o]z";“u k|lt1f agf];\ cflzif\sf] hLjg kfO{ .

@o:t} x'G5 hLjgdf oL 36Lx¿, afwf alg cfpg]5g\ tL sldx¿

8/fO{ gb]pm hLjgdf, e/ Tof] ;DemL o]z"df

afbnh:tf xNsf–xNsf, ltd|f Kof/f ;a}–;a} OR5fx¿sf]

d'lQmbftf o]z";“u k|lt1f agf];\ cflzif\sf] hLjg kfO{ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@(#=

sf]M v|Li6 x'g\ hLjgsf Psdfq c;n uf]7fnf

;xfos aG5g\ pgL ;bf b'Mv–;'vsf] a]nf

!Sn]z, ;+s6n] 3]5{ ltdLnfO{ t/ v|Li6 ltd|}ghLs x'G5g\

cfwL–t'kmfg x6fpg] k|e' ltdL;fy ofqf ub}{5g\ .

@tb}{ubf{ ej;fu/nfO{ cfwL cfp“5, ljZjf; xNnfp5

8'AgnfUbf k'sf/ v|Li6nfO{ lgZro ltdLnfO{ arfp“5g\ .

#;tfj6 afwf NofO{ z}tfgn] xNnfp5 v"a hLjg hxfhnfO{

;fydf v|Li6 5g\ g8/fpm ltdL ;DxfN5g\ pgn] ltdLnfO{ .

$lg/fzf cfp“5g\ cg]s hLjgdf t/ x/]z gvfpm k|e' eG5g\

ljhosf] Ogfd hLjgsf] d's'6 k|e'n] lgZro lbg]5g\ .

%o]z" xfd|f zlQmzfnL u9 ;'/lIft pgdf xfdL x'G5f}+

z}tfgsf xdnf ljkmn x'g]5g\ hojGt xfdL aGg]5f}+ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@($=

sf]M lbg ;Ty} lbOof] xh'/ snj/L 8f“8fdf /ut} axfP/

pbf;} nfUg] 8f“8}df a;]/ eGg ca 5f]l8b]pm xh'/

!slt xfdLn] b]jL–b]jtf ;+;f/}df k'HbYof}

cflv/df b'Mv kfO{ ;+;f/}df d¥of}

xfdLn] ;w} ;+;f/sf] e/kg]{ 5}gf}

;+;f/sf] yf]sn] ;w} zflGt kfpg]5}gf}+ .

@xfd|f] hLjg cl3 ;f/L k|e'df la;fp“5f}

ux|f} ef/L qm";sf] 5]pdf cl3 ;f/L Nofp“5f}

oxL k|e' qm";df d]/f] pkxf/ lnO{ d[To";Dd} cf1fsf/L ag]/ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@(%=

sf]M cfh d}n] hf]z kfP“ o]z"sf] j/bfg kfP“

:ju{ 5f]8L cfP, dlxdf k|s6 u/]

!;':t hLjg lyof] x[bo hufOlbP

e'ln/x]sfnfO{ af6f] jrgsf] lbP .

@:juL{o Hof]lt ddf k|sflzt eof]

ofb u/ ca w/tL g} :ju{ eof] .

#af]nfp“5g\ xfdLnfO{ o]z" cfkm\gf] 5]pdf

5f]8\g ;+;f/sf] df]x ;To k|]d snj/Ldf .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@(^=

sf]M x] cfx, cfx nf} e]8f kms]{/ cfpm x} uf]7}df

5}gg\ c? uf]7fnf, dfof ug]{ uf]7fnf

!cfkm\g} af6f]df nfu]5f}, ;f+;fl/s sf“8fdf cNem]5f}

cWof/f] x'g nfUb}5, nf} x} ltd|f] ;f]/ ;'gfpg .

@HofdLn] x]/]sf] efg kf5{ hf]lvddf ltdLnfO{ 5f]8\g]5

8fsfx¿ cfp“b}5g\ em§} ltd|f] ;f]/ ;'Gg kfpm“ .

#zq' vtd kf/]sf] 5' x} d}n] e]8f xf]

ltdLnfO{ vf]Hb}5', em§} ltd|f] ;f]/ ;'Gg kfpm“ .

$ltdLnfO{ vf]Hbf rf]6 nfUof] d]/f] d/0f klg ef]

sfnnfO{ ldrL lhp“bf] 5' ;f]/ ltd|f] ;'Gg rfxG5' .

%d x'“ hflt uf]7fnf] gof“ ug]{ uf]7fnf]

gof“ ;[li6sf] x'“ h]7f] o]z" gfd xf] d]/f] .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@(&=

sf]M d]/f x[bosf kL/x¿ k|e';“u kf]vfP

d'6'leqsf rf]6x¿ d]/f] dflnsnfO{ b]vfP

!o]z"sf] t]hdo x]/fOn] kL/x¿ xl6uP -@_

pgsf] sf]dn :kz{n] rf]6x¿ lgsf] eP

d]/f] Kofnf 55Ns]/ yf]kfx¿ v:gnfu] .

@o]z"sf] k|]dsf] k|sfzn] hLjg Hof]ltdo eof] -@_

v|Li6n] jrgsf] zlQmn] hLjg sf]dn eof]

d]/f] Kofnf 55Ns]/ yf]kfx¿ v:g nfu] .


298 x g o z fhfnfo

298= x]g]{%' o]z" /fhfnfO{

x]g]{%' o]z" /fhfnfO{ -3_ d ;w}+ x]g]{%'

!k|fy{gfdf x]g]{5' o]z" /fhfnfO{ -#_ d ;w} x]g]{5' .

@:ju{b"tsf aLrdf o]z" /fhfnfO{ -#_ d ;w} x]g]{5' .

#z}tfgdfly ho x'g] o]z" /fhfnfO{ -#_ d ;w} x]g]{5' .

$cfºgf] k|f0f qm";df lbg] o]z" /fhfnfO{ -#_ d ;w}+ x]g]{5' .

%cfºgf] /ut axfOlbg] o]z" /fhfnfO{ -#_ d ;w}+ x]g]{5' .

^s'6fO, lgGbf ;xg] o]z" /fhfnfO{ -#_ d ;w}+ x]g]{5' .

&d[To"b]lv af}/L p7\g] o]z" /fhfnfO{ -#_ d ;w}+ x]g]{5' .

*dnfO{ d'lQm lbg], k|e' o]z" /fhfnfO{ -#_ d ;w}+ x]g]{5' .

(k"/f] zflGt lbg] k|e' o]z" /fhfnfO{ -#_ d ;w}+ x]g]{5' .

!)= kljq cfTdf lbg], k|e' o]z" /fhfnfO{ -#_ d ;w}+ x]g]{5' .

!!= /fhfx¿sf /fhf o]z" /fhfnfO{ -#_ d ;w}+ x]g]{5' .


299 o z d f uf fnf s n

299= o]z" d]/f] uf]&fnf]:s]n

o]z" d]/f] uf]&fnf], d pgsf] u')f ufpFb}%'

h;sf] x'F d ;fgf] kf&f], kl% k%ofpF%'

!xl/of] rp/df dnfO{ r/fp“b5g\ ;'v–r}gsf] kfgLdf dnfO{ 8f]¥ofp“b5g\

pgL cl3–cl3 lx8\b5g\ / d]/f kfp 8f]¥ofp“b5g\ wd{sf af6fdf xft ;dfO{ lnO{ lx8fp“b5g\ .

@d[To"sf] t/fO{df dnfO{ lx8fp“b5g\ z}tfgsf] eob]lv dnfO{ arfp“b5g\

anjGt / zlQmdfg agfO{ hojGt ;w}+ u/fp“b5g\

pgsf] lzIff–b08n] dnfO{ r]tdf Nofp“b5g\ .

#b'Zdgsf ;fd'Gg]df ef]h tof/ ub{5g\ hLjgsf] srf}/f] e/fO{ /xb5g\

pgL lz/df t]n dNb5g\ enfO{ s?0ff ub{5g\

pgsf] cgGt /fHodf ;bf a:g] u5'{ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#))=

!snj/L 8f“8fsf] Tof] qm";df hxf“ v|Li6 6f“luP

sqf] pb]ssf] Tof] k|]d pgn] ddf k|s6 u/fP

pgsf] x[bo 5]l8of] xftdf sLnfsf] bfu

kfp sf“6Ln] hf] 3f]lrof], d]/f] / ltd|f] of] efu .

sf]M wGo xf] kf7f] O{Zj/sf] :t'lt k|e'sf]

o]z"sf] ufp“b} /xg]5' oz ;bf, pgsf] ho xf];\

@af“Rg] pkfo c? gb]Vbf d qm";df uP

v|Li6n] cfkm\gf] bofsf] xftn] dnfO{ r·f u/fP

pb]ssf] abnfj ddf NofP v|Li6n]

x[bosf] b'Mv lgsfn]/ cfkm\gf] zflGt lbP .

#cfpm x] ldq v|Li6 k|e'df pgn] af]nfp“5g\

x[bo czflGtn] e/]sf] kfkn] ba]sf] hLjg

kfk Ifdf / zflGt v|Li6 lbg]5g\ p;nfO{

c? sf]xL bftf 5}g k|e' d;Lx l;jfo .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#)!=

!o]z" k|f0fsf] z/0f:yfg, d tkfO{sxf“ eflucfpm“

rNbf af9L d]3, t'kmfg, cfwLb]lv cf8 d kfpm“

hLjg si6 /x'~Hofn /Iff ugf]{; d]/f] k|f0f

ha cfp“5' d[To"sfn k;" :juL{o cf>o:yfg .

@d}n] xf/–u'xf/ gkfO{ tkfO{dfly lge{/ 5'

Psn} g5f]8L dnfO{ zflGt lbg'xf];\ k|e'

d]/f] cfzf tkfO{df dnfO{ ;3fpg] tkfO{

9fsL cfkm\gf] 5fofdf cf>o lbg'xf];\ dnfO{ .

#o]z" vfnL tkfO{nfO{ d ckgfpg rfxG5'

dgsf] cfkb, b'Mv x6fO{ nf} 8f]¥ofpg'xf];\ k|e'

d tf ;a cz'4 5', e/]sf] kfk sk6n]

tkfO{ kljq k|e' e/]sf] cg'u|xn] .

$d]/f] kfknfO{ 9fSg] 5 dfkm k|z:t tkfO{df

bof–vf]nf au]/ kfl//fvf];\ dg ;kmf

hLjgbftf nf} dnfO{ lkpg lbg'xf];\ hLljt hn

dgdf aGgf];\ d"n tkfO{ pld|/xf];\ ;bfsfn .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#)@=

sf]M o]z" Kof/f], ltdLafx]s d]/f] sf]xL 5}g, d]/f] c? sf]xL 5}g

!cfkm\gf jrgsf vs{df dnfO{ n}hfpm, d]/f Kof/f uf]7fnf]

hLjgsf] kfgLdf 8f]¥ofpm dnfO{ cf/fd c? sxL 5}g .

@ha d ed{G5' o; b'lgof“df dnfO{ 5'8fpm x] Kof/f uf]7fnf

sf“wdf lnO{ ;To kydf lx8fpm d]/f] c? ;fyL 5}g .

#d[To" 5fofsf] t/fO{df ha hfg]5' ;fy xf]pm Kof/f uf]7fnf]

ltd|} nf7Ln] d zflGt kfpm“ dnfO{ km]l/ s]xL x'Gg 8/ .

$h+unL hgfj/b]lv /Iff u/ dnfO{, r/fpb} 8f]¥ofpm x] k|e'

t]n d]/f] lz/df e/k'/L vGofpm, d]/f] Kofnf e/k'/L xf];\ .

%kljq 3/df /fVg'xf];\ dnfO{, bof cg'u|xn] e/k'/ ub}{

d]/} xf] ;a yf]s x] Kof/f] k|e' d]/f] c? sf]xL 5}g .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#)#=

!x] O{Zj/ plxn]sf] p4f/ cfzf eljiosf]

cfwL atf;df xfd|f] cf8 cgGt nf]s xfd|f] .

@tkfO{sf] u2L 5fofdf xfdL lg8/ a:5f}+

tkfO{sf] xftdf e/f];f /fvL ;'/lIft 5f} .

#husf] ;[li6eGbf cl3 tkfO{ x'g'x'G5

k/d]Zj/ cgflbb]lv cgGt sfn;Dd .

$jif{ xhf/ Ps If0fh:tf] tkfO{sf] b[li6df

lanfp“5 h:t} cWof/f] ;"o{sf] Hof]ltdf .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#)$=

!hLjg cWof/f]df ha cfp“5 b'Mv ha x/]; vfG5f} / x/fp“5 ;'v

ta cflzif\ ug, o]z"nfO{ x]/ cflzif\ uGbf–uGb} nf} t slt w]/ .

sf]M cflzif\ ug, ug Ps}–Ps, cflzif\ ug, x]/ 5g\ cg]s

cflzif\ ug, 5Ss kg]{5f}, k|e'n] ltdLnfO{ slt lbg'ef]

@lkmqmL zf]ssf] ef/L ltdL af]S5f} ls cfpg] lbgsf] nflu af“rf} s;/L

afOan k9\bfv]l/ ltdL a'em\g]5f} xfd|f k|]dL lktfaf6 ;a kfp“5f} .

#wg–;DklQ x]bf{ y'k|} cs}{sf] ta ;Demf} xfd|f] wg 5 :ju{sf]

o; ;+;f/sf] wgn] zflGt ldNb}g, t/ o]z" 8fS5g\ hxf“ kL/ 5}g .

$lbg–lbg n8fO x'G5 5bf ;+;f/df z}tfg lhTg vf]H5 xfdLnfO{ ;bf

o]z" 5]pdf a:bf zlQm lbg]5g\ :ju{ gk'u];Dd cflzif\ uGb} ug .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#)%=

sf]M d]/f] hLjgsf] gfy k|e' o]z" hf] d]/f] x/]s knsf] ;f“rf] ldq x'g\

!lhGbuL of] kfkL d]/f] dgdf :g]xsf] axf/ NofO{ .

hLjgsf] d"No a'emfO{ lbP qf0f dnfO{ -@_

lbP qf0f dnfO{ c;Ld k|]d b]vfO{ .

@å]if kfkLsf] of] ;+;f/df k|e' v|Li6sf] k'sf/

ylst / sli6t hg cfpm kfksf] ef/L Nofpm -@_

kfksf] ef/L Nofpm lbg]5g\ lj>fd ltdLnfO{ .

#x[bo vf]n]/ cfpm ljZjf; o]z"df nufpm

lbG5g\ d'lQm ltdLnfO{ kfksf] ef/L x6fO{ -@_

kfksf] ef/L x6fO{ Hof]ltsf] k|sfz u/fO{ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#)^=

!o]z";fy–;fy lx8\bf jrgsf] Hof]ltdf

xf|f] af6f] u/fp“5g\ k|sfz

xfd|f] x'g\ kfngxf/ pgsf] OR5fcg';f/

olb ub{5f} / dfg / ljZjf; .

sf]M dfg / ljZjf; u/] v|Li6df 5 cfz

o]z"nfO{ ug'{k5{ vfln dfg / ljZjf;

@d]3 cWof/f] cfP o]z"sf] d'xf/n]

rf8} kfb{5 lgd{n cfsfz

g tf z+sf g eo g tf cf“z' g xfo

xfdL u?~h]n dfg / ljZjf; .

#cfkm\gf ef/L af]sL c?nfO{ ;fx; lbO{

>dsf] kmn kfcf}nf v|Li6sf] :ofaf;,

;+s6 cfkb / Sn]z xfdLnfO{ 5 cflzif\

olb ub{5f} dfg / ljZjf; .

$t/ tg–dg / wg ck{0f gu?~Hofn

xfdL o]z"df xf}nf lg/fz

sf/0f cfgGb / ho o]z" lbG5g\ To;nfO{

h;n] ub{5g\ dfg / ljZjf; .

%pgsf] ;·ltdf kfpg]/ a;f}nf

af6f]df lx8f}+nf pgsf] kf;

pgsf] cf1f dfgf}, hxf“ k7fpg]5g\ hfcf}

8/ gxf];\ vfln dfg / ljZjf; .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#)&=

!o]z" ljZjf; u5'{ vfln tkfO{df

bf]ifL c;xfo d tkfO{ qf0fstf{

k[YjL :ju{df 5}g sf]xL tkfO{h:tf]

dh:tf] kfkLsf] nflu d'g{ef] .

@o]z" ljZjf; u5'{ gfddf ;t ckf/

gfd lbPsf b"tn] æo]z" tf/0fxf/Æ

gfd hf] n]lvof] lyof] nfhsf] qm";dfly

kfkL cfpm To; gfddf b[9 ljZjf; /fvL .

#o]z" ljZjf; u5'{ tkfO{nfO{ ;DemL

k|]d / bofk"0f{ 3'Dg'ef] k[YjL

sf]/L, bLg–bl/b| kfkL l3gnfUbf]

;an] lgufx kfof} d'lQmbftfsf] .

$o]z" ljZjf; u5'{ jf0fL tkfO{s}

æd x6fpGg slxNo} cfp“5 hf];'s}Æ,

/ut 5 cd"No ;To 5 s/f/

p4f/sf] x'g\ cfwf/ o]z" tf/0fxf/ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#)*=

!k/d k|]dL ;j{>]i7, cf]ln{cfpgf];\ hut\df

bofeGbf bof u/L jf; ugf]{;\ t'R5 xfdLdf

o]z" bofk"0f{ eO{ lgd{n k|]d ckf/ tkfO{

x/]s gd| dgdf cfO{ nf} arfpg'xf];\ xfdLnfO{ .

@;j{zlQmdfg\ p4f/s, cfpgf];\ ;a}nfO{ arfO{

kmsL{ hut\df crfgs nf}, g5f]8\gf];\ d08nLnfO{

k|e' tkfO{nfO{ u/f} ;]jf :ju{b"tn] u/] em}

k|fy{gf :t'lt u/f} ;bf ehL v|Li6sf] k|]d ;w} .

#kl/jt{g k"/f ugf]{;\ xfdL lgisn+s agf}

cfkm};“u km]l/ ldnfpgf];\ d'lQmbftfsf] bz{g kfcf}+

t]h}af6 t]h}lt/ kl/jt{g xf];\ ckf/

v|Li6sf] kfp gk/];Dd k|]d;fy u/L hohosf/ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#)(=

!gbLh:tf] /fd|f] O{Zj/sf] zflGt

b'Mv x6fp“5 xfd|f] x'“bf v'a j[l4

k"/f 5 t} x'G5 emg\ km/flsnf]

k"/f 5 t} a9\5 cem} ulx/f] .

sf]M k/d]Zj/df :yflkt dgdf 5 cf/fd

jrgcG;f/ kfO{ zflGt / lj>fd

@pgsf] cf8df a:5 hf] sf]xL kfp“5 ;'v

zq" Toxf“ g k:5 g tf lbG5 b'Mv

lrGtf, kL/, cft'/L cfwLem} cfp“5

t/ k|f0fnfO{ x'/L c;/ kfb}{g .

#x/ j/bfg ;jf]{Qdf O{Zj/af6 xf]

xfdLnfO{ 5 pQd b'Mv jf ;'vsf]

pgdf /fVg ;S5f} k"/f e/f];f

/fv] pgdf kfp“5f} ;Tok"0f{tf .


310 hljgsf ofqfdf s n f g

310= hLjgsf] ofqfdf:s]n F(G)

hLjgsf] ofqfdf 8f]¥ofpg'xf];\ dnfO{

tkfO{sf] af6f]df, tkfO{sf] af6f]df

!d cwd{ kfkL r/0fdf cfP, of] hLjg lng'xf];\ -@_

tkfO{+sf] lglDt lhpg]5' k|e' -@_, zlQmbfg lbg'xf];\ -@_

@tkfO+{sf] ulx/f] jrgsf] cy{ dnfO{ l;sfpg'xf];\ -@_

1fg, a'l4, ljj]s kljq cfTdf -@_

bfg dnfO{ lbg'xf];\ -@_


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#!!=

!k|e' o]z" ljZjf; u5'{ vfnL tkfO{df

ljgfbfd d kfpm“ eg]/ 5'6\sf/f .

@Ifdf kfpg ljZjf; u5'{ k5'{ r0fdf

kfpg tkfO{sf] cg'u|x s?0ff .

#z'4 x'g ljZjf; u5'{ w'g'xf];\ dnfO{

cfkm\gf] /utn] ;a kfksf] bfu d]6fO{ .

$cu'jfO kfpg ljZjf; u5'{ 8f]¥ofpg'xf];\ dnfO{

ofqfel/ rflxbf] s'/f ;a h'6fO{ .

%zlQm kfpg ljZjf; u5'{ tkfO{sf] ckf/

d}n] Tof] kfP/ slxNo} vfGg xf/ .

^k|e' o]z" ljZjf; u5'{ /x"“ d lg8/

ljZjf; u5'{ ;asf] nflu ;w}el/ .


312 dk f hljg s n g

312= ;Dk")f{ hLjg:s]n G

;Dk"0f{ hLjg d]/f] k|e' tkfO{+s} xf]

/fh ug'{xf];\ ;bf tkfO{+sf] k"0f{ xf];\ O{R5f

!dxfg\ k|e' tkfO+{sf] k|]d clt ulx/f]

;fu/eGbf rf}8f 5 of] cf;dfgeGbf pRr of]

lgsDdfnfO{ r'g]/ hLjg bfg lbg'eof]

OR5f, cfzf, p2]Zo k|e' tkfO{ g} xf] d]/f] -@_

@b"tu0fn] uy]{ tkfO+{sf] :ju{df dlxdf

dflg;n] u/] pgsf] lg/fb/ / lgGbf

:ju{df a:g] o]z", lktfsf] bflxg] xft

dflg;n] /fv] >flkt qm";df b'O{ rf]/sf] ;fy -@_


313 xf xf og s n g

313= xf/ xf]Og:s]n G

xf/ xf]Og hLjg hLt xf], clezfk xf]Og cflzif\ xf]

d'lQmbftf v|Li6sf] /utn] lsg]sf] j/bfg of] hLjg w]/} bfdL xf]

xf/ xf]Og hLjg hLt xf], clezfk xf]Og cflzif\ xf]

!P xtf;–xtf; lhpg]x¿, P pbf; ePsf dgx¿

P lg/fz–lg/fz cf“vfx¿ ljjztfdf ?g] k|f0fx¿

gof“u/L v|Li6df hGd n]pm gq hLjg Joy{ hfg]5 .

@hLjgb]lv yfs]sfx¿ cljZjf; u/L efUg]x¿

dgsf tL ;a} JoyfnfO{ o]z"sf] cufl8 /flvb]pm

xft km}nfO{ dfu] lgZro g} ltdLnfO{ of] bfg pgn] lbg]5g\ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#!$=

sf]M ljZjf;of]Uo d]/f] k|e' -d ltd|f] :t'lt ufpg]5'_ @

!cg'u|xdf dnfO{ 8fSof}, dnfO{ ;bf ;DxfNb5f} -@_

o;y{ d ltdLnfO{ eG5', ltd|f] k|z+;f ufpg]5' .

@ltd|f] k|]db]lv x] k|e', d af/Daf/ b"/ eP -@_

t/ d ltdLsxf“ cfp“bf dnfO{ tTsfn Ifdf u¥of} .

#kfkdf cfkm"nfO{ gfz kfp“bf dnfO{ xft lbO{ p7fPYof} -@_

zq'sf hfnem]nb]lv dnfO{ hojGt hLjg lbof} .

$d]/f z/0f:yfg ltdL, ltdL g} b[9 lsNnf xf} -@_

ltdL o;sf rf/}kl§ ;b}j /Ifs eO/xG5f} .

%ltdL g} ;f“rf] ;fIfL xf}, ljZjf;of]Uo k|e' xf} -@_

d]/f] k|e' cgflbsf d ltd|f] :t'lt ufp“b5' .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#!%=

sf]M lg/fzfsf] cfwLdf ha 8'A5', nu+/ agL ;fy b]pm k|e'

cg'u|xdf dnfO{ lx8fpm cg'u|xdf dnfO{ 8f]¥ofpm

!pn{bf] cfwL ;fdgf ubf{ q:t r]nf ;a xtfz eP -@_

cg'u|xdf af“r]sf] r]nf x'“, xtfz xf]pm“nf ;Dxflnb]pm k|e' .

@ljZjf;sf] cfwf/df af“r]sf] 5' ljZjf;sf] n8fO n8\g l;sfpm -@_

ljZjf;nfO{ l;4 agfpg] k|e' d]/f] ljZjf;nfO{ l;4 agfpm .

#k/b]zL 5' d o; ;+;f/df ;xf/f d]/f] oxf“ sf]xL 5}g -@_

ltdL g} d]/f] ;xf/f agL 8f]¥ofOb]pm lbg–lbg cflTds kydf .

$af“lr/x]5' d clGtd lbgdf ;fy b]pm dnfO{ kn–kndf -@_

;fy ltd|f] kfP o; ofqfdf lgZro bf}8 k"/f ug]{5' d .


316 k f f ep dd s n c

316= k|f)f eP;Dd:s]n C

k|f0f eP;Dd ljZjf;df /x] ta

d ltdLnfO{ hLjgsf] d's'6 lgZro lbg]5'

!:ju{sf] /fHo ghLs cfPsf] 5 kfk–dfu{b]lv XbonfO{ lkm/fpm

dgf]x/ b]zdf :yflkt of] /fHo o'u–o'u;Dd /xg]5,

k|e'sf] kydf k|]dk"j{s lxF8L To; /fHonfO{ clg d's'6nfO{ kfpm“

@P ;fg' em'08 eoeLt gxf]pm k|e'sf] z'e]r5f 5 /fHo lbg]

s]jn ltdLn] k|e'nfO{ dgkbf]{ ;'Gb/ rf]vf] hLjg latfpm

ljhoL hLjg k|ltlbg lhO{ k|lt1fsf] /fHo clg d's'6nfO{ kfO{


317 slt dfof s n em

317= slt dfof:s]n Em

slt dfof u5{g\ dnfO{ d]/f Kof/f k|e'n]

d]/} dfofsf] t[i0ffdf ;w}+ g} t8\lklbG5g\

!dnfO{ cgGt hLjg lbg cfºgf] k|f0f;Dd lbP

d}n] ef]Ug'kg]{ b'Mv pgn] g} lnOlbP .

@d]/f] hLjg ;xf/f agL 8f]¥ofpg'xf];\ uf]/]6f]df

d cGwf] 5', oxf“ tkfO{ g} Hof]lt d]/f] .

#;+;f/ 6lnuP klg, d[To" g} cfP klg

of] ldng cgGt;Dd of] k|Lt cd/ g} 5 .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#!*=

sf]M c:tfrnkfl/ dlxldt b]zdf d]/f] 5 Pp6f 3/ -@_

rf“8} g} o]z" cfpg'eP/ k'¥ofp“5g\ ;/f;/ -@_

!;fgf] 3/sf] 5fgf]dlg, yf]/} s'/f] ePklg

;a}eGbf ;'vL 5' d sf/0f ;fy 5g\ hojGt o]z"

oxf“ ;w} a:g] xf]Og dlxldt b]zdf hfg'5

;'Gb/ zx/ ;'gsf] ;8s lsgf/ :jR5 rf“blsf] 5 -@_

@gfRb}, xf“:b}, :t'lt ufp“b} ;Gtx¿l;t lx8\g]5'

jL0ff ahfpb} ufpg]5' d d's'6 kfO{ /dfpg]5'

of] xf] t]/f] rlDsnf] 3/ eG5g\ dnfO{ k|]dL O{Zj/

tof/ 5 of] t]/f]nflu, /fh u/ oxf“ ;w}+ gfgL -@_


319 ufcf ult s n c

319= ufcf}+ uLt:s]n C

ufcf} uLt k|e'sf] ldnLh'nL 5f} ;a hf] -@_

!k|e' xfd|f] uf]7fnf] ;anfO{ 36L s] xf]nf <

xl/of]–xl/of] 3f“;df ;anfO{ r/fO{ lnO lxF8\nfg\ -@_

@k'¥ofO{ lgd{n gbLdf lj>fd lbG5g\ dg}df

cfºg} gfp“sf] lglDtdf 8f]¥ofp“5g\ 7Ls af6f]df -@_

#d[To" 5fof t/fO{df lxF8\5' hf]lvd g8/fO{

pgsf] n¶L ;dfO{ zflGt lbG5g\ xfdLnfO{ -@_

$;fd' ha j}/L cfof] xfd|f]nflu ef]h /fVof]

xfd|f Kofnf plDnof] lz/df t]n nufOlbof] -@_

%lgZro k|e'sf] bof hLjgel/ xf]O/xnf

ha :ju{df k'uf}Fnf ;bf;j{b} a;f}Fnf -@_


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#@)=

!O{Zj/ 5g\ k|]dL arfP dnfO{, O{Zj/ 5g\ k|]dL d]/f]nflu .

sf]M o;sf/0f ufp“b}5' / :t'lt ub}{5, O{Zj/ 5g\ k|]dL d]/f]nflu

@d kfksf] ef/n] 8'a]sf] lyP / d]/f] nflu p4f/ lyPg .

#qf0f lbg] o]z" k|folZrt eP, kfksf] ef/ clg b'Mv p7fP .

$a9fO xf];\ ltd|f], ;gftg k|]dL, ha;Dd lhp“5' :t'lt u5'{ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#@!=

!xfd|f :juL{o O{Zj/ lktf gfp“ tkfO{sf] kljq xf];\

/fHo tkfO{sf] l56f] cfcf];\ OR5f k"/f] ul/cf];\

h:tf] :ju{df, h:tf] :ju{df -To:tf] k[YjLdf xf];\_ @

@xfd|f] lbg–lbgsf] ef]hg bof u/L lbg'xf];\

ck/fw xfd|f] bof u/L Ifdf alS;lbg'xf];\

h:tf] xfdL, h:tf] xfdL -Ifdf u5f}{ ;a}nfO_{ @

#xfdL ;a}nfO{ k/LIff / b'i6b]lv arfpgf];\

lsgeg] oL tkfO{sf /fHo, k/fqmd dlxdf xf];\

;bf;j{bf, ;bf;j{bf -cfldg, cfldg o;f] xf];\_ @


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#@@=

!x[bodf 5 d]/f] lbJo /fu, o]z"sf] dL7f] Wjlg

g8/fpm ;b}j 5' d ;fy, k|To]s lbg / /ft klg .

sf]M o]z", o]z", o]z", >]i7 / dL7f] gfd

Nofof] zflGt, :yfoL qm";df u/L husf] qf0f

@kfksf] ef/n] hLjg lyof] lgs[i6 b'a{n y] d lg?kfo

ag]/ ;xfos cfP v|Li6 ug{nfO{ zq'n] Ifo .

#Ps ;'gf}nf] laxfg km]l/ v|Li6 cfp“5g\ afbndf lgZro

lnP/ z/L/ Tof] dlxldt hfg]5f} v|Li6;fy lge{o .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#@#=

!u/ avfg k'/fgf], :ju{sf] s'/fsf]

o]z"sf] dlxdf hfg', o]z"sf] k|]d s] ef]

u/ avfg ;lhnf] ;fgf afnsnfO{ em}

lga{n / x}/fg 5', 5' lgwf]{ / kfkdo .

sf]M u/ avfg k'/fgf] -#_ o]z"sf] k|]d s] ef]

@u/ avfg la:tf/}, d a'em\g ;s' aft

pb]ssf] Tof] p4f/ hf] d]6\g kfksf] ut

u/ avfg bf]xf]¥ofO{ rf8} la;{G5' d

laxfgsf] zLt k/fO{ lbp“;f] /xg]5 .

#u/ avfg sdnf], ;“u oTg ;f]/ / wL/

o]z"n] k|f0f lbOxfn], p4f/ u/fO{ l:y/

u/ avfg ;a ;do / o:t}u/L g}

dnfO{ uf]xf/] ;f“Rr} ;a vf“rf] x'bfd} .

$u/ avfg k'/fgf] b]vf kbf{df

o; nf]ssf] Joy{ dfgsf] w]/} OR5f u5'{ d

c“ clg ha d vf]h" :ju{nf]ssf] ;To dfg

u/ avfg k'/fgf] o]z"n] u5{g qf0f .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#@$=

!O{Zj/rflx k|]d x'g\, k|]drflx cd/ xf] O{Zj/ k|]d ;j{>]i7 xf]

ljZjf;, cfzf / k|]ddWo] klg k|]d ;a}eGbf >]i7 xf] .

@k"0f{ x[bo / zlqm, an, k|f0fn] k/d O{Zj/nfO{ k|]d u/f}

l5d]sL;“ cfkm};“u em} ;j{bf lgisk6 k|]d u/f} .

#k|]dn] ;bfsfn wL/h wb{5, k|]dn] slxNo} O{v ub}{g

k|]dn] slxNo} z]vL ub}{g, k|]drflx slxNo} km'lnb}g .

$k|]dn] s'/Llt slxNo} ub}{g, cfkm\g} enfO vf]Hb}g

a'/fO{ 3d08, 5n, sk6 ub}{g, k|]drflx slxNo} db}{g .

%k|e' o]z"sf] kl5Nnf] cf1f Ps–csf{;“ k|]d u/f}

Ps–csf{sf] k|]dsf] C0f af]Sb} o]z"sf] cf1f k"/f] u/f}+ .


325 x o z ltd f k d s n c

325= x] o]z" ltd|f] k|]d :s]n C

x] o]z" ltd|f] k|]d, slt dxfg\ 5, cfsfzsf] tf/f, kj{t ;d'Gb|

;aeGbf dxfg\ 5 -@_

!cuDo cfgGbn] Xbo e/k"/ 5, k|e'sf] sfo{ g} w]/} dxfg\ 5

x/]s ;f“em, x/]s ljxfg -:t'ltsf] of]Uo 5_ @

@;+s6sf] ;dodf hLjg lg/fz x'G5 x] O{Zj/ k'sf5'{ bof dnfO{ bzf{pm

af]nfpeGbf klxnf g} eG5g\, -d ltd|f] ;fy 5'_ @

#cGwsf/ 3f6Ldf dnfO{ lxF8\g'5 d[To" / hf]lvdsf] w]/} g} ofqf 5

uf]7fnf] eO{ k|e' 8f]¥ofpg'x'G5 -cgGt ;fyL eO{_ @

$36L / sdLsf] dnfO{ s]xL 8/ 5}g xl/of] rp/df dnfO{ lgw{Ss 5

ef]hg–hnn] t[Kt d x'G5, -v|Li6 d]/f] ;fy5g\_ @

%O{Zj/sf] ejgdf :t'lt ;wF} u5'{, ;Dk"0f{ Xbon] pgnfO{ ;wF} eG5'

:t'lt–k|z+;fsf] of]Uo k/d]Zj/ -xNn]n"ofx cfldg_ @


326 s t f eo s n d

326= s[t!f eO{:s]n D

s[t1 eO{, lz/ em'sfO{ hLjg r9fpg cfPsf] 5'

cd"No e]6 c? s] 5 / < hLjg d]/} ck]{sf] 5' -@_

!6f9f] hf“bf k|]dnfO{ e'nL, 3fon x'G5 dg k|e'sf] -@_

x'G5' -ghLs_ @ ltd|f] g} ;lQmg d hfg 6f9f] -@_

@dgnfO{ lv“rg] j}ej hut\sf ljnf; ljnf; afws d]/f -@_

v|Li6sf] cb\e't k|]d}sf] lglDt TofU5' lognfO{ dg}af6 -@_

#k|]d 5 cufw k|e' ltd|f] g}, aofg ug]{ zlQm 5}g -@_

cgGtsfn ;]jf g} u¿F, o; k|]daf6 pC0f d x'Gg“ -@_

$husf] lglDt lhp“lbg k|e' g tf lhp“5' cfºg} lglDt -@_

;lQmg d ck{0f gu/L 5f]6f] hLjg ltd|f] g} lglDt -@_

%b'Mlvt 5' d ;dosf] lglDt lat]Yof] hf] /xFbf kfkdf -@_

af“sL hLjg s[t1tfdf clk{t xf];\ k|e's} ;]jfdf -@_


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#@&=

sf]M k/d]Zj/sf] qmf]waf6 v|Li6n] xfdLnfO{ arfp“5g\

pxf“sf] hLjgn] xfdLnfO{ kfkb]lv arfp“5

!dlxdfsf] cfzfdf cfglGbt agf}

lg/fzf u/fp“b}g cfzfdf /xf} .

@pxf“sf] hLjgåf/f p4f/ kfpg]5f}

ldnfk / cfgGb u/f} ;bf;j{bf .


328 d el el s n c

328= d'^'el/ el/:s]n C

d'6'el/–el/, 5ftLjl/kl/ d]/f] k|e'sf] dfof

gfKg ;Sb}gf}, ckf/ 5 pgsf] k|]dL 5q5fof

v|Li6s} k|]ddf 8'A5', v|Li6s} k|]ddf e'N5' d ;bf–;bf

5'6fpg ;S5 s'g rLhn], eg s;n] u5{ afwf

!pgsf] k|]d cfsfzeGbf cUnf], ;fu/eGbf ulx/f],

cToGt bfdL, e]befj/lxt, cj0f{gLo -@_

l;Q}df kfOg] slxNo} gk'Ug] -@_

s;n] lbG5 To:tf] k|]d xfd|} d'lQmbftf o]z" .

@ha d x/fPsf] lyP, ;xf/fxLg lbP of] kfkL hudf

k|e' cfpg'ef], d]/} g} ;fd' -@_

dfofn' xftn] tfGg'ef] dnfO{ -@_

s;n] u¥of] To:tf] k|]d xfd|} d'lQmbftf o]z" .


329 cfpfb tkfo sf s n f a

329= cfpFb%' tkfO{+sf]:s]n F(A)

cfpFb5' tkfO{sf] r/0fdf, kb{5' tkfO{sf] z/0fdf

kfksf] af]em 5 hLjgdf, x6fO{ a:g'xf];\ x[bodf

!l;sfpg'xf];\ dnfO{ Kof/ ug{ tkfO+{nfO{ -@_

k|e' dnfO{ tkfO+{n] Kof/ ug'{ef] klxn] -@_

@;dftL d]/f] xft /fVg'xf];\ dnfO{ ;fy -@_

hLjgsf] Hof]lt lbO{ rDsfpg'xf];\ dnfO{ -@_


330 k e ltd f t lt s n a

330= k|e' ltd|f] :t'lt:s]n A

k|e' ltd|f] :t'lt u5'{, ltd|f] dlxdf ufpg] 5' -@_

!ltd|f] r/0fdf x] k|e' -@_ Xbo e]6L r9fp“b}5' -@_

@k"/f] dgn] laGtL u5'{ -@_ ltd|f] bz{g d kfpm“ -@_

#o]z"sf] ¿k ddf xf]cf];\ -@_ pgs} u'0f b]vfpgnfO{ -@_

$ltd|} jrgn] x] k|e' -@_ gof“ hLjg kfpg]5' -@_

%k|e' zlQm b]pm dnfO{ -@_ ltd|f] jrg ;'gfpgnfO{ -@_


331 c u k to usf s n c

331= cª\u k|Toª\usf:s]n C

c·–k|To·sf dflns d u5'{ k|0ffd\

wGo–wGo ;[li6stf{ cd/ 5 ltd|} gfd -@_

!ltd|f ;[li6 oL b'O{ xft 5g\ slt /fd|f, ltd|f ;[li6 oL b'O{ kfp 5g\ slt /fd|f

oL d]/f xft, oL d]/f kfp c· x'g\ ltd|f, h] u?“ d hxf“ hfpm“ d xf];\ ltd|} dlxdf -@_

@ltd|f ;[li6 oL b'O{ sfg 5g\ slt /fd\f, ltd|f ;[li6 oL b'O{ cf]7 5g\ slt Kof/f

oL d]/f sfg, oL d]/f cf]7 c· x'g\ ltd|f, h] ;'g' d, h] af]n' d, xf];\ ltd|} dlxdf -@_

#ltd|f ;[li6 oL b'O{ cf“vf 5g\ slt /fd|f, cGwf] x'g t dgsf cf“vf 5g\ tL rgfvf

5g\ hf] d]/f oL b'O{ cf“vf c· x'g\ ltd|f, hxf“ h] hlt b]v] d}n] xf];\ ltd|} dlxdf -@_

$1fg / a'l4 hlt d]/f x'g\, oL ltd|} bfg, c·–k|To·df Kof/sf] ltd|f] /x]sf] 5 lgzfg

Zjf;–k|Zjf;af6 d]/f], lg:sf]; ltd|} gfp“, d]/f] oL ;jf{·af6, xf];\ ltd|} sfd -@_


332 kg cflzif sf s n g

332= kg]{% cflzif\sf]:s]n G

!kg]{5 cflzif\sf] em/L, k|]dsf] k|lt1fnfO{ dfg

x'G5 ;do hLjg lbg] v|Li6 d'lQmbftfsf] bfg .

cflzif\sf] em/L cflzif\sf] em/L k7fpm

bofsf] yf]kf] r'x'G5 cflzif\sf] em/L k7fpm

@kg]{5 cflzif\sf] em/L, hLjgdf xf];\ zlQm–an

;a}df pTkGg u/fp“5 kljq cfTdfsf] kmn .

#kg]{5 cflzif\sf] em/L, xfdLdf k|e' k7fpm

lbP/ cfTdfsf] e/k"/, jrgsf] t]hn] hufpm .

$kg]{5 cflzif\sf] em/L, xf];\ cfhb]lv z'¿

xfdLn] cfh kfk :jLsf5f}{, ;'Gg'xf];\ laGtL o]z" .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

###=

!x] k|]d dnfO{ hfg glbg] d cfkm\gf] ylst cfTdf Nofp“5'

k|f0f ca ltdLnfO{ lbOxfN5' hLjgsf] ;fu/df a:g e/k'/L x'gnfO{ .

@x] Hof]lt dnfO{ af6f] b]vfpg] d cfkm\gf] ;fgf] aQL Nofp“5'

cfkm\gf] dgsf] Hof]lt kmsf{p“5' ltd|f] pHofnf]df a:5' Hof]ltnf] x'gnfO{ .

#x] ;'v hf] dnfO{ b'Mvdf vf]Hg] dg d]/f] sxL efUg g;Sg]

afbndf ltd|f] wg'if x]5'{ s/f/df e/f];f u5'{ lbg d]/f] pHhjn xf];\ .

$x] qm";, hf] d]/f] lz/ p7fpg] g ltdLb]lv efUg ;Sg]

d k|f0f df6f]df /flvlbG5' km"nh:tf] a9L lgSng' k|f0f d]/f] cd/ xf];\ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

##$=

!x] o]z" d]/f] dg n'sfpm To; wf/fdf To; wf/fdf

/ kfk / 8/ ;a} d]6fpm /utsf] wf/fdf .

sf]M /utsf] wf/fdf, k|e' dnfO{ n'sfpm kljq agfpm

/ lbg–lbg} dnfO{ 8'afpm /utsf] wf/fdf

@kfkLnfO{ ldNb5 Ifdf To; wf/fdf To; wf/fdf

/ kfp“b5' :jtGqtf /utsf] wf/fdf .

#ca e/ cfkm}n] dnfO{ To; wf/fdf To; wf/fdf

dnfO{ klg kljq agfO{ /utsf] wf/fdf .

$kljq cfTdf lbg–lbg} To; wf/fdf, To; wf/fdf

dnfO{ k|e' b]vfp“b5g\ /utsf] wf/fdf .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

##%=

!hLjge/ k|]d v|Li6nfO{ d ug]{5' ;'lgb]pm k|fy{gfnfO{ z/0f k5'{

hLjge/ elQm;fy clws k|]d d u5'{ Tof] clws k|]d v|Li6 d u5'{ .

@;f+;fl/s df]xdf vf]h] cf/fdf laGtL 5 b]pm dnfO{ cflTds lj>fd

;w}–;w} elQm;fy, clws k|]d d u5'{ tof] clws k|]d v|Li6 d u5'{ .

#z}tfgn] af/Daf/ u¥of] nfrf/, ltdL 5f} tf/0fxf/ nfp5f} ej kf/

hohoufg ;fy k|e' clws k|]d d u5'{ Tof] clws k|]d v|Li6 d u5'{ .

$;+;f/ ha TofUb5' v|Li6 dnfO{ n]pm lqPs O{Zj/sf] d eQm aGg]5'

of] d]/f] b[9 k|0f xf], clws k|]d d u5'{ lqPs k|e'nfO{ k|]d d u5'{ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

##^=

!lngf];\ k|e' d]/f] Hofg xf];\ tkfO{nfO{ alnbfg

lngf];\ x/]s lbg / If0f ;w} :t'ltdf lat'g\ .

@lngf];\ d]/f xft, k|e' nfpgf];\ sfddf tkfO{sf]

lngf];\ d]/f kfp, k|e' cfkm\gf] kydf lx8fpg .

#lngf];\ d]/f] :j/, k|e' tkfO{sf] a9fO u5'{

lngf];\ d]/f] cf]7 k|e' xf];\ ;'jrg e/]sf] .

$lngf];\ d]/f] wg, k|e' ;a tkfO{nfO{ a'emfp“5' .

lngf];\ a'l4, 1fg, k|e', jzdf NofO{ tkfO{sf] .

%lngf];\ OR5f x] k|e' cfkm\g}l;t ldnfpg' .

lngf];\ dg cfkm\g} 7fGgf];\ tkfO{sf] l;+xf;g xf];\ .

^lngf];\ d]/f] k|]d, k|e' r/0fdf d vGofp“5' .

lngf];\ tg–dg–wg, k|e' v|Li6s} nflu lhpg]5' .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

##&=

!h:t} d 5' xf] tkfO{sf] hLjgsf dLt Kof/ u5{g\

hf] tkfO{nfO{ d ck{0f u5'{, x] k|e' o]z" cfp“b}5' .

@d]/f] cfo'sf] laxfgdf v'zL;fy Hofg / k|lt1f lbG5'

geO{ ca]nf, x] k|e' o]z", cfp“b}5'' .

#;bf Hof]ltdf a:g kfpm“ ;bf enfO{ sfd ug{ kfpm“

;]jfdf k"/f] an nufpm“ o;sf/0f o]z" cfp“b}5' .

$hLjg :jtGq d x'“bf z'4 x'g rfxG5' tkfO{df

;f]emf] / eQm, wdf{Tdf, x] hLjg :jfdL, cfp“b}5' .


338 d tkfo sf x f s n d7

338= d tkfO{+sf] x'F:s]n D7

!d tkfO{sf] x'“ slt Kof/ dnfO{ k|e' v|Li6 bzf{pg'ef]

t/ ljZjf;åf/f tkfO{sf] 5]p cfpg] t[i0ff ub{5' .

dnfO{ ghLs, ghLs x] k|e' Nofpgf];\ cfˆgf] qm";sf] 5]pm

dnfO{ -ghLs_ # x] k|e' cfˆgf] 3fon z/L/sf] 5]pm

@O{Zj/sf] cg'u|xsf] zlQmn] d k|e'sf] sfd u¿F

OR5f d]/f] tkfO{+sf]df ldnfO{ O{Zj/df cfzf /fvF" .

#ha k|fy{gfdf ldq;“u eFm} tkfO{+;“u af]N5' d

ta cfp“bf tkfO{+sf] ;Gd'vdf dnfO{ slt cfgGb 5 .

$d gd¿~h]n k|]dsf] cg'ej ug{ ;lQmg k"/f

d ga;'~h]n v|Li6sf] ;·tdf d]/f] d]6\b}g t[i0ff .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

##(=

!k|lt1f u/] o]z" d ;]jf ug]{5'

d;“u ;w} a:gf];\ x] ;fyL / k|e'

n8fOb]lv 8/fpGg glhs x'g'eP

tkfO{sf] ky la/fpGg kfp 8f]¥ofpg'eP .

@5]pm d]/f] a:gf];, o]z" ;f+;fl/s dfofn]

km;fp“5 dnfO{ ;w} nf]Eofpg] ;f]/n]

5g\ zq' rf/}lt/ dgleq 5g\ klg

x] o]z" cfO{ k|f0fnfO{ hf]ufpgf];\ kfkb]lv .

#:jfy{sf] emu8fb]lv O{iof{sf] cfwldf

d :j/ tkfO{sf] ;'g' dw'/ zfGt ;kmf

dnfO{ r]tfpgL, ;fx; jf xKsL xf];\ k|e'

af]nL dnfO{ ;'gfpgf];\, x] /If k|f0f}sf] .

$x] o]z" of] k|lt1f r]nfnfO{ lbOof] ls

æhxf“ d 5' x'g]5f} Toxf“ ltdL klgÆ

x] o]z" jrg lbP d ;]jf ug]{5'

tkfO{sf] kl5 nfu" x] ;fyL / k|e' .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

@$)=

!o]z"nfO{ d ;a yf]s lbG5', ;a}yf]s ck{0f u5'{

k|ltlbg tkfO{sf] ;fydf k|]d / ljZjf;df a9\5' .

sf]M ;a yf]s lbG5', d ;a yf]s lbG5' d

d'lQmbftf tkfO{nfO{ ;a yf]s lbG5' d

@o]z"nfO{ d ;ayf]s lbG5' b08jt u5'{ tkfO{nfO{

;f+;fl/s OR5f d 5f]8\5' tkfO{ lng'xf]; dnfO{ .

#o]z"nfO{ d ;j yf]s lbG5' cfkm\g} agfpgf];\ dnfO{

kljqfTdf xj;\ ;fIfL v|Li6 x'g\ d]/f d v|Li6s} .

$o]z"nfO{ d ;a yf]s lbG5' d]/f] hLjg lng'xf];\

k|]d / zlQm ddf egf]{;\ cflzif\n] ek'/ ugf]{; .

%oz"nfO{ d ;a yf]s lbG5' kljqfTdf ofb u5'{

k'/f d'lQmdf v'zL 5' pgsf] gfp“sf] ho ufp“5' .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#$!=

sf]M tf/0fxf/ v|Li6 o]z"hLsf] lgTo–lgTo hohosf/ xf];\

kfkLx¿nfO{ clt k|]d ug]{, o]z"sf] a9fO xf]O/xf];\

!t8\lklx8\y] hLjg ;f/f ltdLljxLg, x] o]z"hL -@_

wGo xf];\ ltd|f] k|]dsf] lglDt -qm";}df r9L arfpg'of}_ @

@hLjg kydf b'Mv ;+s6 ;bf g} k|e' lsg gxf];\

cufw k|]dsf] ;f6f]df o]z" -x[bo e]6L oxL /xf];\_ @

#u|x0f u/L x[bo d]/f] k|]d / cfgGb cem a9fpm

dg oxL xf] dlGb/ ltd|f], -:t'ltsf] of]Uo of] hLjg agfpm_ @


342 o zj sf j df s n g

342= O{Zj/sf] %]j}df:s]n G

!O{Zj/sf] 5]j}df hfFb}5' d k/] klg b'Mvdf nluG5' d

:t'lt ufp“b} ho eG5' O{Zj/sf] 5]j}df O{Zj/sf] 5]j}df hfFb}5' d .

@k/b]zLh:t} 5' 3fd 8'Ab} 5 jf;–u9 d vf]Hb}5' /ft kb}{5

lgGb|fdf d x'G5' O{Zj/sf] 5]j}df O{Zj/sf] 5]j}df hfFb}5' d .

#:ju{nf]ssf] af6f] lbG5g\ dnfO{ ;a yf]s lbG5g\ dnfO{ jxf“ cflzif\ kfO{

b'teGbf >]i7 x'G5' O{Zj/sf] 5]j}df O{Zj/sf] 5]j}df hfFb}5' d .

$b'Mv–zf]snfO{ Tofu]/, zfGt eP/, rDsb} /xG5' jxf“ uP/

zf]s x'b}g ;fydf O{Zj/sf] 5]j}df O{Zj/sf] 5]j}df hfFb}5' d .

%cfgGbsf] kv]6f ha lnG5' d ;+;f/sf] zf]s lrGtf la;{G5' d

:t'lt ufp“b} ho eG5' O{Zj/sf] 5]j}df O{Zj/sf] 5]j}df hfFb}5' d .


343 l sfpg xf s n c

343= l;sfpg'xf];\:s]n C

!l;sfpg'xf];\ ;·t ug{ tkfO{sf] lbg–lbg x] d]/f] gfy

u/fpgf];\ zfGt xnrn Xbosf] ofb ug{ tkfO+{sf] ;fy

af]Ng'xf];\ ta tof/ d x'G5' -@_, ;'Gg Tof] d[b' cfjfh

ug'{xf];\ uf]xf/ d;LxL hLjg latfpg ljgfnfh -@_

@rfxG5' k|e' lxF8\g af6f]df tkfO+{sf] lbg k|ltlbg

:jfy{s} sf/0f olb dnfO{ x'G5, 5' clt zlQmxLg

l;sfpg'xf];\ k|e' ug'{ x} ;]jf -@_ g agL ck:jfyL{

a9fO xf];\ cfh k|e' o]z"sf] ag' d lgM:jfyL{ -@_

#lgZrot, k|e', cfh dnfO{ 5 ePsf] 5' d[To' kf/

kljq cfTdf / k|lt1fsf eP d efuLbf/

Nofpg'xf];\, k|e' tf]8L b]x d]/f] -@_ tkfO{+sf] l;4tf

s]jn k|sfz xf];\ Hof]lt tkfO{+sf] d]/f] o; hLjgdf -@_


344 x k e u g s n a7

344= x] k|e' u/g :s]n A7

x] k|e' ug{ bz{g ltd|f] cfPsf 5f} xfdL cfzf nufO{

x] k|e' ug{ ===

!-dgnfO{ cfºgflt/ nufOb]pm_ @ gfkljgf cflzif\ vgfOb]pm .

@-cfºgf] k"0f{ 1fg nf} b]pm_ @ :juL{o jf0fL cfh nf} ;'gfOb]pm .

#-vfnL xf];\ k|e' Xbo d]/f]_ @ df]x nf]e cf} qmf]w d]6fOb]pm .

$-;a} cz'4tfnfO{ wf]Ob]pm_ @ qm";sf] d'lg :gfg u/fOb]pm .

%-qm";sf] j]bLdf cfb/;fy cfp“5f}_ @

tg–dg–wg ;a} e]6L r9fp“5f} .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#$%=

!v|Li6s} nflu ;a} v|Li6s} sfd ug]{ zlQm d]/f]

aft, ljrf/ sfdx¿ ;a} lbg 306f ;a} d]/f

v|Li6s} nflu ;a} v|Li6s} sfd ug]{ zlQm d]/f]

v|Li6s} nflu ;a} v|Li6s} lbg 306f ;a} d]/f .

@pgsf] sfo{ oL xftn] u?g kfp pgsf] kydf lx8"g

cf“vfn] v|Li6nfO{ b]v"g cf]7n] pgsf] :t'lt u?g\

v|Li6s} nflu ;a} v|Li6s} kfp pgsf] kydf lx8"g

v|Li6s} nflu ;a} v|Li6s} cf]7n] pgsf] :t'lt u?g\ .

#cf“vf ha v|Li6df nfP v|Li6 6fluPsf] b]v]

cfTdfn] v|Li6 dfq b]v] c? yf]s d}n] e"n]

v|Li6s} nflu ;a} v|Li6s} v|Li6 6fluPsf b]v]

v|Li6s} nflu ;a} v|Li6s} c? yf]s d}n] e"n] .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#$^=

sf]M ltd|f] r/0fdf ltd|f] z/0fdf ltd|f] r/0fdf ltd|f] z/0fdf

!cfof} k|e' e]6L cf/fwgf r9fpb} eG5f}

zlQm b]pm k|e' /fHo a9fpg', o]z" gfd km}nfpg' -@_

@ltd|f] z/0fsf] bf; xfdL eO{ kljq cfTdf lnO{ cl3 a9\b}

;'t]sf] efOnfO{ hufp“b}, x/fPsf] cfTdfnfO{ vf]lhNofpb}

a9fp“5f} ltd|f] /fHonfO{ o]z" gfd km}nfp“5f} -@_


347 xbo e l s n f d

347= Xbo e]^L:s]n F(D)

Åbo e]6L r9fcf} k|e'nfO{, :t'lt houfg klg

xfdL ;a ;Gtu0f ldnL -@_

!kfksf] ef/ p7fpg cfP v|Li6 g/nf]sdf -@_

kfkL hg ;asf] kfk d]6fO{ -@_ hLjg ;gftg lbg .

@c;fWo b'Mv p7fP gd| / bLg agL -@_

vf]nL p4f/sf] åf/ k|e'hL -@_ cd/ cfzf lbnfO{ .

#wGo :juL{o of] k|]d xfdL cwdL{k|lt -@_

ge'nf+} km]l/ b'i6 ag]/ -@_ ;+;f/df km]l/ kmsL{ .

$;dk{0f u5f}{+ tkfO{+nfO{ k|f0f cfTdf Xbo klg -@_

/Iff ug'{xf];\ of] hLjgsf] -@_ ljgo 5 xfd|f] oxL .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#$*=

sf]M hLjgsf] bLk, hLjg k|ef lr/fgGb k|sfz b]pm

x[bo d]/f] lnP/ gljg cflTds agfOb]pm -@_

!cGt/fTdfn] d]/f] ljgo oxL ub{5 -@_

sn° ;a wf]P/ d;LxL hLjg oxL ub{5 -@_

@hLjg c?0fsf] /f]zgL NofO{ of] d]/f] x[bofsfzdf -@_

cfTdfdf gj pd· b]pm x] k|e' laGtL ;'lgn]pm .

#cfzf, ljZjf; / k|]ddf l:y/ /xg] zlQm b]pm -@_

hLjg–ofqf z]if eP cfTdf of] u|x0f ul/n]pm .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#$(=

!xf]pm d]/f] bz{g, d]/f] k|f0f, x] k|e' tkfO{afx]s cfgGb 5}g c?

/ftdf–lbgdf xf];\ ;f]r tkfO{s} ;'Tbf jf Jo"embf Hof]lt tkfO{ g} .

@xf]pm d]/f] a'l4 d]/f] ;f“rf] aft d ;bf tkfO{;fy tkfO{ g} .

tkfO{ g} lktf d 5f]/f ;f“rr} jf; ugf]{;\ ddf d rflx tkfO{d}

#xf]pm d]/f] t/jfn / 9fn n8fOsf] xf]pm d]/f] dof{bf cfgGb d]/f]

xf]pm d]/f] u9L w/x/f cUnf] :ju{lt/ p7fpm x] anjfg\ k|e' .

$wg d vf]lHbg g t k|z+;f tkfO{ g} d]/f] ;j{:j ;bf

tkfO{nfO{ dfq d]/f] klxn] dfg :ju{sf] /fhf tkfO{ d]/f] wg .

%:ju{sf] /fhf ljho eO{ uof] :juL{o cfgGb kfp“5' 3fd rlDsnf]

d]/f] k|f0f Kof/f] e"n eP xfd|f] cem} xf]pm bz{g x] ;asf /fhf .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#%)=

sf]M dg d]/f] lng'xj;\ o]z" tkfO{n] o;nfO{ agfpg'ef]

o;df tkfO{ cfkm\gf] 3/ agfpgf];\ h;sf] nflu of] agfpg'ef]

!b'lgof“sf] ;a s'/f lgsfNgf];\ o;nfO{ z'4 kljq ug'{xf];\

cz'4 d}nf] kfknfO{ wf]O{sg Tof] /utn] hf] axfpg'ef] .

@ha k9\b5' kljq jrg h;sf] af6f] 5 ;RrfOsf]

af6f] ;To hLjg b]vfO{sg ljZjf; clg cfzf a9fpg'ef] .

#w]/} ;fn tkfO{b]lv lyP b'/ nfk/jfxLn] g} u/] b'/

cg'u|x, k|]d, bofsf] j/bfgn] wL/h w/L dnfO{ b]vfpg'ef] .

$cfTdf z'4 xf];\ wf]O{sg kljq cfTdfsf] alKt:dfn]

x/ ;do x/ hUuf ;fIfL lbpm“ h:tf] tkfO{n] g} l;sfpg'ef] .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#%!=

!x] k|e', tkfO{sf] nflu k"/f] zlQm lbG5'

/ d]/f] dgsf] xif{cG;f/ tkfO{sf] uLt ufp“5' .

@;+;f/nfO{ x[bo lbP/ k|]d x'Gg tkfO{sf]

tkfO{sf] ;]jf ljgfan ug'{ g;Sg] xf] .

#tkfO{sf] nflu s'OR5f gxj;\ bfg d]/f]

g d]/f] xj;\ cN5] dg g x[bo ck:jfy{sf] .

$x] k|e' dnfO{ r'Gg'xf];\ d x'G5' tkfO{sf]

tkfO{nfO{ k"/f] an lbG5' ;Dk"0f{ x[bosf] .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#%@=

!o]z"sf] gfdn] lbG5 ;'v ljZjf;Lx¿nfO{

rf]6 lgsf] kf5{ yfD5 b'Mv / x6fOlbG5 eo .

sf]M Kof/f] gfd d'lQmbftsf], Kof/f] gfd d'lQmbftfsf]

Kof/f] gfd d'lQmbftfsf], ;jf]{Rr gfd o]z"

@lk|o gfd d]/f] hLjg–cfwf/ 9fn z/0f:yfg d]/f]

k|z:t lbg] of] e08f/ c;Ld cg'u|xsf] .

#v|Li6 qftf, ldq uf]7fnf], af6f], ;To, hLjg

eljiojQmf, k'/f]lxt, /fhf, x[bo u5'{ ck{0f .

$tkfO{sf] k|]d ckf/ ;'gfpm“ k|f0f d]/f] /x'~h]n

o; gfdn] km]l/ hfu[t xf]pm“ ha cfp“5 d[To"sfn .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#%#=

sf]M hjfgLnfO{ k|e'sf] lglDt lhp“bf] alnbfg r9fpm

;+;f/nfO{ TofuL cfkm\gf] qm"; p7fO{ k|e'nfO{ g} k5ofpm x}

!of] z/L/ ltd|f] dlGb/ xf] hxf“ O{Zj/n] jf; u5{g\

o;nfO{ ;w}+ kljq /fv, k|e'n] /fh u5{g\ .

@cfkm}nfO{ k|e'sf] l;kfxL agfpm, n8fO 5 nfdf], x/]; gvfpm

ljZjf;sf] pQd n8fO{ n8 k|e'n] ho lbG5g\ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#%$=

sf]M p7 hfu x] d;LxL ob{gkf/ hfgnfO{ -@_

Tofu, Tofu ld>sf] of] ;'v–ljnf;, dfgnfO{ -@_

!slt klg z+sf g/fvL o]z"sf] s/f/df -@_

cl3 a9L ljjz geO{ -@_ k|e'sf] ljZjf;df .

@;d'Gb| uhf]{;\ ysf]{;\ kj{t, af9L a9f];\ of] ofqfdf -@_

kmsL{ gx]/L ;bf]d gu/nfO{ -@_ sbd a9fpm l;of]g kxf8df .

#gh/ p7fO{ snj/Ldf x]/L v|Li6 lgzfgfnfO{ -@_

x6fOlbg] afwf / aGwg -@_ gfzug]{ cGwsf/nfO{ .

$ca|fxd, O;xfs, ofs"a, of];]kmnfO{ ;fy lbg], x] ofx|] -@_

xNn]n"ofx, xNn]n"ofx -@_, :t'lt dlxdf, xNn]n"ofx .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#%%=

sf]M ltd|f] hjfgLnfO{ x]nf ug{ gb]pm s;}nfO{ -@_

;'Dk hLjg k|e'nfO{ 8f]¥ofpg]5g\ ltdLnfO{ -@_

hLjgsf] of] ofqfdf === -@_

!hLjg of] xfd|f] ;w}+ g/xg] hfg' 5 Pslbg ;a} -@_

kfknfO{ TofuL v|Li6nfO{ lnO{ -@_ x'g]5f} d[To"kf/ .

@nf]e u5f}{ nfnr u5f}{ ;+;f/sf] ;a} yf]snfO{ -@_

oL ;a}yf]s s]xL klg xf]Og -@_ x'gnfO{ d[To"kf/ .

#hLjg of] ltd|f] k|e'nfO{ b]pm eg]{5 cflzif\n] -@_

;+;f/df b'Mv, d[To"kl5 ;'v -@_ kfpg] 5f} ltdLn] .


356 d f hljg s n d

356= d]/f] hLjg:s]n D

d]/f] hLjg of] k|e' ltd|} xf], d]/f] cfzf–pd+u, k|e' ltdL g}

ltd|} agL d /lx/x"“ ca laGtL oxL 5 ;bfnfO{

!d]/f] hLjg o:tf] lyof] ls em/]sf] km"n

cGof]ndf af“r]sf] e"n}–e"n

l/lQPsf] lhGbuLdf s]xL lyPg ;f/

d]/f] lglDt cfzf s]jn xf/}–xf/

-d}n] hf]z kfP“, d}n] xf]z kfP“, ;a bf]ifsf] dfkm k|e'df kfP“_ @

@bfdL–bfdL ;Dem]sf tL h]–hlt lyP

d]/f] lglDt tL ;a} g} ef/ eP

hxf“–hxf“ vf]lhlx8] rflxPsf aft

d]/f] lglDt s]xL /x]g ;w}+ l/Qf] xft

-d}n] ;To–hLjg / zflGt vf]h], o]z"df afx]s sxL kfOg_ @


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#%&=

sf]M oxf“ d}n] p4f/sf] uLt ufpg'5, x/ dgdf v|Li6 a;fpg'5 -@_

!o]z"sf] s?0f qmGbg oxf“ ;'lgb]pm

pg}sf] cfb]z hLjgdf emNsfOb]pm

pxf“;“u lhpg rfxg]x¿ pxf“h:t} algb]pm .

@/ft–lbgsf] km]/f]h:t} eO{ ltdL oxf“ af“lrb]pm

;w}–;w} oxf“ af“lrb]pm -@_


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#%*=

sf]M x]/g /QmfDd] snj/Ldf k|]dsf] k|tLs qm"; v8f Toxf“

6f“luPsf To;df k|e'hL 5g\, lbg ltdLnfO{ p4f/ dxfg\ -@_

!af“R5g\ dflg; a]xf];;l/ dfgf}+ slxNo} db}{gg\ tL

ldq lgZro d5f}{ ltdL lhp“5f} ta sxf“ o'u–o]uel/ <

@af“RgnfO{ j:t' rflxP klg 5ftLdf xfnL nfb}gf} tL

d[To"kfl/ klg lhp“5f} ltdL nfG5f} ls s]xL Toxf“ ;+ufnL <

#k|e' v|Li6 ag] u/La} clt, Tofu] ;a}yf]s ltd|}lglDt

lk|o, ltdL tf hg xf} v|Li6sf lhp“b5f} ca s;sf] lglDt <

$b]vL v"g}–v'g qm";df v|Li6nfO{ ug]{ s;/L pk]Iff pgnfO{

;§fdf v|Li6sf] ckf/ k|]dsf] r9fp“b}gf} s] x[bo cfgf] <


359 d x f pp f s n c

359= d x'F Pp^f :s]n C

d x'“ Pp6f l/Qf] ef“8f] km';|f] df6f]n] ag]sf]

s'6L–lk6L, sf6L–5f6L, tkfO{sf] OR5f cg';f/sf]

ef“8f] dnfO{ agfpg'xf];\ -@_

!d 5' d}nf] s6\s6]sf] ;jf{· d]/f] w'g'xf];\ -@_

tkfO{+sf] u'0fn] e/]/ aNbf] ;fIfL agfpg'xf];\ -@_

@kljqfTdf knkndf dnfO{ gd| t'Nofpg'xf];\ -@_

sbd–sbddf 8f]¥ofp“b}, k|fy{gfsf] hLjg lbg'xf];\ -@_

#o]z" tkfO{+sf] ef“8f] x'“ clt ylst sdhf]/ 5' -@_

tkfO{+sf] ;fdyL{ xftn] ;dft]/ rnfpg'xf];\ -@_


360 tf kmf u l s n g

360= tf]*kmf]* u/L:s]n G

tf]8kmf]8 u/L hf]8g'xf];\ km]l/ v|Li6 :jo+ lhpg'xf];\

;[li6 cl3sf] OR5f tkfO+{sf], x] k|e', k"0f{ xf];\

!:jfy{do hLjg lhP/ slt tkfO{+nfO{ ?jfP -@_

tkfO{+sf] cf1f tf]8]/ d}n] w]/ sf“8f pdf/]

tL sf“8faf6 Ps d's'6 agfO{ k|e'nfO{ klx¥ofP

kfk ub}{ oxf“ af“r]/ s}of} af/ qm";df r9fP .

@lhpg rfxGg xf/]sf] hLjg v|Li6lt/ eP/ -@_

hLpg rfxG5' hojGt hLjg v|Li6leq eP/

o;sf/0f k|e' xf/k"0f{ hLjg tkfO{+nfO{ ck{G5'

d]/f] ;ट्टfdf o]z" lhpg'xf];\ of] ljgo la5fp“5 .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#^!=

sf]M x] v|Li6Lo hg cl3 a9 hLjgsf] ofqfdf

!hfg'5 b'Mv, Sn]z ;xb} k|e'nfO{ k5ofp“bf .

@g3a/fpm, zf]s, nfh ;xg'5, v|Li6n] hf]ufp“b5g\ .

#z}tfgsf] ;fdgf ug'{5, n]pm t/jf/ cfTdfsf] .

$O{Zj/ ;fdyL{ 5g\, ;fydf lx8f}+ pgsf] cf8df .

%O{Zj/sf] Hof]lt b]vfp“b} n8\g]nfO{ ;DxfNb} .

^a9f}+ enfOsf] sfd ub}{ ;'Tg]nfO{ hufpb} .

&g 5f]8L O{Zj/nfO{ ;“udf k'Ug]5f} :ju{nf]sdf .

*of]Uo /Ltn] of] hLjg latfcf}+ :ju{df hUuf kfcf}+ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#^@=

!o]z"sf] kl5 lx8\g]5' a? b'Mvsf] af6f] xf];\

e~Hofª–kxf8 / d}bfgdf dnfO{ hfg'k/f];\

v'zL dgn] d lx8\g]5' hxf“ pgL hfg]5g\

hfGb5' ls oxL af6f] hfg]5 o?zn]d .

@o;sf/0f d ;f]Wg] 5}g, k|e'n] sxf“ nfg]5g\

d 8/fpg]5}g slxNo}, o]z"af6f] b]vfp“5g\

x's'd dfGb} pgsf] kl5 lx8\g]5' gd|tfn]

sf/0f pgsf] l;4 OR5f hftL d d]/f nflu .

#b'lgof“n] dnfO{ em'NofP d]l6g]jfnf rLh}n]

clg kfkdf km;fP ;w}+ b'Mv lbP/

kfl/b]pm lga{Gw dnfO{ cfTdf, k|f0f / hLjgdf

pgsf] ;]jf ug{nfO{ a:g pgs} OR5fdf .

$lnOxfn d]/f] OR5f cfkm\gf] OR5fdf /fv

ha bf}8df d yfSg]5' d]/f] ;fx;nfO{ a9fpm

hLjgel/ pgsf] kl5 lx8\g]5' ;RrfO“n]

ta v'zL x'G5' dlxdf tkfO{sf] ;·ltn] .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#^#=

sf]M bofn' k|e' dnfO{ 8f]¥ofpgf];\ af6f]df tkfO{sf]

k"0f{ xf];\ OR5f k/d]Zj/sf] hLjgdf d]/f]

hf“Rg'xf];\ k|e' dnfO{ ug'{ ;a :jfy{sf] gfz

b]vfpg'xj;\ pkfo dnfO{ ag" d ljZjf;L bf;

!5fGg'ef] k|e' cof]Uo k|f0fLnfO{ ug{nfO{ tkfO{sf] sfd

c1fgL d lga{n nfrf/ 5' a9fpg v|Li6Lo /fHo

vfg'xf];\ agfpg'xf];\ hLjgnfO{ k|e' d]/f]

sf6\gf]; Joy{ j[l4 aGg :j?k tkfO{sf] .

@hfg]5' d af6f]df o]z"hLsf] gu/L s]xL ug\ug\

k|]dsf] s]Gb| k|e' d]/f] tkfO{, ck{0f u5'{ tg–dg–wg

x6fpgf];\ :jfy{ d]/f], xf];\ ek"/L cfTdfsf]

b]v"g\ ;an] hLjgdf ;b\u'0f k/d]Zj/sf] .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#^$=

!x] k/b]z hfg] hg xf] elgG5f} wGosf

v|Li6 lz/}lt/ hfb} v|Li6 ;fyL ;fydf .

@;+;fsf] qf0fsf] nflu v|Li6s} af6f]df

b'Mlvt / ef]sf x'b} elgG5f} wGosf .

#h'g qm";nfO{ v|Li6n] af]s] Tof] ltd|f]nflu lyof]

h'g sf“8]–d's'6 nfP, Tof] ltd|f]nflu lyof] .

$h'g ljZjf;n] v|Li6 b]V5f} h'g cfzf /fVb5f}

h'g k|]dn] v|Li6nfO{ x]5f}{ ha b'Mvdf clNemof} .

%oL s] cuf}6] xf]Ogg\ lktfsxf“ k'¥ofpg] .

oL cfkm}cfkm d"n Hof]ltsf ls/0f 5f]8L c? s] .

^h'g si6 Sn]zn] 3]5{g\ h'g b'Mv ef]Ug'5 .

h'g a]lx;fa k/LIff 5g\ oxf“ c;fWo .

&oL ;a} v|Li6sf zf]ef :ju{sf h:tf l;·f/ .

oL ;a} Pp6f ln:g' psfNg] :ju{sf] åf/ .

*x] wGo ofqL hg xf] xf];\ :ju{sf] ;Demgf .

hxf“ yf]/} b'Mvsf] ;f6f] w]/ ;'v 5 k|e'sxf“ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#^%=

!hLjgsf] af6f] sf“8fn] k"0f{ ;+u|fd 5 ef/L dg x'G5 r"0f{

d?em} z'is x'g5 slxn] /l;nf] clg el/nf] klxn]

;do Tof] lyof] lrGg tkfO{nfO{ wGojfb k|]dL k/d]Zj/ lktf

b]Vb5' d Tof] afbnsf] vf“af] pHhjn rlDsnf] 8f]¥ofpg] dnfO{ .

@cGwsf/ s:tf] 9fSb5 dnfO{ lg/fzsf] lgTo x'b}5 a9fO

s;/L lx8\g' kfOnf sxf“ xfNg', rfxGg k|e', hLjg of] kmfNg'

wGojfb, lktf sfnf] afbnsf] kfl/ b]Vb5' Hof]lt hLjgsf]

;f]Wg dg nfU5 lsg x] k|e' l;sfpg'xf];\ dnfO{ w}o{ x] o]z" .

#n5f/ / k5f/ ;+;f/sf] clt l3gnfUbf] kfkdo 5 d]/f] ult

n8fO / emu8f 5 b]z–ljb]zdf, 3d08 5 ltgs] ljBf / e]ifdf

wGo 5 o]z" d]/f] xf] cfzf afbndf pHhjn b]Vg]5' /fhf

;a}sf] dflns zflGtsf bftf, zlqmsf k|e' v|Li6 d'lQmbftf .

cfpg'x'g]5 -#_, rf“8} g} dlxldt afbndf o]z"hL cfpg'x'g]5 .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#^^=

!k/b]zL efO xf] hfb}5f} sxf“ < e]if xfdL abnL hfG5f} lg jxf“

6f9}sf] ofqf ub}{5f} /fhfsf] ;dfrf/ kfPsf 5f} :ju{ k'Ug'nfO{ .

@Tof] ;'vsf] 7fp“df k'u"nf eGg] k/b]zL efO xf], s] ltd|f] lrGg]

e/f];} ltd|f] 5 xDd] cfzf t ;f“Rr} cuDd] b'Mvsf af6}df .

#rlDsnf] j:q o]z"n] lbG5g\ t]lhnf] d's'6 k|e'n] lbG5g\

;+lunf] cd[t lkpg] 5f} :ju{sf] ;'vnf]s kfpg]5f} :juL{o /fHodf .

$aufn 5 ;fgf] 8/ 5}g w]/} af6f] 5 Psnf] ;fyL 5 yf]/}

b"t xfd|f] b'MvnfO{ 5 ;'Gg] k|e' o]z" :jfdL 5g\ x]g]{ /Ifs eO{ cu'jf .

%cfpg efO xf] / cfpm lbbL–alxgL aLr–aLrdf k; Ps–Ps} ugL

g5f]8 xfdLnfO{ slxNo} ljZjf; u/ v|Li6df clxn] ta k'U5f} ;'vnf]sdf .

^k/b]zL efO xf], hfG5f} lg xfdL /dfOnf] b]zdf n}hfpm x} hfgL

n}hfpm x} xfdLnfO{ ;fy}df :ju{nf]ssf] af6}df 8f]¥ofpg xfdLnfO{ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#^&=

!uf]7fnf] d]/f x'g\ k|e' g 36L 5 dnfO{

xl/of] 3f“;sf] rp/df r/fp“b5g\ dnfO{ .

@pgn] ;'v–r}gsf] kfgLdf 8f]¥ofp“b5g\ dnfO{

/ kf5{g\ k'ghL{ljt k|f0f wd{ dfu{df lx8fO{ .

#ha lx8\5' d[To"sf] 5fofdf g 8/ g 5 lkmqmL

nf}/f] / n¶Ln] pgsf lbG5g\ dnfO{ zflGt .

$ef]h tof/ ub{5g\ pgn] zq'sf] ;fd'Gg]df

t]n d]/f] lz/df dNb5g\ kf]lvG5 srf}/f .

%d kl5 nfU5 hLjge/ enfO{ / s?0ff .

/ k/d]Zj/sf] 3/}df d /xg]5' ;bf .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#^*=

!hxf“ klg k|e' kfp d]/f] 8f]¥ofpg'ef] ;fy}df xft ;dfTg kfpm“

af6f] sf“8] xf];\ t} e/]sf] hfnn] k5ofp“5' d k|e' 8f]¥ofpg'ef] eg] .

sf]M hxf“ klg d'lQmbftf -d k5ofpg]5'_ @ hxf“ klg d'lQmbftf 8f]¥ofof}+ eg]

@hxf“ klg k|e' vfln d':s'/fpm /Iff an / zflGt b]pm kfkdf gk?

af6f] cWof/f] xf];\ t/ g8/fpm hxf“ ePklg k|e' ;fy} xf]pm .

#hxf“ klg k|e' k|fy{gf oxL u? ;fu'/f] af6f] lx8" s}n] ge]6\s"

kfkn] lvRg vf]h] c:jLsf/ u? ;f]emf] af6f] k|e';fy–;fy} lx8" .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#^(=

!d clt lga{n tkfO{ k|an s;/L x'g' kf/ <

g b]jL–b]jtf o]z" gfp“ Pp6f gfj} 5 tf/0fxf/ .

@t'kmfg} ef/L gfp“ 5 jfl/ u/fOb]pm dnfO{ kf/

ej;fu/ tg'{ s]xL zlQm 5}g pkfo b]pm tf/0fxf/ .

#of] gfp ef/L ul/b]pm jfl/ laGtL 5 af/Daf/

;an] hfgf];\ ;an] dfgf];\ o]z" gfp“ tf/0fxf/ .

$;+;f/}el/ kfksf] ef/L p4f/ b]pm bLgfgfy .

ljnfk u5f}{ z0f k5f}{ cfp“b}5f} tkfO{;fy .

%tkfO{ k|]dL tkfO{ GofoL hut\sf kfngxf/

cfTdf b]pm k|e' ;a}nfO{ a'em\g] tkfO{ tf/0fxf/ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#&)=

!:juL{o lktf O{Zj/ tfgf]{;\ ;fu/dfly xfdLnfO{

/Iff, cu'jfO, kfng ug'{xf];\ vfln ;xfos tkfO{

xfdL klg x'G5f} wgL, O{Zj/ xfd|f lktf eP .

@kfk, e"n hfGg] d'lQmbftf Ifdf ugf]{;\ xfdLnfO{

xfdLeGbf cl3 lx8\g'ef] b'Mv vfb} ;+;f/sf]

d?e'ldaf6 3'dL nfUof] z"Go, Kof;, ysfO{ .

#cf]nL{ x] kljq cfTdf, dgdf cfgGb eg'{xf];\

k|]d x/ cg'ejsf] ;fydf lbJo xif{ lbg'xf];\

o:tf] o'lQm, cu'jfO, d'lQm kfO{ xfd|f] d]n /xf];\ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#&!=

sf]M e/f]; 5}g hLjgsf], afbn em} of] hLjg xf]

Ps lbg xfdLnfO{ hfg'5 o]z" d;Lxsf] ;Gd'vdf

!O{Zj/sf] k'q o]z" x'g\ cjtf/ eP kfkL hut\df

kfkb]lv d'lQm pg}n] lbG5g\ af6f] / ;RrfO hLjg pgL

:ju{sf] d'lg gfp“ c? 5}g d'lQm lbgnfO{ .

@wd{ / sd{ u/]/ ;+;f/sf] ;'vdf e'n]/ ;do gi6 gu/f}

kms]{/ km]l/ cfpb}g, o]z" d;Lx ghLs} 5g\ d'lQm lbgnfO{ .

#;f“rf] x[bo lnP/ ;fi6f· b08jt\ u/]/, x] o]z" d kfkL

r/0f ltd|f] kb{5' qm";sf] /ut ckgfp“5' d'lQm lbg'xf];\ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#&@=

!k/d]Zj/ d]/f x'g\ cujf of] ;'Gg' s:tf] ;fGTjgf

h] hlt u?, hfpm“ htf, k/d]Zj/ d]/f x'g\ cu'jf .

sf]M k/d]Zj/ d]/f x'g\ cu'jf dnfO{ 8f]¥ofp“b5g\ ;bf

d pgsf] kl5 nfu"nf sf/0f k/d]Zj/ x'g\ cu'jf

@ej ;fu/ slxn] zfGt 5 / slxn] cfwL rNb5

jf cfkbdf jf ;'v r}gdf k/d]Zj/ d]/f x'g\ cu'jf .

#;dfT5' d pgsf] xft gu? ugugfOsf] aft

h] k/] xf];\ /dfpm“ ;bf ls O{Zj/ d]/f x'g\ cu'jf .

$cfp“bf k[YjLsf] sfdsf] cGt cg'u|xåf/f eO{ hojGt

lge{o d t5'{ d[t–vf]nf :ju{;Dd, O{Zj/ x'g\ cu'jf .


373 ju b zdf s n g

373= :ju{ b]zdf:s]n G

!:ju{ b]zdf dnfO{ hfg' 5 :juL{o zx/ a:gnfO{

a6f}/] ;fyL Pp6f 5 zx/sf] 9f]sf vf]NgnfO{

a6f}/] ;fyL sf] xf] ddfly l67fpg] <

a6f}/] ;fyL sf] xf] 9f]sfnfO{ vf]lNbg] <

@ca lxF8\5' d af6f]af6} pgn] af6f] b]vfp“5g\ h'g

ddfly l67fO{ 9f]sf vf]Ng] O{Zj/sf lk|o k'q x'g\ .

#;Dem Tof] af6f] s:tf] 5 hxf“ d clxn] lxF8\g]5'

;Dem Tof] 9f]sf s:tf] 5 hxf“ d clxn] k:g]5' .

$Tof] :juL{o af6f] ;f“u'/f] 5 dg clt sli6t t'Nofpg]

Tof] k:t] 9f]sf ;f“u'/f] 5 dnfO{ To; zx/ k'¥ofpg] .

%wd{–k':ts d]/f] xftdf 5 dnfO{ 7Ls af6f] b]vfpg]

k|fy{gfdf v|Li6Lo zlQm 5 Tof] 9f]sf klg vf]lNbg] .

^wd{–k':tsnfO{ d 5f]8lbg d k|fy{gf ug{ e'lNbg

:ju{nf]ssf] clwsf/L geO{ ca p;} d tf dlb{g .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#&$=

!b'Mv zf]s ;a} sfl6of] xNn]n"ofx ;a n8fOdf hLt eof] xNn]n"ofx

lat] lbg kl5–kl5 5f8f}, xNn]n"ofx b[li6 cl3 prfnf} xNn]n"ofx .

@pgsf] zAb ;'Gb5f} xNn]n"ofx cflb–cGt ;j{q xNn]n"ofx

hxf“ pgn] nfg]5g\ xNn]n"ofx Hof]lt pgn] lbg]5g\ xNn]n"ofx .

#xfd|f] hLjgsf] cfwf/ xNn]n"ofx v|Li6df dfq kfp“b5f} xNn]n"ofx

xfd|f k/d ldqsxf“ xNn]n"ofx lbg–lbgcl3 a9\b} hfcf} xNn]n"ofx .


375 oxj d f uf fnf s n g

375= oxj] d]/f] uf]&fnf] :s]n G

oxj] d]/f] uf]7fnf] dnfO{ s]xL 36L x'b}g

pgn] xl/of] vs{df dnfO{ r/fpg]5g\

!;'v–r}gsf] kfgLlt/ ;b}j 8f]¥ofpg]5g\

d]/f] of] t'R5 k|f0fnfO{ gof“ t'Nofpg]5g\ .

@cfºg} gfp“sf] sf/0f hxL uP tfklg

wd{sf] ;'dfu{df dnfO{ cu'jfO ug]{5g\ .

#c“ d[To"sf] 5fofdf lxF8\g' k/] tfklg

/Iff u5{g\ hxLF hfcf} ta lsg 8/fcf} .

$;a} zq'sf] ;Gd'v ef]h tof/ kfg'{x'G5

t]nn] cleif]s u/] srf}/f kf]lvG5 .

%lgZro enfO / s[kf hLjgel/ /xG5

oxj]sf] :ju{nf]sdf ;b}j jf; ug]{5' .


376 o z sf kl s n c

376= o]z"sf] kl% :s]n C

!o]z"sf] kl5 d lxF8\g b'lgof“nfO{ TofuL qm"; g} af]sL

o]z"sf] kl5 d lxF8\g nfu] -kms+{lbg, kms{lbg_ @

@cfdfn] dnfO{ a'afn] dnfO{ ;a}n] dnfO{ Tofu] tfklg .

o]z"sf] kl5 d lxF8\g nfu] -kms{lbg, kms{lbg_ @

#df6f]sf] d]/f] If0fe·'/ z/L/, df6}df km]l/ gldn];Dd .

o]z"sf] kl5 d lxF8\g nfu] -kms{lbg, kms{lbg_ @


377 d o z sf fy s n g e

377= d o]z"sf] ;fy :s]n G(E)

!d o]z"sf] ;fy Hof]ltdf lxF8\5' lbg / /ft pgsf] kl5 d lxF8\g]5'

kl5 lxF8\g]5' ho kfpg]5' o]z" v|Li6 d]/f] anLbfg .

lxF8\b}–lxF8\b} Hof]ltdf o]z"sf] ;fy lxF8\b}–lxF8\b} ;dfT5' o]z"sf] xft

Hof]ltdf lxF8\g]5' ho kfpg]5' o]z" v|Li6 d]/f] alnbfg

@d o]z"sf] ;fy Hof]ltdf lxF8\5' cGwsf/df klg d 8/fpFlbg

sbd a9fpF5' dgn] ufpg]5' o]z" v|Li6 d]/f] alnbfg .

#d o]z"sf] ;fy Hof]ltdf lxF8\5' x]b}{x]b}{ ;a lbg uf]xf/ kfpg]5'

zf]s of v'zL xf];\ ghLs 5g\ d]/f] o]z" v|Li6 d]/f] alnbfg .

$d o]z"sf] ;fy Hof]ltdf lxF8\5' cfºgf] cfFvf pgdf d nufpg]5'

xftdf 5 qm";, em08f 5 cb\e't, o]z" v|Li6 d]/f] alnbfg .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#&*=

sf]M x] k/d]Zj/ ltdL g} xf} d]/f] e/f];f, ltdLdf 5 ;w}

!d]/f] hLjgsf] kydf k|e' e/f];f ltd|f] o]z" lnO{

cl3 a9\b} a9\b} a9\b} hLjgsf] sbddf .

@ltd|f] Hof]ltsf] ls/0fnfO{ k|e' hLjg / ky k|bz{s agfO{

:t'lt k|e' ufp“b}–ufp“b} 5' a9\b}–a9\b} hfb}5' .

#d]/f] hLjgsf] ofqfnfO{ ;fdy{ ltd|f]n] e/L

tg, cfTdf / k|f0fdf k|e' ;kmn l;4 t'NofOb]pm .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#&(=

!dgfcf} cfgGb k|e'df / cflTds wg ugf}

jrgdf hfx]/ u/]sf ckf/ e08f/ x]/f} .

sf]M Ifdf / zlQm, kljqtf / :ju{–lgjf;

d]/f]nflu d;Lxdf 5g\ cfgGbsf] :t'lt k|e'nfO{ xj;\

@O{Zj/n] kfk d]6fpgnfO{ l;Q} lbG5g\ Ifdf

Ifdfsf] ;fydf d]n klg o]z"sf] /utdf .

#kfksf] zlQm gfz ug{nfO{ k|e'n] an lbG5g\

kljq cfTdfn] dgnfO{ kfkb]lv rf]Vofp“5g\ .

$e/f];f u/L afnsem} of] cflzif\ kfpg]5f}

O{Zj/n] v|Li6df lbPsf bfgn] el/g]5f} .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#*)=

sf]M of] hu slxNo} 5}g l:y/ -@_

slxn] ?g', slxn] xf“:g' 5}g ;bf l:y/

!;d'Gb|sf] 5fn};l/ ;+;f/}sf] ut 5 -@_

slxn] hGd, slxn] d/0f, ;/fa/L rN5 .

@d]/f]–d]/f] hun] eG5, d]/f] 5}g s]xL -@_

x+;} p8L cfTdfnf]sdf, d§L x'G5 b]xL .

#ss{nf]sf] kfgL;/L, 9lnhfG5 b]xL -@_

dfof df]x w]/}–w]/}, nfg]5}g s]xL .

$k|e' xfd|f] :ju{ wgL, l67fO{ bz{g b]pmg -@_

hut\ kfkdf 9lnuof], lrGg] cfTdf b]pmg .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#*!=

!k|e' gfy dnfO{ 8f]¥ofpgf];\ ofqL d?e"lddf

d t lga{n nf} ;dfpgf];\ cfkm\gf] anjfg afx'nLdf

:juL{o /f]6L :juL{o /f]6L -dnfO{ lbg'xf];\ ;bf_ @

@vf]Ngf];\ lhp“bL kfgL wf/f], vf]nf] aUg lbg'xf];\

cfuf] d]3sf] vf“af]åf/f dnfO{ lgTo 8f]¥ofpgf];\

jL/ p4f/s jL/ p4f/s -9fn / uf]xf/ aGg'xf];\_ @

#d[To" gbL tL/ k'u]/ d gdfg" 8/ lrGtf

g/s d/0f gb]v]/ s'zn;fy :ju{ k'u"nf

:t'lt uLt, :t'lt uLt -ufp“5' tkfO{nfO{ ;bf_ @


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#*@=

sf]M k/LlIft xfdL em} x'g'eof] v|Li6 lgisn° t}klg lgbf]{if pxf“

ljho–Wjlg æ;dfKt eof]Æ ;'Gof} xfdLn] snj/Ldf

ljrlnt kfg]{ s7f]/ k/LIff ;a cg'ej pxf“nfO{ 5

;j{1 o]z" ;w} tof/L a'em\gnfO{ xfd|f] b'Mv–si6

!h'6fpg d]/f] vf“rf] z/L/sf] vr{G5' hDd} ;do / wg

lrGtf–lkmqmLn] ;a} eljio cWof/f] kf/L t;f{p“5 dg

/f]6Ln] dfq dflg; af“Rb}g Jojxf/ o;sf] a'emfpg'xf];\

lg/fzfsf] sfnf] afbnkfl/ cfzfsf] ls/0f b]vfpg'xf];\ .

@Vofltsf] emns ?lkof“sf] 6ns r'Dasem} tfG5 d]/f] dgnfO{

;'vL d xf]pm“ zlQmn] k"0f{ u?g ;a}n] d]/f] a9fO

;+;f/sf] lk/tL /fv]/ dgdf O{Zj/sf] afuL nf} x'Gg d

cgGt hLjg k|f0f ax'd"No ;+;f/sf] nflu c·flNbg .

#uh{g] l;+x z}tfgsf /fhb"t n8fpg dnfO{ ;w}+ tof/

dnfO{ bf]iofpg] w"t{ lbofan; ub{5 clUg jf0fsf] k|xf/

qf0fstf{ o]z" alnof] u9L o'4df d]/f] em'08sf] sKtfg

hosf] e"ldnfO{ ckgfpb} hfG5' andf o]z"sf] g5f8L :yfg .


383 x d f o zj s n a

383= x] d]/f O{Zj/ :s]n A

x] d]/f O{Zj/, x] d]/f k|e' Psnf] hLjgsf]

Ps ;xf/f algb]pm k|e' b[9 kx/f

!pRr hLjgsf] of] clenfif lnO{ hLjgsf] 5f]6f] uf]/]6f]df

d hf“b}5' k|e' hfFb}5' d 8f]¥ofpg'xj;\ k|e' dnfO{ .

@cfzf lg/fzfsf] 3f]/ ;+u|fddf ljho lg/fz ag]kl5

lhpg' s;/L of] hLjg lnO{ lg/fz hLjgsf] dfq agL .

#cfzf–lg/fzfsf] ;';+rfng k|e' tkfO+{ g} xf] eg] cfh

cu'jfO k|e' cfkm} agL laGtL 5 k|e' ;fydf eO{ .


384 ltdl pp f s n c

384= ltdL Pp^f:s]n C

ltdL Pp6f af“r]sf] dfG5] v|Li6sf] cg'u|xn]

5flgPsf] xhf/fF}af6 ;fIfL b]pm ltdLn]

!Tof] ¿vnfO{ x]/L a'µg ltdL u|Lid ghLs} 5 -@_

O{Zj/sf] /fHo cfOk'u]sf] 5 -@_ ;donfO{ a'emg .

@gf]cfnfO{ ;Dem k|no x'“bf dflg;sf] d"v{tf -@_

;f] a'emL cfh} hf]lznf] eO{ -@_ Nofpm leq af]nfO{ .

#k|e'nfO{ ;Dem Ogf/sf] 5]pdf kv]{sf Pp6LnfO{ -@_

j/bfg kfO{ ufu|f] 5f]8]/ -@_ ta zx/df uOxfnL .

$x] lk|o cfh ltdLn] s]xL lgZro ug'{5 -@_

o]z"sf] k|]dn] k|]d u/f} ;anfO{ -@_ of] df}sf cfh} 5 .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#*%=

!lbgdf afbnsf] vf“af] agL /ftdf cfuf]sf] Hjfnf agL

/Iff u¥of} xfdLnfO{ -k|e'hL ;'v–zflGtdf lat] lbg_ @

sf]M wGo, wGo, wGo k|e'nfO{ hf] lbg'eof] xfdLnfO{

5q5fofdf n'sfO{ -k|e'hL lbg–/ft x/ ;dodf_ @

@jrgsf] dGg lbof] r6fg km'6fO{ kfgL lbof}

cfTdfdf eO{ xfdLnfO{ -k|e'hL ltd|f] af6f]df 8f]¥ofof}_ @

#of] gof“ ;'Gb/ ;fndf klg k|f0f, cfTdf, z/L/, x[bo klg

/Iff ul/lbof}, k|e'hL -ul/b]pm cflTds pGglt_ @

$:ju{ b]zdf k'Ug kfpm“ cgGt ehg ;'gfpg kfpm“

;w} z/0f k/]/ k|e'hL -;fi6f· k|0ffd\ ug{ kfpm“_ @


386 paaf sf h gl of s n d

386= Paaf/sf] h'gL of] :s]n D

Psaf/sf] h'gL of] nfg' t s] 5 d/]/ hfg] xf]

hLjg oxf“ of] cd/ 5}g g} df6f]df ldNg] xf]

!d[To"kl5 t/ hLjg csf]{ 5 ljZjf;L ;a}nfO{

ljZjf; u/f}+ g :juL{o lktfnfO{ -@_

@qm";sf] lgb{oL d[To"nfO{ ;xg' k|e' g} cfpg'ef]

pg}n] xfd|f] kfk p7fOnfg'ef] -@_

#h–h;n] pgdfly ljZjf; ug]{5 gfz x'g]5}g g}

kfpg]5g\ ltg}n] cgGt hLjg -@_


387 cfh ef nl e s n g

387= cfh ef]nL e/}:s]n G

cfh–ef]ln–e/} eGb} hLjg oxfF c:tfpF5

v|Li6nfO{ dfof ug]{ dfG5] d[To"bkfl/ pbfpF5

!d]/f] Xbosf d"lt{x¿nfO{ v|Li6 x6fOalS;of];\

v|Li6 d]/f] /fhf dflns oxfF /fh ul/alS;of];\

jLut lbgx¿ Joy}{ u'dfP jt{dfg r9fpF5'

o]z"sf] k|]dsf] syf ;a}nfO{ uLtaf6 ;'gfpF5' .

@ljZjdf ;w}F d a:g] xf]Og a6'jf dfq x'F

of] af6f] km]l/ d lxF8\g] 5}g Ps tLy{–ofqL x'F

ljhoL v|Li6sf] zlQmn] ;a} st{Jo ;'NemfpF5'

;Dk"0f{ sfo{ z]if ePkl5 d :jb]z lkmg]{5' .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#**=

sf]M o]z" x'g\ d]/f /Ifs -@_ r§fg x'g\ d]/f pg}

ha cf“wL cfO{ x'Tofp“5, cNemfp“5 n·/ v|Li6d}

!;f+;fl/s o; ofqfdf -@_ lrGtfn] ha 3]5{

v|Li6sf] Pp6} xKsLn] cf“wLsf] ;a hf]8 tf]8\5 .

@b'Mvn] kLl8t x'bf -@_ kf/ x'g] OR5f x'“bf

v|Li6sf] hLljt jrg g} Hof]lt agL 8f]¥ofp“b5 .

#dnfO{ 5 k"/f] ljZjf; -@_ Pslbg d k'U5' lsgf/

To; dgf]/d :yfgdf kfpg]5' pgsf] lj>fd .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#*(=

sf]M cl3 a9f} -@_ x] v|Li6Lo bfHo"–efO xf]

cl3 a9f} -@_ x] v|Li6Lo lbbL–alxgL xf]

!d'lQm tf xfdLn] kfO;Sof} cfkm"df dfq ;Lldt g/fvf}

t[lift cfTdf xhf/f} 5g\ tL cfTdfx¿sf] pksf/ u/f} -@_

@st{Jo s] xf] ;DemL–a'emL qm";nfO{ ;w} clu /fvL

k|e'sf] jrg k|rf/ u/f} o;}n] xfd|f] sDd/ s;f} -@_

#;dod} xfdL aLp 5/f} kl5 g} xfdL sf]z]nL a6'nf}

k|e'sf] cfudg ghLs} 5 o;sf/0f ;w} tof/ a;f}+ -@_


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#()=

sf]M cfjfh lbO{ lg/jtfdf dnfO{ af]nfpg] sf] xf] <

x/ 38L, x/ If0f af]nfO/xg] d]/f] Kof/f] k|e' xf] -@_

!yfxf gkfO{ kfksf] ef/L lnO{ lxl8/xG5' d

cWof/f] kydf 7f]s/ vfbf k|e'nfO{ ;DemG5' d

b'O lbgsf] rf]nf kne/ xf]nf o;nfO{ ;DxfNg] sf] xf] <

k'sf/ ;'gL b'O xft lbg] d]/f] Kof/f] k|e' xf] .

@cfzf–lg/fzfsf] sfnf] afbn cfO{ dnfO{ 3]b}{5

ky–e|fGt klysem} 8'ln/xbf of] hLjg hfg]5

hLjg d} x'“ eg]/ dnfO{ af6f] b]vfpg] sf] xf] <

cgGtsf] Tof] /dfx6df nfg] d]/f] Kof/f] k|e' xf] .

#g/snf]s cfO{ k/nf]sdf e"nL e6\ls/x]sf] 5' d

Joyf kf]Vg gkfO{ clNem/x]sf] 5' d

hLjg Hof]lt lgEg] xf] slxn] o;nfO{ ;DxfNg] sf] xf] M

cd/ hLjg l;Ty}df lbg] d]/f] Kof/f] k|e' xf] .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#(!=

!xfd|f] hLjgsf] x/]s If0fdf v|Li6sf] dfof af“lwPsf] 5

xfd|f] hLjgsf] x/]s kfOnfdf v|Li6sf] zflGt ufl;Psf] 5 .

@;+;f/nfO{ lsg x]? k|e'sf] ;fy eP k'U5

dnfO{ ;=;f/ rflxb}g dnfO{ k|e' eP k'U5 .

#;donfO{ lsg x]? hLjgsf] af6f] eP k'U5

dnfO{ ;+;fdf af“Rg k|e'sf] jrg eP k'U5 .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#(@=

sf]M k|e' af6f] b]vfOb]pm hLjgsf] x/ knkndf

k|e' Hof]lt b]vfOb]pm hLjgsf] cWof/f]df

!cfp“b5' d tkfO{sf] 5]p lgik6 cWof/f] ;+;f/b]lv

kfk} ePsf] hLjg lbO{ tkfO{df hLjg kfpg .

@laTg nfu]sf] p4f/sf] lbg w]/} ;do c? kfkdf latfO{

lhpg rfxG5' lx8\g rfxG5' afsL ;do k|e' o]z"df .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#(#=

sf]M o]z"n] lbG5g\ :ju[sf] ;f“rf]

;+;f/sf] b'MvaLrdf :ju{ Nofolbg]

snj/L 8f“8fsf] qm";nfO{ x]/

To;}n] vf]Nb5 :ju{sf] ;fgf] åf/

!sl7gfO b]lv lg/fz gxf]pm ;+si6 b]v]/ -@_

tL ;a} leGg ;f“rfx¿ x'g :juL{o xif{sf] .

@;+;f/sf] kl5 ghfpm x} ltdL e|ddf k/]/ -@_

qm"; af]sL cfpm o]z"n] eg] ;j{:j Tofu]/ .

#b'Mvdf v'zL cf“;'df xf“;f] o]z"n] lbg]5g\ _@_

k|s6 x'g] efjL cfgGb cj0f{gLo 5 .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#($=

sf]M x] /fhf o]z" ltdLn] xfd|f] cfTdfnfO{ lhtfof}

kfksf] h/f] ;+;f/sf] aGwg lgikmn t'Nofof}

uh{g] l;+xsf] t;f{pg] af]nL r'krfk u/fof}

!y'gfdf s}bL dfgjhflt lga{Gw t'Nofof} -@_

/utsf] df]n lt/L snj/L qm";n] v|Li6sf] k|]dn] .

@ld> g} b]zsf] kmf/f]sf] zf;g rsgfr"/ eOuof]

k|lt1f d'n's sgfgdf cfh ho–Wjlg ;'lgof] -@_

sf“8fsf] d's'6 xfd|f] lz/df >Lk]r e}uof] .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#(%=

sf]M d]/f] hLjg :jfdL o]z"nfO{ x[bo e]6 r9fp“b}

:t'lt, k|z+;f, Ohht ;bf;j{bf lbG5' -@_

!d]/f] hLjg ;'/Iff ltdL xf} cfzf–e/f];f zflGt xf} -@_

hLjgsf] Hof]lt / d'lQm xf} d]/f] hLjgsf] ofqfdf -@_

ltdL Ps ;xf/f xf} -@_

@k|e' d]/f] x[bodf cfOb]pm

Hof]ltdo hLjg agfOb]pm -@_ hLjgsf] x/]s sbddf

x] k|e' ;w} 8f]¥ofOb]pm -@_ dnfO{ ;xf/f nf} b]pm -@_


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#(^=

sf]M xNn]n"ofx, xNn]n"ofx, xNn]n"ofx, xNn]n"ofx

!;f“em–laxfg yfxf u5'{ k|e' ;fydf ePsf

pgsf] sf]dn xftn] dnfO{ x/]s kndf 8f]¥ofPsf]

hlt pgsf] cfjfh ;'G5' ;fx; zlQm an kfp“5'

dxeGbf dL7f] v|Li6sf] Kof/ ;w} g} kfp“b5' -@_

@ha k|fy{gf u5'{ pgnfO{ pQ/ rf8} ldn]sf]

yfxf x'G5 x/ sbddf o]z" ;fydf lx8]sf

ef/L 5 of] u?· h'jf, Psn} tfGg ;lQmg

k|e' bfof“ d 5' afof“ sl7gfOn] /f]Sb}g -@_

#lsg dnfO{ k|]d ug'{ef] slxNo} klg a'lem\bg

ha;Dd lhpg'k5{ ;fy tkfO{sf] 5f]8lbg

lng'xf]; of] k"0f{ hLjg w'g'xf]; Tof] /utn]

ta ;fIfL aG5' k|e' of] tkfO{sf] hLjgn] -@_


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#(&=

!o]z" s:tf] Kof/f] ldq kfksf] ef/ p7fpg'ef]

b'Mv–;'v O{Zj/sxf“ Nofpg' xfdLnfO{ j/bfg sqf] <

slt zflGt–;'v u'dfp“5f} slt b'Mv 5 Joy}{df <

sf/0f O{Zj/sxf“ xfdL ;a Nofpb}gf} k|fy{gfdf .

@rf/}lt/af6 cfp“5 ;+s6 Sn]z / k/LIff

nf} x/]; vfg'kb}{g v|Li6nfO{ egf} k|fy{gfdf

xfd|f] ;a} b'Mvsf efuL o:tf] ldq sxf“ kfcf}nf <

x/ sdhf]/L o]z" a'em\5g v|Li6nfO{ egf} k|fy{gfdf .

#xfdL 5f} ls lga{n b'Mlvt lrGtf af]emn] nflbPsf <

xfd|f] cf>o vfln o]z" v|Li6nfO{ egf} k|fy{gfdf

;fyLn] s] u5{g xf]nf < v|Li6nfO{ egf} k|fy{gfdf

pgn] /Iff u5{g xfd|f] pgdf kfp“5f} ;fGTjgf .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

#(*=

!k|fy{gfsf] ;do s] dL7f] ;f+;fl/s lrGtf 5f]8\b5

cf} cfkm\gf] lktfs] ;Gd'v d ;a atfp“5' cfkm\gf] b'Mv

ddf ha cfp“5 ljklQ pgn] 5f]8fp“5g\ tL b]lv

z}tfgsf] hfnb]lv af“R5' ha k|fy{gf u/L p7\b5' .

@k|fy{gfsf] ;do s] dL7f] ha hfGb5' ;RrfO{ pgsf]

lktfnfO{ laGtL r9fp“5' / af6f] cflzif\sf] x]5'{

/ ha af]nfp“b5g\ pgn] ls pgnfO{ eg" ;a ;do

d cfkm\gf] lrGtf k|fy{gfdf /fV5' ub}{ cfzf pg}df .

#k|fy{gfsf] ;do s] dL7f] lbnfzf d]/f] ;bfsf]

5 ha;Dd of] ljZjf; d hfg kfp“5' pgsf] kf;

ha 5f]8\5' d o; hutnfO{ kfpg]5' jf;:yfg cgGts}

k|e'sf] ;fdg] ta cfO{ ug]{5' :t'lt pxf“nfO{ .


399 k e chl s n d

399= k|e' chL{:s]n D

k|e' chL{ ;'lgn]pm -@_, uf]vf{nL d'lQm kfpg] 9f]sf vf]lnb]pm

!lktf, k'q, kljqfTdf, chL{ xfd|f] n]pmg\

cfuf] d]3sf] vf“af] pEofO{ af6f] b]vfOb]pg\ .

@k"j{, blIf0f, klZrd lbzf cg]s wd{sf hg 5g\

pQ/ ltAat, dWo] g]kfn uf]vf{nLsf s'/ 5g\ .

#yfkfynL, efb\ufp“, kf6g, sf7df08" 5g\ zx/

ltgnfO{ ltd|f] elQm kfg'{ k|e' xfd|f] /x/ .

$p7 efO xf], hfg}k5{ krfO{ lgGb|f nfh

wg, hg, r}g / ;'v TofuL, ug'{ wd{sfh .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$))+

sf]M cf]7af6 lg:s]sf zAbx¿ d]/f x[bosf efjx¿ -@_

u|x0fof]Uo xf];\ ;bf tkfO{sf] s[kf–b[li6df

!;a}eGbf pQd of] ;a}eGbf >]i7 xf] -@_

tkfO{sf] k|]d / bof, ;To 5g\ ;bf;j{bf .

@d]/f oL cwd{af6 w'g'xf]; dnfO{ -@_

gu/f];\ ddf clwsf/ / abgfdL kfkn] .


401 a b a b hfcf f s n c

401= a(\b} a(b} hfcf}F :s]n C

a9\b}–a9\b} hfcfF} kl5 gx6f}F, qm";sf] em08f sfFwdf lnO{

cl3 a9\b} hfcf}F -@_

!;]gf xfdL v|Li6sf xf}F o'4 ub}{ hfcf}F,

sgfg b]zsf] af6f]df ;a sbd a9fcf}F -@_

sbd a9fpb} hfcf}F j}/LnfO{ x/fcf}F

sgfg b]zdf xfdL ;a hojGtsf] uLt ufcfF} .

@sKtfg xfd|f] ;]gfsf] v|Li6 cfkm} x'g\,

t/jf/ xfd|f] cfTdfsf] lemnd wd{sf] -@_

;xfotf pgL u5{g\ hLjg ;+u|fddf

b}lgs hLjgsf] xfd|f] sbd–sbddf .

#j}/L w]/} eP xfdL t} x/]; gvfcf}F,

hojGt zlQm kfpgnfO{ v|Li6 z/0fdf hfcf}F -@_

zq'nfO{ x/fcfF} em08f kmkm{/fcf}F, Xbo xfd|f] gjLg hf]zn] e/fpFb} hfcfF} .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$)@=

!d;Lx–d;Lxsf] nflu ljZjf;Ln] n8fO ug'{5

pgsf] qm";sf] em08f p7fO{ af]Sg'5

ho kfpg'5 pgn] lbG5g\ ho kfpg'5 c“ h?/

v|Li6 x'g\ ;a}sf /fhf gi6 x'G5g\ ;a zq' .

@o]z"sf] nflu ljZjf;Ln] n8fO ug'{5

;a 9f9; an / ;fdy{ v|Li6b]lv kfpg'5

g cfkm\gf ann] lhtg' g cfkm\gf xltof/

cjZo ;a} nfcf} wd{–k':tfsf] cg';f/ .

#o]z"sf] nflu ljZjf;Ln] n8fO ug'{5

o'4 ug]{ a]nf sDd/ ;Ton] af“Wg'5

ljZjf;sf] 9fn nufcf} / t/jfn cfTdfsf]

;';dfrf/sf h'Qf / sjh wd{sf] .

$o]z"sf] nflu ljZjf;Ln] n8fO ug'{5

cfhn8fO ug'{5 ef]ln ho kfpg' 5

lbOG5 :ju]{ d's'6 ljhL ;a}nfO{

/ :ju{df ;w} a:g'5 ljhoLsf] uLt ufp“b} .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$)#=

!n8fO x'b}5 zq' cfp“b}5 l;kfxL o]x"sf em08f n]pm

kf]zfs ;a nufpm pg}nfO{ ;dfpm pg}nfO{ kTofpm / zlQm kfpm .

sf]M x] l;kfxL xf] ;fx; u/L p7 ;Lwf p7 xftdf c:q n]pm

l56f] lx8 s/fO{–s/fO{ ufpm o]z" cfp“b}5g\ tof/L xf]pm

@zq' cfp“b}5g\ cl3 a9\b} hfpm g8/fO{ ufpm æho o]z" hoÆ

9fn / em08f n]pm cl3 a9\b} hfpm :t'lt ub}{ ufpm o]z"sf] ho .

#xfd|f k|e' k|fy{gf ;'Gb5g\ jL/ ;LkfxL xf]pm k|e'df

n8fO ;lsG5 ljho kfpg]5f} d's'6 nfpg]5f} :ju{nf]sdf .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$)$=

!hf] x'G5 ;fx;L pm otf cfcf];\

hf];'s} xj;\ ut ljZjf;L xj;\ x'b}g lg/fz

pm /xG5 l:y/ ;bf / ug]{5 OR5f :ju{–ofqf ug'{ .

@hf]–hf] p;nfO{ ;'gfp“5g\ syf 8/nfUbf]

cfkm}nfO{ e'nfp“5g\ an a9\5 p;sf] g l;+xb]lv eo

g zq'b]lv 8/ p;sf] 5 clwsf/ :ju{ ofqf ug'{ .

#g e"t g z}tfgn] p;nfO{ t;f{p“5

pm hLjg cGTodf cgGt kfp“5

;a z+sf d]l6of] 8/ 5}g dfG5]sf]

lbg–/ft an u5{ pm :ju{ ofqf ug'{ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$)%=

!sf] 5 O{Zj/kl§ o]z"nfO{ dfGg] s;n] u'xf/ ug]{ / k|f0f arfpg]

s;n] ;+;f/ TofuL zq'nfO{ lhTg]sf] 5 O{Zj/kl§ / cl3 a9\g]

k|e'sf] s[kfn] c“ cg'u|xn] xfdL O{Zj/kl§ xfdL pgsf xf} .

@v|Li6 k|e'n] lsg] g ;'g rf“bLn] t/ cfkm\gf] /utn] d's'6sf] nflu

e/k'/ cflzif\ lbg' ;a} cfpg]nfO{ xfdLnfO{ v'z u/fO{ :jtGq agfO{

k|f0f cfkm\gf] lbO{ lsg] c“ cg'u|xn] xfdL O{Zj/kl§ xfdL pgsf xf} .

#n8fO 7"nf] xf]nf zq' anjfg\ 5 o]z"sf] ;]gfnfO{ s;n] lhTg] 5

pgsf] em08Ld'lg lgZro 5 ljho pgsf] jrg ;To hojGt x'gnfO{

cfcf} pgsf /dfpb} c“ cg'u|xn] xfdL O{Zj/kl§ xfdL pgsf xf} .

$5flgof} l;kfxL zq'sf] b]zdf ulgof} ljZjf;L sKtfgsf] em'08df

k|e'sf] sfd ug{ xfdL g8/fcf} xfdL eQm pbf/, ;To, jL/ agf}

k|e' 5g\ arfpg] c“ cg'u|xn] ;w} O{Zj/kl§ xfdL pgsf xf} .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$)^=

sf]M lxDdt u/ cl3 a9 qm";nfO{ n]pm lgzfg

lhTg]5f} Kof/f] ldq xfg]{5 z}tfg -@_

!n8f} n8f} rf8} u/f} o]z" 5g\ sKtfg -@_

lxDdt u/f} cfzf /fvf} efUg]5 z}tfg -@_

@kfk / b'Mvdf rf/}lt/ db}{5g\ ;a hg -@_

bof u/ dflg; hftdf k/]sf] 5 x}/fg -@_

#3/–3/ uO{ ;'gfpm ;anfO{ o]z"sf] avfg -@_

o]z" /fhf d'lQmbftf pgdf bof 5 -@_

$rf“8} u/f} ;'gfcf} ;anfO{ o]z"sf] jrg -@_

ljZjf; u/L cfpg] k|f0fL pgsf af“Rg]5g\ -@_


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$)&=

sf]M jL/ xf} xfdL jL/ k|e'sf ;]gf ag]sf 5f}

hojGt k|e'sf] cf1f kfO{ 3f]if0ff ub{5f}

!Ps dfq hLjg of] C0fL 5' o]z"sf]

af“sL hLjg k"0f{ ;do cfkm\gf] xf]Og tkfO{sf] .

@bu'b}{–bu'b}{ d'lQmsf /f“sf lnO{

cfkm\gf] b]zsf] ;a lhNnfdf rDsg hfpm“ Hof]lt eO{ .

#af6f] 5 psfnf] si6n] e/]sf]

8f“8fkfl/ b]Vb5' d slt cfTdf d/]sf] .

$of] b]zn] ha;Dd v|Li6sf] k|]d rfVb}g

;'v–r}g TofuL qm";} af]sL hf“b} guO{ ePg .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$)*=

sf]M n8\g' 5 w]/} ;+u|fd oxf“ cfTdfsf] kxf8df r9\g'5

zlQm kfO{ d;Lx o]z"sf] aGg'5 of] hLjgdf

!ljZjf;sf cg]sf} n8fOx¿ ;+;f/df n8]/ -lhTg'5_ @

ljb|fx k|]dsf] af]s]/ c·fnf]df ;anfO{ -af“Wg'5_ @

-jL/tf gb]v"g\ dflg;n]_ @, Ogfd k|e'n] lbg]5g\ -@_

@dg'{5 w]/} d[To" oxf“ ;Tosf] ;fIfL agL dg'{5

hLjg kfO{ d;Lx o]z"sf] lhpg'5 eO{ cfh gof“ .

#cljZjf;sf hLjg hLpg]x¿ ;anfO{ c·fnf]df -af“Wg'5_ @

l/lQ;s]sf hLjgnfO{ cfkm\gf] cflzif\ oxf“ -af“8\g'5_ @

-j}/L ag"g\ ;+;f/ ;f/f_ @, zlQmsf /fhf ;fydf 5g\ -@_


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$)(=

sf]M v|Li6sf] kmf}hdf x'g' d v'zL 5' -@_

o]z" d]/f] g]tf, pgnfO{ k5ofp“5'

v|Li6sf] ===

!klxn]sf] hLjg Tofu]/ k|e'df rf“8} cfpm

cfkm\gf] sDd/ ;Totfsf] s;]/ .

@wfld{stfsf] 5ftLsf] kftf nfP/

k|e'df v8f x'G5f} g} .

#5}g w]/} lhpg' oxf“ cfh g} tof/ xf}

k|]dsf] h'Qf nufpg tof/ xf} .

$;+;f/ xfd|f] 3/ xf]Og ;w} /xb}g

;'–;dfrf/ lbg] / 9fn p7fpg] xf] .

%p4f/sf] lbg cfh} 5 k|e'df cfpmg

ljZjf;df cl3 a9]/ /L;–qmf]w lgefpm .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$!)=

!pgn] rfx] d tTk/ 5'

pgn] rfx] d xflh/ 5'

pgn] rfx] d v'zL 5'

sfd ug]{5' d o]z"sf] h?/ .

sf]M sfd ug]{5' d pgsf] bf; x'g]5'

d pgs} ;fy lx8\g]5' d v|Li6s} x'“ h?/ -@_

@zx/, kxf8 xf];\ of dw]z xf];\

zx/, kxf8 xf];\ of h+3f/ xf];\

zx/, kxf8 xf];\ of t/fO{ xf];\

sfd ug]{5' d o]z"sf] h?/ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$!!=

!cfpm sfd u/f} s6gLdf cN5] u/L sf] a:nf <

;alt/ cGg kfs]sf] x'“bf Ps–Ps} bf;nfO{ pgn] eGb5g\

hfpm sfd u/ .

@cfpm sfd u/f} b"tn] gkfPsf] sfddf xft nufcf}

;a}nfO{ of] ;';dfrf/ ;'gfcf} laTb}5' a]nf

l9nf] gu/f} /ft kb}{5 .

#cfpm sfd u/f} z+sf / 8/ ;a} g"/ u/]/

oxf“ ;a}n] sfd t ug'{ 5

pgn] lgwf{af6 u/fp“b5g\ cfkm\gf] OR5f .

$cfpm sfd u/f} 3fd x'“bf xfdlx¿ gla;fcf}

hlxn];Dd xfd|f] w]/ sfd gxf];\ / ha;Dd pgn]

eGb}gg\ æt bf; wGoÆ .

%cfpm sfd u/f}+ sfd ug]{n] lgZro kfpg]5g\ Ogfd

wGo hf] cGt;Dd l:y/ xf]nfg\

tL kfpg]5g\ ;'v, cfgGb / lj>fd k|e';“u .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$!@=

!cl3 a9 v|Li6Lo oTg, arfpm Ps} ;fyLnfO{

n}hfpm p;nfO{ o]z"sxf“ l56f] g} af6f] b]vfO{ .

sf]M cl3 a9 v|Li6Lo oTg, ;To wd{nfO{ a9fpm

cGwsf/df a:g] ;anfO{ lgsfnL Hof]ltdf Nofpm

@cl3 a9 v|Li6Lo oTg lsg l9nf] ub{5f}

O{Zj/sf] bof ga'em\g] ;fyLnfO{ elglbG5f} .

#cl3 a9 v|Li6Lo oTg lhp“bf] /f]6L af“8\gnfO{

o]z"sxf“ ;a}nfO{ Nofpm d'lQm lbG5g\ ;a}nfO{ .

$cl3 a9 v|Li6Lo oTg, agfpm cfglGbt ;anfO{

cl3 a9 :ju{ltl/ uLtn] b'Mv la;f{pb} .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$!#=

sf]M x] of]gf p7]/ hfpmg lggj] k|rf/ ug{nfO{

!lggj] kfkL zx/ hfg of]gfnfO{ dg k/]g

hxfh r9L tlz{z efu] O{Zj/nfO{ dfg]gg\ .

@;d'Gb|df g} 7"nf] cf“wL O{Zj/n] k7fOlbP

ckm;f]; nfuL cfkm\gf] kfknfO{ of]gfn] dflglnP .

#hxfhLn] kmflnlbP kfgLdf of]gfnfO{

k|e' O{Zj/n] lbPsf df5fn] :jf§ lgNof] ltgnfO{ .

$df5fsf] k]6df O{Zj/nfO{ ;DemL of]gfn] laGtL u/]

kfvf k'uL t];|f] lbgdf df5fn] ltgnfO{ pu]Nof] .

%bf];|f]kN6 O{Zj/sf] jrg of]gfnfO{ ;Demfpg cfof]

tLg bLgsf af6f] lx8]/ uP lggj]df s/fP .

^lggj] zx/ kfkLx¿n] O{Zj/n] jrg 6]/]

kfkb]lv kmsL{ k|fy{gf u/] O{Zj/n] dfkmL lbP .

&pgLx¿nfO{ O{Zj/sf] lgufx of]gfnfO{ dg k/]g

kfkL dflg;nfO{ lsg arfpg' of]gfn] a'em\g ;s]gg\ .

*of]gfeGbf dxfg\ o]z" o; ;+;f/df cfP

:ju{ 5f]8L ;'v TofuL xfd|f]nflu d/] .

(kfkL dflg; ePklg xfdLnfO{ 5 lgufx

v|Li6sf] /Qmn] z'? eO{ xfdLn] kfof} Ifdf .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$!$=

sf]M ;';dfrf/ km}nfpm x] efO–alxgL xf]

k|rf/ b'O–b'O hf]8f eO{ x] lzio b'O–b'O hf]8f eO{

!ghLs} cfof] /fHo :ju[sf] 5ftL km'sfO{ u/ k\rf/

dfgj kfkLnfO{ === x] lzio arfpg log}nfO{ .

@e|ddf k/L x/fPsf] b'lgof“ dfof–df]xdf k/]sf]

nfrf/ ;xfotfljgf === x] lzio nf} u/g k|rf/ .

#o]z" v|Li6 cfP ug{ p4f/ ;'gfOb]pm ;dfrf/ dgdf lnO{

d]/f] Kof/ x] d]/f] kl/jf/ === x] lzio jrg hLjgsf] .

$pQ/ blIf0f k"j{ klZrd ;'gfOb]pm s'n ;+;f/ o]z" v|Li6

tf/0fxf/ ufO{ tfnL ahfO{ x] lzio o]z" v|Li6 tf/0fxf/ .


415 k e sf bz g s n e

415= k|e'sf] bz{g:s]n E

k|e'sf] bz{g, o]z"sf] bz{g kfP/ efO nfu ;]jfdf -@_

!g]kfn b]zn] 8fls/x]5 cfpm arfpm xfdLnfO{ -@_

cfTdf db}{5g\ -@_ x]/ xhf/f}F kfksf] ;fu/df .

@qm";df cfºgf] k|f0f k|e'n] hut\sf] nflu lbP -@_

k|]dnfO{ x]/ -@_ g]kfnsf] nflu pgsf] Xbodf .

#lgGb|f TofuL hfu p7 x] gjhjfg xf] -@_

clxn] g} u/ -@_ k|e'sf] ;]jf /xn hLjgdf .

$cGwsf/ 5fof] rf/} lbzfdf /ft cfOk'Uof] -@_

h] ug'{k5{ -@_ clxn] g} u/ lbgsf] Hof]ltdf .

%o]z"sf] nflu cfTdf arfpg' ltdL l5ट्टै cfpm -@_

cGg 5 kfs]sf] -@_ ;a hDdf u/ o]z"sf] e08f/df .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$!^=

!d o]z"sf] ;]js x'G5' cfkm}nfO{ d pgnfO{ lbG5'

pgsf] x's'd ;a} dfG5' d o]z"sf] x'“ .

sf]M d]/f]nflu cfP d]/f]nflu lhP

d]/f]nflu b'Mv p7fP d]/f] nflu d/]

d]/f]nflu ufl8Py] d]/f] nflu af}/L p7]

d]/f]nflu :ju{df uP o]z" d]/f x'g\

@kfk daf6 eof] w]/} o;sf] nflu o]z" d/]

pgsf] h'jf d}n] lnP d o]z"sf] x'“ .

#d}n] ck/fw af/Daf/ u/] o]z"nfO{ b'Mlvt w]/ kf/]

d]/f] af]em pg}n] lnP d o]z"sf] x'“ .

$d}n] ljZjf; pgdf /fv] clg p4f/ d}n] kfP

pgsf] em08Ld'lg cfP d o]z"sf] x'“ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$!&=

sf]M 3/–3/ 3'd]/ k|e'nfO{ k|rf/ s; ltd|f] sd/

nf} xf]pm tof/ nf} xf]pm tof/ nf} xf]pm tof/

!kfk / cGwsf/n] el/of] ;+;f/ -@_

wd{sf] Hof]lt km}nfpgnfO{ nf} xf]pm tof/ -#_

@lxDdt af“wL ljZjf; u/L qm";nfO{ lnO{ lgzfg -@_

o]z"Ho" x'g\ sKtfg xfd|f] xfg]{5 z}tfg -#_

#v|Li6sf] jrt ;'gfpgnfO{ sDd/ ;an] s;f} -@_

h:t} ;+s6 k/]klg k5fl8 gx6f} -#_

$u5f}{ hlt v|Li6sf] k|rf/ b'Mv–si6 ;x]/ -@_

lbG5g\ pgn] k|ltkmn hLjgdf cgGt -#_


418 laxfg do s n c a

418= laxfg ;do :s]n C(A)

!laxfg ;do /f]K5f} bof?kL aLpnfO{, lbp“;f] klg u5f}{ ;f“em gk?~h]n

wL/hn] sfd u5f}{ kmnsf] cfzf /fvL, Nofpg]5f} /dfp“b} sfdsf] k"/f] kmn

sfdsf] k"/f] kmn sfdsf] k"/f] kmn

Nofpg]5f} /dfp“b} sfdsf] k"/f] kmn -@_

@b'Mv ;xL /f]K5f} ;'v ef]uL /f]K5f}, em/Ldf, hf8f]df /xG5f} c6n

sf6\g] a]nf xfdL kfs]sf] kmn kfp“5f}, Nofpg]5f} /dfp“b} sfdsf] k"/f] kmn .

#k|e' v|Li6sf] nflu ¿Fb} klg /f}kf}F, xflgnfO{ b]v]/ gagf} r~rn

b'Mvsf] cGt x'G5 Ogfd klg cf“5, Nofpg]5f} /dfp“b} sfdsf] k"/f] kmn .


419 s d hfpfm s c

419= s] d hfpFm :s] C

!s] sfd hfpm“ l/Q} xft lnO{, o;} e]6F" k|e'nfO{ <

s] d Ps} lbgsf] sfdnfO{ lbg g;sF" pgnfO{ <

s] d hfpm“ l/Q} xft lnO{, o;} e]6"F k|e'nfO{ <

lsg o]z"sxf“ gNofpm“ Pp6} klg ;fyLnfO{ <

@8/} 5}g d[To"b]lv v|Li6 arfpg] 5g\ dnfO{

t/ pgsxf“ l/Q} hf“bf ?g]5 d]/f] Xbo .

#Tof] ;do hf] kfkdf sf6] Tof] kmls{g ;s] tf

k|e'nfO{ Tof] lbg] lyPF lxF8\b} pgsf] OR5fdf .

$v|Li6Lo hg xf], hfu, p7, a]nf x'“bf an nufpm

cfºgf] d[To"eGbf cl3 ;se/ w]/} k|f0f arfpm .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$@)=

!O{Zj/sf] dfG5] p7, 5f]8, cof]Uo sd{nfO{

x[bo, dg, cfTdf, ;fdy{ b]pm v|Li6 o]z" /fhfnfO{ .

@O{Zj/sf] dfG5] p7, /fHo cfpb}5 l9nf]

;·tsf] lbg ca l56f] Nofpm x6fpm /ft kfk}sf] .

#O{Zj/sf] dfG5] p7 d08nL kv{b5

Tof] sfd lgldQ g;Sg] xf] p;nfO{ k|l;4 agfpm .

$o]z"sf] qm"; p7fpm lx8 af6f] pg}sf]

dfG5]sf] k'qsf bfHo"–efOsf] ?kdf p7 dfG5] O{Zj/sf] .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$@!=

sf]M x[bodf v|Li6 a;fcf} hLjg pgnfO{ r9fcf}

hLjg /f]zgL k|e'sf] lnO{ hLjgsf] bLk hnfpm“ -@_

!k|e' xfd|f] hLjgfwf/ s?0ff h;sf] ckf/ -@_

:ju{sf] j}ej Tofu]/ === xf … cfpg'ef] hudf -@_

@k|e' v|Li6sf] cfb]z lnO{ hLjg z'4 latfcf} -@_

pgsf] dlxdf lkmhfcf} === xf === ;f/f ;+;f/df -@_

#;';dfrf/ xfdL k|rf/f} k|e'sf] /fHo a9fcf} -@_

;gftgL /fhf o]z"nfO{ === xf === dlxldt u/fcf} -@_


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$@@=

!o]z" xfdLnfO{ af]nfp“5g\ cfwLdf ej;fu/sf]

dw'/ ;f]/n] ;w} eG5g\ ækl5 nfu x] d]/f]Æ .

@plxn] ufnLn emLnsf] 5]pdf r]nfn] v|Li6sf] ;f]/ ;'g]

>L–;DklQ, 3/3/fgf pgsf] nflu ;a Tofu] .

#;'vL ;+;f/sf] df]xb]lv o]z" 8fS5g\ xfdLnfO{

log}df ge'nf} egL eG5g\ æu/ k|]d dnfO{Æ .

$lrGtf dHhf b'Mv jf ;'vdf km';{b jf cft'/Ldf

o]z" eG5g\ ælog}eGbf dnfO{ u/ k|]d a9\tfÆ .

%o]z" xfdLnfO{ af]nfp“5g\ d'lQmbftf ;f]/ ;'gf}

;a}eGbf v|Li6 tkfO{nfO{ ;]jf dg / k|]d r9fcf} .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$@#=

sf]M sf] xf] l5d]sL -@_ ls:;f o]z"sf] bf]xf]¥ofp“5' lg

!af6f]df hfg] a]kf/LnfO{ rf]/x¿n] e]6]

s'l6lk6L a]xf];\ kf/L wg ;DklQm n'6]

cfkm\g} /utdf n6\kl6Psf a]kf/LnfO{ b]vL

k'/f]lxt / wd{–u'? lx8] af6f] tsL{ .

@;fgf] hftsf] ;fd/Ln] a]kf/LnfO{ b]v]

rf]6–k6s wf]P/ 3fpx¿ af“w] .

/f]uLnfO{ p7fP/ kz'dfly /fv] .

rf]/–8f“s'sf] Vofn gdfgL cfkm\gf] af6f] nfu] .

#;fd/L / /f]uL JolQm h;} kf6L k'u]

kf6Lbf/sf] xftdf ltgnfO{ lhDdf nfP

s]xL vr{ lbP/ a]kf/LnfO{ eg]

kmsL{ cfp“bf lt/f}nf d vr{ c? nfu] .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$@$=

sf]M hf“b}5' o]z"sxf“ xNn]n"ox eGb} -af]nfp“b}5 xfdLnfO{ kljq jrgn]_ @

!x] bfHo"–efO x] lbbL–alxgL ge"n Tof] 3/nfO{ -@_

hfcf} xfdL ;a} ho ho ufp“b} kfknfO{ Tofu]/ .

@/dfx6 ub}{ :t'lt ufp“b} cgGt 3/}df -@_

hxf“ :ju{b"tu0f ho ho ufp“5g\ o]z"sf] 5]j}df .

#hxf“ g ltvf{–ef]s cflb hxf“ g lbg g /ft -@_

a;f}nf dfly :t'lt ub}{ o]z"sf] 5]j}df .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$@%=

!:ju{b]z}df 5 lgif]w kfkLnfO{

slxNo} x'b}g gi6 si6 kljq dflg;nfO{ .

@d cfp“5' tf/0fxf/ qm";}df /fV5' ef/

/ut axfO{ z'4 agfO{ dnfO{ arfpg'xf];\ cfTdfnfO{ .

#;fy /fVgf];\ v|Li6 dnfO{ ;bf;j{bf g}

Hof]lt / zlQm, hLjg / d'lQm el/lbgf];\ v|Li6 dnfO{ .

$agfpg'xf];\ dnfO{ kljq tkfOem}

pHh/ / :jr5 aGg kfpm“ ;bf :ju{ b]z}df .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$@^=

!;'g gof“ uLt ufp“b}5g\ d'lQm kfpg]x¿

:t'lt k|e' y'dfsf] o;f] eGb} ufp“5g\ .

sf]M k|]dn] cfkm\gf] /utdf wf]O{ z'4 kf/L

xfd|f] cfTdfnfO{ arfpg] k|e'nfO{ xf];\ :t'lt

@xfd|f] j:q pHofnf] 5 wf]O{ pgsf] /utdf

xfd|f] dgdf ;a zflGt 5 pgsf] :ju]{ 1fgdf .

#pgsf] /utsf] zlQmn] eof] z}tfg lga{n

pgsf] ;Tosf] k|tfkn] xfdL eof} ;kmn .

$k"hf} Hof]lt / hLjgsf] k|e' / y'dfnfO{

dlxdf, cfb/ / zlQm ;bf x'G5g\ pgnfO{ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$@&=

!d kfksf] af6f] 5f]8\b5' hxf“ w]/} dfG5] db{5g\

:ju{sf] 3/nfO{ vf]Hb5' oxf“ a:g] d]/f] 5}g dg .

sf]M of] b'lgof“ d]/f] 3/ xf]Og, ;f“Rr} of] d]/f] 3/ xf]Og

o; b'lgof“df cf/fd 5}g of] b'lgof“ d]/f] 3/ xf]Og

@dfG5]n] /f]Sg vf]Hb5g\ g k|fy{gf ug{ lbb+5g\

ltgsf aftnfO{ ;'lGbg d :ju{sf] 3/nfO{ vf]H5' d .

#d;“u kfkLx¿ cfpm :ju{ b]zdf xfdLx¿ hfcf}

/ a:g ca l5§} cfpm :ju{sf] 3/nfO{ vf]Hg hfcf} .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$@*=

!Tof] k|]dsf] b]z d x]b}{5' k/dfgGbsf] Wofg d u/L

;a pHofnf] eO/x]sf] dlxldtsf] Hof]ltn] e/L .

sf]M Tof] k|]dsf] b]z v'z cfgGbsf] 5}g jxf“ /ft ;+;f/sf]

lx8b} hfbf k|]dsf] b]zdf l5§} x'G5f} k|]dsf] b]zdf

@Tof] k|]dsf] b]z zfGt 5 ;Ldf jxf“ 5}g b'Mv g kfksf] bfu

jxf“ hf] e]6\5g\ 5'l6b}g wdL{x¿ x'G5g\ e]63f6 .

#5}g cf;dfg oxf“sf] h:tf] /ft g} km/s lbg g} km/s

3fd nfUgnfO{ 5}g b/sf/ 5b} 5}g cWof/f] /ft .

$zf]ssf] xfjf jxf aUb}g To; ;'v / zflGtsf] b]zdf

jxf hf] k'U5g\ cf;g kfp“5g\ O{Zj/;“u To; b]z}df .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$@(=

!b"/ @ o; nf]ssf dLt v|Li6 d]/f x'g\

b"/ @ o; nf]ssf] ;'v, v|Li6 d]/f x'g\

h+un cWof/f] 5 o; nf]sdf 5}g r}g

h'g v|Li6df dfq 5 v|Li6 d]/f x'g\ .

@dnfO{ hf“r gug'{ v|Li6 d]/f x'g\

;w}el/ a:g' v|Li6 d]/f x'g\

d§Lsf] of] z/L/ ag]sf] Ps lbgnfO{

h'g v|Li6df dfq 5 v|Li6 d]/f x'g\ .

#x]lb{g ;+;f/nfO{ v|Li6 d]/f x'g\

x]5'{ d :ju{nfO{ v|Li6 d]/f x'g\

To; 7fp“df k'Ug kfcf} hxf“ ;bf lj>fd

;b}j a:g kfcf} v|Li6 d]/f x'g\ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$#)=

sf]M ;Demg bfO xf], ;Demg dftf–lktf, efO–alxgL

d[To"kl5 sxf“ hfG5f}, ;Demg bfO xf], ;Demg

!ltdLn] eG5f} :ju{ hfG5' -@_ hfG5f} s;/L eg hfG5f} s;/L <

;Demg bfO xf], ;Demg, kfksf] ;fu/ clt 7"nf] -@_

@ca eg s;n] nfg] -@_ ;fu/kfl/ eg s;n] nfg] ;Demg

:ju{ guO{ d[To"kl5 -@_ sxf“ hfg] efO xf], sxf“ hfg] <

#o]z" gf;/L ltd|f]nflu -@_ d/] qm";}df efO xf], d/] qm";}df

;f“rf] p4f/ lbgnfO{ -@_ d/] qm";}df efO xf], d/] qm";}df .

$;do x'b} rf8} u/f} -@_ p4f/ kfpgnfO{ efO xf] p4f/ kfpgnfO{

;Demg bfO xf], ;Demg Ps lbg o]z" cfp“5g\ -@_

Gofo ug{nfO{ efO xf], Gofo ug{nfO{ .

%cfh h;n] d'lQm kfp“5 -@_ :ju{ Tof] hfG5 efO xf], :ju{ Tof] hfG5

cfh h;n] kfk u5{ -@_ g/s Tof] hfG5 efO xf] g/s Tof] hfG5 .

^l;Ty} d'lQm kfp“5f} o]z"df -@_ cfpm pg}df efO xf] cfpm pg}df

;f“rf] zflGt kfp“5f} pg}df -@_ cfpm pg}df efOxf], cfpm pg}df .


431 k yjldfly s n c

431= k[YjLdfly:s]n C

k[YjLdfly–dfly s:tf] hut\ 5 <, sNkgf ug{ ;S5f} ltdL s]

PskN6 k|e'sf] emNsf] dfq n]pm

yfxf kfpg]5f} -:ju{ To:t} 5_ @

!;+;f/eGbf a]Un} x'G5 Tof] hut\df

wf]Opsf dflg; x'G5g\ v|Li6sf] /utdf

Toxf“ kL/–dsf{ lkmqmL x'b}g

Hof]ltsf] /fHo cWof/f] l6Sb}g, :ju{ To:t} 5 .

@:ju{ hfg ltdL d[To" gkv{

b'MvL ;+;f/ klg :ju{ aGg ;s5

5f]6f] 5 of] hLjg df]hdf ge'n

:ju{sf] qm";nfO{ c+ufn :ju{ To:t} 5 .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$#@=

sf]M pkl:yt v|Li6sf] 5fofdf af“lr/x]sf] 5' oxf“

pg}sf] cb\e't dfofdf xf“l;x]sf] 5' oxf“

pg}sf] sf]dn s[kfdf ufO/x]sf] 5' oxf“

!hLjgdf Pslbg /ft k5{ oxf“ d:t lgbfp“5'

snj/Lkfl/ ;'Gb/ laxfg dflg; Ao'emG5

dgf]x/ efudf :juL{o /fhdf hojGtsf] uLt ufp“5'

o]z"sf] d'xf/ cfkm\g} cl3 b]v]/ /dfp“5' .

@xL/fn] h8L tof/ u/L /fv]sf] zx/df

dl0f h8]sf zx/sf 9f]sf af6f 5g\ ;'gf}nf

lx8\g]5' ;bf o]z"sf] ;fydf ;Gtu0f nx/df

xft–xftdf o]z"sf] ;fy a:g]5' ;j{bf .

#;+;f/sf] b'Mv s]xL klg xf]Og, :ju{sf] ;'vdf

;tfj6 klg s]xL klg xf]Og, :ju{sf] dlxdfdf

;Ddfg / d's'6 ldNg]5g\ dnfO{ Tof] k"0f{ ldngdf

laxfgsf tf/f, v|Li6 d]/f Kof/f, k"Hg]5' ;j{bf .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$##=

sf]M afbnsf] kfl/kl§ 3fdsf] b]zdf

d]/f] k|e' /fHo u5{g\ zflGtsf] e]ifdf

xNs]nfdf bfu 5 x} sf“6L–sf“6Lsf]

sf]lvnfdf dfof af]sL dfgjhfltsf] -@_

!s}bgLh:tf] dfG5]nfO{ k|e'n] g} Kof/f u/] -@_

cGwf]h:tf] dfG5]nfO{ c·nf]df ;fy lnP .

cfkm\g} k|f0fn] ;asf] kfksf] df]n lt/]

cGwsf/sf] dfemdf gof“ Hof]lt k7fP .

@b'a{nsf d'6'df zlQm lbG5g\ k|e'n] -@_

xtfz ePsf] cfTdfnfO{ hf]z lbG5g\ k|e'n]

vf]H5g\ h;n] k|e'nfO{ r"0f{ x[bon]

d'lQmbftf /fhfnfO{ e]6\5g\ l5§} ltgn] .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$#$=

!o]z"n] ;w} /fHo u5{g\ hxf“–hxf“ 3fd nfUb5

/ h}n];Dd h"g /xnf, pg}sf] /fHo 5 hu\tdf .

@s] k|fy{gf ;w} ul/G5 pg}sf] :t'lt r9fOG5

gfp“ pgsf] af;gf w"jfem} r9fOG5 laxfg ;w} .

#;a b]zsf dfG5] ufp“5g\ uLt pgsf] pb]ssf] k|]d lgldQ

afns ;'gfp“5g\ pgsf] gfp“ / u5{g\ lgTo v|Li6sf] j}ej .

$v|Li6n] hxf“ /fHo ub{5g\ Toxf“ cflzif\ kfOb5 .

Toxf“ ;a b'Mlvtsf] pksf/ Toxf“ ;a kfkLsf] p4f/ .

%;+;f/sf] u/f];\ wGojfb v|Li6 /fhfsf] u'0ffg'jfb .

:ju{df a9fO ul/cf];\ dfG5]n] eg"g\ o:t} xf];\ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$#%=

!O{Zj/ lktf xfd|f] ;'Ggf];\ vfnL ;fgf dfG5] xf}

t} tkfO{nfO{ 7"nf] laGtL ug{ clxn] cfPsf 5f} .

@v|Li6sf] /fHo v"a l5§f] cfcf];\ v|Li6df ;an] kfpmg\ ho

/ tkfO{nfO{ ;an] lrg"g\ ;an] dfg''g\ wGo eO{ .

#v|Li6sf] k|]dsf] dL7f] s'/f ;'gLsg dfG5]]n] .

o; ;+;f/df :t'lt u?g\ h:tf] :ju{df b"tn] .

$cfcf];\ Tof] ;+;f/ tkfO{sf] x'g] 38L x] lktf .

lsgeg] ;a tkfO{sf /fHo k/fqmd dlxdf .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$#^=

!xfdLn] ;'g]sf 5f} o]z"n] arfp“5g\

c?nfO{ hgfPsf 5f} o]z"n] arfp“5g\

;a} b]zdf xf];\ k|rf/ v|Li6n] lbPsf p4f/

k|e'sf] ;';dfrf/ o]z"n] arfp“5g\ .

@kfkLnfO{ ;'gfOof];\ o]z"n] arfp“b5g\

b'MvLnfO{ hgfOof];\ o]z"n] arfp“b5g\

k[YjLdf xf];\ ljZjf; gi6 xj;\ ;a pbf;

;asf dgdf o:t} xf];\, o]z"n] arfp“b5g\ .

#cfkm\gf] hLjg–d[To"n] o]z"n] arfp“b5g\

:t'lt u/ o; uLtn] o]z"n] arfp“b5g\

ufpm“ b'Mv ;xbf ufpm kZrftfk ubf{

ufpm hLjg 5f]8\bf o]z"n] arfp“b5g\ .

$;a}nfO{ of] cfJxfg 5 o]z"n] arfp“b5g\

;a}nfO{ /dfx6 5 o]z"n] arfp“b5g

xj;\ b'i6sf] k"/f] Ifo xj;\ v|Li6sf] k"/f] ho

ufpm ;w} alxgL–efO o]z"n] arfp“b5g\ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$#&=

!wGojfb xf];\ O{Zj/nfO{ afnL sf6\g] ef] ;do

;a ;'/Iff;fy 3/df cGg 5 a6'n]sf

;[li6stf{ O{Zj/n] xfdLnfO{ ;a h'6fP

d08nL cfpm k/d]Zj/sf] afnL sf6\g] ;do ef] .

@xfdL O{Zj/sf] af/Ldf kmN5f} eg] 5 :t'lt

ux"“ / ;fy} emf/kft 5g\ b'Mv jf ;'vdf pld|G5g\

klxn] aLp / af]6 clg b]vf kb{5 afnL

k|e' xfdL To:t} xf]cf} cGg rf]vf] z'4 agf} .

#xfd|f k|e' cfpg]5g\ km;n 3/df nfg]5g\

h]–h] pgnfO{ nfU5 l3g x6fOb]nfg\ To;} lbg

emf/–kft :ju{b"tu0fnfO{ kmfNg b]nfg\ cfuf]d}

t/ cGg wG;f/ /flvlbg]5g\ ;bf .

$k|e' rf“8} cfpg'xf];\ km;n 3/df nfg'xf];\

hDdf u/fO{ d08nL zf]s kfkb]lv kvfnL

:ju{df lgTo a:g]5g\ z'4 kfl/Psf hg

km;n 3/df n}hfg rf“8} cfpg'xf];\ k|e' .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$#*=

!cflbdf h'g k|sf/ cWof/f] / phf/ kfg'{eof] gfz ca To;} x] O{Zj/

;';dfrf/sf] 3fd gk'u]sf] ;a :yfg pHofn} xf];\ .

@nf]s cfpg'ef] tkfO{ ;a hgsf] nflu NofO{ nufO{ k|sfz

/f]uL la;]s kf/L cGwf]nfO{ k|sfz u/fO x] v|Li6 ca ;a}nfO{ pHofn} xf];\ .

#x] kljq cfTdf lhofpg] k/]jf j]u p8\g'xf];\

u/L ef“8f] 3'dfO{ cg'u|x bfg vGofO{ cWof/f] ug'{ Ifo pHofn} xf];\ .

$x] lktf, k'q, cfTdf, wGo lqPs dxf qf0f k"0f{ xf];\

;fu/em} xf] ckf/, hut\sf lbz} rf/ ;RofpgnfO{ ;+;f/ pHofn} xf];\ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$#(=

!x] bofn' :juL{o lktf xfd|f] b]znfO{ x]g'{xf];

cfkm\gf] k|e'Tjsf] af6f] cljZjf; d]6fpg'xf];\

;f“rf] wd{, ;f“rf] wd{ l5§} g} lkmhfpg'xf];\ .

@k|e' v|Li6 O{Zj/sf] k'q ltdLnfO{ bof ug'[xf];\

ltgsf] dgdf ;f“rf] wd{ ca tkfO{n] /fVg'xf];\

cGwljZjf;, e|d 5f]8\g g]kfnLnfO{ l;sfpg'xf];\ .

#x] kljq x'g] cfTdf, Hof]lt, 1fg / zflGtsf]

cGwsf/df a:g] ;anfO{ v|Li6Lo dfu{sf] pHofnf]

lbg'xj;\ lbg'xj;\ p;sf] af6f] d'lQm ef] .

$lktf, k'q, kljqfTdf, xfd|f] laGtL ;'Gg'xf];\

gfp“ :t'lt hf] tkfO{sf] ;anfO{ k|s6 ug'{xf];\

x] qf0fstf{ x], qf0fstf{ /fh tkfO{sf] l:y/ /xf];\ .


440 cggtsf tof fhodf s n g

440= cgGtsf] Tof] /fHodf:s]n G

cgGtsf] Tof] /fHodf hfgnfO{ xf]cf} tof/

z}tfgsf] cjZo afwf g} lbG5 k|fy{gfdf nflu/xf}

!s:tf] 5 xf]nf cgGtsf] /fHo j0f{g ug{ g} ;Sb}gf}

s:tf] 5 xf]nf Hof]ltsf] ls/0f yfxf kfpg g} ;Sb}gf} .

@b"tu0f ;a}n] ub}{ g} xf]nf k|e'sf] ho–houfg

cg]sf} Wjlg aHb} g} xf]nf, O{Zj/sf] k|]ldnf] hg .

#ca|fxd, O;xfs, ofs"an] xfdLnfO{ kv{b} xf]nfg\ jxf“

klxn] kf] cfp“5, cgGt 7fp“df eGb} O{Zj/;“u jxf“ .

$xfdL /dfcf}+ v'zL eP/ jxf“sf] houfg u/f}

lsgls y'df cfkm} g} jxf“ b'nxf alg/x]sf .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$$!=

!k|ltWjlg xf]Og, jrg ;gftgsf]

uh{g klg xf]Og ;+uLt u'l~hPsf]

;"o{ n'lsuP km'n} cf]Olnem5{

k|e' v|Li6sf] k|]d Tof] ;bf cd/ x'G5 .

@cflbdf jrg lyof], O{Zj/sf] ;fy lyof]

jrg O{Zj/ g} lyof], b]x lnO{ cfpg'ef]

d's'6 5f8L :ju{sf] cf]ln{cfpg'ef] hut\df

s:tf] d's'6 sf“8fsf] klxl/g'ef] lz/df .

#qm";sf] syf Tof] gof“ hLjg lbg

vf]nf] Tof] /utsf] d'lQm lslglbg]

ljZjf;}df o]z"";fy qm";df 6f“lulbP

arfOlbG5f} gf}nf] k|f0f v|Li6nfO{ clk{lbP .

$lbOPsf] jrg Tof], km]l/ cfp“5' eGg]

;lHhPsL b'nxLnfO{ p7fOnfG5' eGg]

pgL km]l/ cfp“5g\ k|ltWjlg xf]Og

;f“lrPsf] cfzf Tof] lg/fzf x'g] xf]Og .


442 o z dnfo u g s n c

442= o]z" dnfO{ u%{g\:s]n C

!o]z" dnfO{ u5{g\ Kof/, of] xf] ;a afOansf] ;f/

afns pgsf x'g\ j/bfg, tL lga{n pgL anjfg\ .

Kof/ u5{g dnfO{, Kof/ u5{g dnfO{

Kof/ u5{g dnfO{, o]z"n] u5{g Kof/

@o]z" dnfO{ u5{g Kof/ k|f0f lbO{ vf]n] :ju{sf] åf/

d]/f] kfk ;a w'g]5g\ afnsnfO{ af]nfp“5g .

#o]z" dnfO{ u5{g\ Kof/ h:t} lga{n 5' ladf/

cfºgf] l;+xf;gb]lv b]Vt5g\ ;w}F dnfO{ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$$#=

!dnfO{ cfgGb 5 ls lktf O{Zj/ dnfO{ b]vfp“5g\ pxf“sf] Kof/

afOansf] dL7f] g} syfsf] ;f/ of] xf] ls o]z"n] ub{5g\ Kof/ .

sf]M wGo ls dnfO{ ub{5g\ Kof/, ub{5g\ Kof/ ub{5g Kof/

wGo ls dnfO{ ub{5g\ Kof/ ub{5g\ Kof/ dnfO{

@olb d 6f9f] hfpm“ 5f]8L pgnfO{ t}klg v|Li6n] k|]d u5{g\ dnfO{

afOansf] ;aeGbf dL7f] syf of] xf] ls o]z" k|]d u5{g dnfO{

#:ju{df ha /fhfnfO{ b]Vg]5' pg}sf] :t'ltsf] uLt ufpg]5'

o;}sf] lglDt d lgTo ufp“nf o]z"n] dnfO{ k|]d u5{g ;bf .

$d pgnfO{ u5'{ dnfO{ u5{g Kof/ k|]dn pgL eP ;To cjtf/

qm";df r9L u/] d]/f] p4f/ lgZro v|Li6 ub{5g\ pb]ssf] Kof/ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$$$=

sf]M ;a yf]s /fd|f / pHh/ ;a hLj ;fgf–7"nf

1fgL / pb]ssf ;a O{Zj/n] agfPsf

!;a km"n /fd|f hf] km'N5g\ ufp“5g\ ;a} r/f

/· ltgsf rlDsnf 5g\ agfP kv]6f .

@lxp“bsf] lr;f] xfjf udL{sf] /fd|f] 3fd

kfs]sf] kmn aufgdf pg}sf] ;a sfd .

#lxp“sf cUnf kxf8 ;a 5]pdf h+un gbL

;"of{:t / ;'Gb/ laxfg /·Lg cfsfz klg .

$x]g{ lbP cf“vf hf] cf]7 lbP af]NgnfO{

clt dxfg\ O{Zj/ x'g\ agfP ;a /fd|} .


445 va bf fgf s n g

445= va/bf/ ;fgf]:s]n G

!va/bf/ ;fgf] cf“vf s] x]5{

va/bf/ ;fgf] cf“ s] x]5{ .

ltd|f] :ju]{ afa'n] tn x]5{g Kof/n]

va/bf/ ;fgf] cf“vf s] x]5{

@va/bf/ ;fgf] sfg s] ;'G5 -@_

#va/bf/ ;fgf] xft s] u5{ -@_

$va/bf/ ;fgf] dg s] ;f]R5 -@_

%va/bf/ ;fgf] kfp sxf“ hfG5 -@_


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$$^=

sf]M ltd|f] of}jg sfndf cfkm\gf] ;[hgxf/nfO{ ;b}j ;Demgf u/

-cfkm\gf] ;[hgfxf/nfO{, cfkm\gf] ;[hgfxf/nfO{_ @, cfkm\gf] ;[hgfxf/nfO{

;]jf u/ tg–dg–wgn], -wgn]_ @, ;]jf u/ tg–dg–wgn]

!xfd|f] of}jg Joy{ ghfcf];\ s;}n] o;nfO{ t'R5 g7fg"g\ -@_

;dodf g} cfgf] k|e'nfO{ -@_ ;]jf u/ tg–dg–wgn]

wgn] ;]jf u/ tg–dg–wgn] .

@k|e' o]z" tf/0fxf/ xfd|f] pgL ;[hgxf/ -@_

x] bfHo"–efO x] lbbL–alxgL xf] -@_ ;]jf u/ tg–dg–wgn]

wgn] ;]jf u/ tg–dg–wgn] .

#cGwsf/ husf] x'g\ k|e' cgGt k|sfz lbg] pHofnf] -@_

pg} Hof]ltnfO{ gu/L laofnf] -@_ ;]jf u/ tg–dg–wgn]

wgn] ;]jf u/ tg–dg–wgn] .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$$&=

!hoho u/, ;fgf gfgLx¿, v|Li6 x'g\ k|]d, v|Li6 x'g\ k|]d -@_

@;]jf u/, ;fgf gfgLx¿, v|Li6 x'g\ k|]d, v|Li6 x'g\ k|]d -@_

#wGojfb eg, ;fgf gfgLx¿, v|Li6 x'g\ k|]d, v|Li6 x'g\ k|]d -@_

$pgnfO{ eh, ;fgf gfgLx¿, v|Li6 x'g\ k|]d, v|Li6 x'g\ k|]d -@_

%Kof/f] u/, ;fgf gfgLx¿, v|Li6 x'g\ k|]d, v|Li6 x'g\ k|]d -@_

^k|fy{gf u/, ;fgf gfgLx¿, v|Li6 x'g\ k|]d, v|Li6 x'g\ k|]d -@_


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$$*=

!gfgLx¿sf] nflu b}nf] g3fl/b]pm

c;n uf]7fnf]sf] vf]/df ltgnfO{ e]nf u/f}]

sf]xL t 6'x'/f–6'x'/L sf]xL tf ;fx|f] nfrf/

;a gfgLx¿sf] nflu p3f/f} vf]/sf] åf/ .

sf]M vf]/sf] b}nf], vf]/sf] b}nf], vf]/sf] b}nf] p3f/f}

c;n uf]7fnfsf] vf]/df gfgLx¿nfO{ e]nf u/f}+ .

@gfgLx¿ tf cfp“5g\ b}nf] p3fl/lbcf}

lognfO{ vf]/df a;fO{ v|Li6sf] lzIff lbcf}

k|fy{gf u/L p3f/f} wd{sf] vf]/sf] b}nf]

ofb u/f} O{Zj/sf] /fHonfO{ o:t}x¿sf] xf] .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$$(=

!o]z"sf] d x'“ kf7f] x[bo v'zL 5 d]/f]

k|]d o]z"n] dnfO{ u5{g /fd|f] j/bfg dnfO{ lbG5g

kfng–kf]if0f ub{5g gfp“af6 af]nfp“b5g\ .

@d]/f] b}lgs hLjgdf ef]s / ltvf{ hflGbg

x"n e]8fsf] pgsf] hxf“ /fd|f] xl/of] r/g Toxf“

nfU5 dnfO{ Kof; hlxn] emgf{ b]vfp“5g\ pgn] .

#hLjge// cfglGbt 5' cflzlift o; em'08df 5'

kfp“5' uf]7fnf r/fpg] d[To"kl5 hLjg lbg]

dnfO{ :ju{df k'¥ofp“5 efUodfgL x'G5' d .s


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$%)=

!k/d]Zj/ h;n] k[YjL / lqe'jg

Hof]lt klg l;h]{ dnfO{ kfN5g\ .

@k/d]Zj/, h;n] agfP /ft / lbg

?v, km"n / kmn l;h]{ dnfO{ kfN5g\ .

#k/d]Zj/ h;n] l;h]{ 3fd, tf/f, h"g

cf“wLdf x'g\ cf>o dnfO{ kfN5g\ .

$k/d]Zj/ h;n] df};d ldnfp“5g\

kbfy{ ;a l;h]{ dnfO{ kfN5g\ .

%O{Zj/ k'qn] qm";dfly lbP k|f0f

pgdf ljZjf; /fv] dnfO{ kfN5g\ .

^:ju{ k'u]/ ;'gfp“5' pgsf] ho

of] ufp“5' O{Zj/n] kfn] dnfO{ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$%!=

!k|e' ;fgf gfgL eO{ :t'lt ug{ cfPsf 5f}

tkfO{ wdL{ x'g'x'"G5 dfg / cfb/ lbb5f}

v|Li6sf] k|]d / :ju{sf] s'/f] xfd|f] dgdf eg'{xf];\

v|Li6nfO{ v'z gkfg]{ sfo{ ug{b]lv yfDg'xf];\ .

@lsgeg] k|e' v|Li6n] xfdLnfO{ lgTo x]5{g

hlt u5f}{ sfd / ljrf/ pgn] :ju{df n]Vb}5g

xfd|f kfk dfkm lbg'xj;\ xfdLnfO{ arfpg'xf];

:ju}{df /fd|f] uLt ufpg xfdLnfO{ k'¥ofpg'xf];\ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$%@=

!;+;f/ v"a /fd|f] b]lvG5 /dfx6 u5'{ d

;a yf]sdf 3fdsf] ls/0f b]vfp“5' dlxdf

;+;f/df a:bfv]l d h?/ xlif{nf] 5

d o]z" v|Li6sf] af6f] k5ofp“5' .

@d ;fgf] ofqL dfq ofqfsf] z'?df

d hLjg ofqf ubf{ zf]s e]6\g]5' oxf“

;+;f/ 5 zf]sn] e/]sf] / ljkb klg 5

t/ o]z" v|Li6sf] af6f] k5ofp“5' .

#t ;fgf] ofqLh:t} h]–h] e]6\g]5'

xif{ ls b'Mv nfG5' r/0fdf o]z"sf]

tL b'Mvdf zflGt lbG5g\ tL k':5g\ ;a cf“;'

/dfx6 u/L af6f] k5ofp“5' .

$k/LIff ;tfp“b}g b'Mvb]lv 5}g eo

ha o]z" cfp“5g\ ghLs zf]s x'G5 6f9} g}

d[To"n] gi6 ub}{g ha d[To" e]6\g]5'

:ju{ hfg] af6f] k5ofp“5' .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$%#=

sf]M af]nfpg'xf];\ xfdLnfO{ k|e' xfdL afnsnfO{

5}g xfd|f] hudf sf]xL tkfO{ 5f]8L u'xf/ xfd|f] ug]{

!lkmb{5 e]8fem} uf]7fnfljgfsf

af]nfpg'xf];\ xfdLnfO{ :juL{o /fHod} .

@xfdLh:tf] afnsnfO{ :juL{o /fHo lbgnfO{

?vf] jrg lzIffnfO{ lk|o xfdLnfO{ .

#wGo dftf–lktfn] xfdLnfO{ k|e' lrgfP

kfkLsf] ljnfk ;'GgnfO{ v|Li6 /dfP .

$/f]O{–/f]O{ d cfp“bf zflGt kfpg tkfO{df

cf“;' k'l5 /fVg'xf];\ xft lz/}df .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$%$=

!pHofnf] eOuof] k|e' lbgel/ sfd ug{

cN5L 5f]8L /dfO{ p7" laxfgsf] e]6 lbg -@_

@af]nL rfndf rf]vf] eO{ k|e' 3fdh:t} pHofnf]

;a} b]V5g\ d]/f] af6f] / ljrf/ ;a d]/f] -@_

#prflnlbgf];\ dg d]/f] k|e' lbgel/ sfd}df

b'Mv–;'Mv h]–h] xf]nf tkfO{sf] gfj}df -@_

$ut /ftsf] gLbsf] nflu k|e' wGojfb lbb5'

tkfO{sf] bfg} eG5' dg}df lnb5' -@_

%/Iff xj;\ lbgel/ k|e' tkfO{ g} b]lv

;kmn xj;\ sfd} hlt tkfO{s} nflu -@_

^;To–;To O{Zj/ tkfO{ k|e' sf]xL 5}g d]/f]

;+;f/ eg] kfkn] e¥of] b'Mv}sf] y'k|f] -@_

&cfh af“r" kfk]blv k|e' uf]xf/} kfO{

d'lQmbftf cfkm} tkfO{ arfO{b]pm dnfO{ -@_


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$%%=

!kfkL sfd gu/, gaf]n qmf]wL aft

v|Li6 x'g\ ltd|f k|e' tL 5g\ ltd|f];fy .

@v|Li6 bofn' k|]dL tL x'g\ z'4 / ;t\

afns}sf] klg xf];\ kljq ut .

#z}tfg b'i6 cfTdf clxn] x]b{}5

u5{ tof] k/LIff ;w} 3]b}{5 .

$To;sf] aft g;'g ;'Gg' kfk g} 5

;w} enf] ug'{ v|Li6nfO{ Kof/f] 5 .

%v|Li6 x'g\ ltd|f k|e' pQd kljq

pgs]f gfgL enf] x'g' plrt 5 .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$%^=

!o]z" s[kfn' uf]7fnf cflzif\ lbgf];\ kf7f]nfO{

/ftL /Iff ugf]{;\ dnfO{ laxfg;Dd 5]pdf eO{ .

@cfh tkfO{b]lv kfP n'uf ef]hg cu'jfO

k|fy{gf wGojfb ca u5'{ 9lNshfbf ;'TgnfO{ .

#d]/f] e'nr's ugf]{;\ Ifdf d]/f lk|ox¿ k|]d

ha d? nfgf];\ :ju{df ;bf lbg / If]d .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$%&=

!s]6LM x] bfHo" lsg o:tf] lg ;+;f/df cfh czflGt -@_

s]6fM v|Li6nfO{ e'n] o:t} lg x'G5 x} alxgL czflGt -@_

@s]6LM v|Li6nfO{ lsg e'Nof] lg of] kfkL ;f/f ;+;f/n] -@_

s]6fM v"a hfGg] eP ;+;f/L v|Li6nfO{ k/ k;f/L -@_

#s]6LM o:t} s] ;bf x'g] xf] x] lk|o bfHo" egg\ -@_

s]6fM kfP/ a[l4 O{Zj/s} e"n] x} ;[li6stf{nfO{ -@_

$s]6LM dflg;n] lsg e"n] lg cfkm\gf] ;[li6stf{nfO{ -@_

s]6fM kfP/ a[l4 O{Zj/s} e"n] x} ;[li6stf{nfO{ -@_

%;a}M kZrftfk u/L kms{ x} d'lQmbftfsf] r/0fdf -@_

d'lQm x} kfO{ :ju{nf]sdf cfgGbl;t k;g -@_

^;a}M O{Zj/sf] gfp“ wGo xf];\ pg}sf] ;To ;bf xf];\ -@_

pg}sf] ;Rrf eQm eO{, xfd|f] hLjgsf] cGt xf];\ -@_

&;a}M :ju{df a;L cfgGbn] O{Zj/sf] k'hg ug]{5f} -@_

ho, k|e' o]z" ho d'lQmbftf eGb} xfdL ufpg]5f} -@_


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$%*=

!:juL{o /fhfnfO{ v'z ug{ s] ;S5g\ ;fgf xftn] <

sf]lzz u?g ;fgf xftn] b'MlvtnfO{ b'Mvdf uf]xf/ ug]{ o:tf] cg'u\x kfpm“ .

@:juL{o /fhfnfO{ v'z ug{ s] ;S5g ;fgf cf]7n] <

:t'lt k|fy{gf ;fgf cf]7n] / g/d enf aft ug]{ o:tf] cg'u|x kfpm“ .

#:juL{o /fhfnfO{ v'z ug{ s] ;S5g ;fgf cf“vfn] <

x]? :ju{nf]s ;fgf cf“vfn] kljq wd{ k':ts k9\g] o:tf] cg'u|x kfpm“ ,

%:juL{o /fhfnfO{ v'z ug{ s] ;S5g ;fgf dgn] <

k|]d dgn] ldq agfpg] kljq cfTdf bfg kfpg] o:tf] cg'u|x kfpm“ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$%(=

!lktf 8f]¥ofO{ lbg–lbg} tkfO{sf OR5fdf g}

:jR5 z'4 dg lbO{ ;To l;sfpgf]; dnfO{ .

@ljkbdf lbO{ ;fx; a;L 5]p /Iff ugf]{;\ .

lge{o /fVgf];\ dnfO{ ddf k|]d b[li6 nufO{ .

#k/Liffsf ;a} lbgdf b[9tf lbg'xf]; dgdf

ha x'G5' ;fdy{xLg /Iff ug'{xf];\ Tof] lbg .

$x'G5' v'zL cflzif\ kfO{ ge"n" d tkfO{nfO{

x'G5g\ xlif{t ;a}hgf lrg]/ tkfO{sf] dg .

%h]–h] /fd|f] 5 u5'{ tkfO{sf] afns x'G5'

cfp“5' ha :ju{df a:5' ;w} g} jxf“ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$^)=

!cfpm ;a} uLt ufpm x} xNn]n"ofx cfldg

xf];\ a9fO o]z"s} xNn]n"ofx cfldg

;f]/ / dg prfnL l;+xf;gsf] cl3

dgkbf]{ 5 :t'lt xNn]n"ofx cfldg .

@dg pef] prfNb} xNn]n"ofx cfldg

v"a cfsfz uhf{p“b} xNn]n"ofx cfldg

v|Li6 xfd|f ldq x'g xfdLdf pqG5g\

k|]d pgsf] 6'l·b}g xNn]n"ofx cfldg .

#u'0f ufcf} k|e'sf] xNn]n"ofx cfldg

zlQm e/ hLjgsf] xNn]n"ofx cfldg

:ju{df k'uf}nf pg}nfO{ e]6f}nf

;w} g} uLt ufcf}nf xNn]n"ofx cfldg .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$^!=

!o]z" l;+xf;gb]lv dfly :ju{df a;L

k|]dL b[li6n] x]/L ;'Gg'xf]; lk|o o]z" .

@afns dfGb}gg 8/} x'g'eP ;fy ltgs}

lk|o qftf Kof/ ub}{ ;'Ggf];\ lk|o o]z" .

#x'gf];\ xfd|f];fy ;bf xfd|f] sfd / v]ns'bdf

ha r9fp“5f} k|fy{gf ;'Ggf]; lk|o o]z" .

$xfd|f] ;f]r xf]; kljq aft xf];\ ;To / gd|

nf} agfpgf];\ kljq ;'Ggf];\ lk|o o]z" .


462 s n agfof s n c

462= s;n] agfof] :s]n C

!s;n] agfP km"nx¿nfO{, km"nx¿nfO{, km"nx¿nfO{ <

s;n] agfP km"nx¿nfO{ < O{Zj/ hf] :ju{df 5g\ .

@s;n] agfP df5fx¿nfO{, df5fx¿nfO{, df5fx¿nfO{ <

s;n] agfP df5fx¿nfO{ < O{Zj/ hf] :ju{df 5g\ .

#s;n] agfP r/fx¿nfO{, r/fx¿nfO{, r/fx¿nfO{ <

s;n] agfP r/fx¿nfO{ < O{Zj/ hf] :ju{df 5g\ .

$s;n] agfP tf/fx¿nfO{, tf/fx¿nfO{, tf/fx¿nfO{ <

s;n] agfP tf/fx¿nfO{ < O{Zj/ hf] :ju{df 5g\ .

%s;n] agfP ltdLx¿nfO{–dnfO{, ltdLnfO{–dnfO{ <

s;n] agfP ltdLnfO{–dnfO{ < O{Zj/ hf] :ju{df 5g\ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$^#=

!o]z" eG5g\ afnsx¿nfO{ dsxf“ cfpg b]pm

lsgeg] :ju{sf] /fHo o:t} g}–x¿sf] xf] .

@o;sf/0f xfdL ;a} ldn]/ pgsf] r/0fdf hfcf}+

pgsf] r/0fdf uP/ xfdL dL7f] cfjfhnfO{ ;'gfcf}+ .


464 o z nfo wgojfb s n c

464= o]z"nfO{ wGojfb:s]n C

!o]z"nfO{ wGojfb lbg slt /fd|f]

;]tf] lxdfn / cUnf] kxf8 -@_ cfsfz} rlDsnf] .

@o]z"nfO{ wGojfb km"n slt /fd|f]

xl/of] 3f“; xNng] ?v -@_ kmn vfg' :jflbnf] .

#o]z"nfO{ wGojfb k'tnL s] /fd|f]

p8\g] r/f / lxF8\g] kz' -@_ uLt ufpg] km6]+u|f .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$^%=

sf]M gjLg ;fnsf] k|yd lbgdf xif{ xfdL cfh dgfcf}+

oxL ;do k|e' ofb lnO{ gjLg xfdL hLjg ckgfcf}+

!k|e' o]z" p4f/stf{ cb\e't qftf tf/0fxf/

pgsf] s?0ff ofb ;bf lnO{ gjLg xfdL hLjg ckgfcf}+ .

@k|e' xfdL z/0f k5f}{ ;a} hLjg ck{0f u5f}{

tkfO{sf] ;]jf ;bfe/ g} sfdgf dgdf oxL /xf];\ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$^^=

!ca csf]{ ;ftf -aif{_ lat]5 x] d]/f] dg r]t u/

O{Zj/n] /Iff u/]5g\ k|e'sf] wGojfb u/ .

@o; ;ftf -jif{_ slt lyP ladf/ / slt d/]5g\

z}tfgb]lv slt 8/fO{ b'i6 cfTdf k'h]5g\ .

#dnfO{ t h'¥of] cflTds 1fg, z/L/sf] ;'v / cf9

w]/ /f]6L, j:q, dLt, 7]ufg 7Ls vf“rf] g} cg';f/ .

$o; ;ftfsf -jif{sf_ ;a kfk ck/fw x] O{Zj/ dfkm ugf]{;\

7ls wd{ ug'{5 c;fWo cg'u|x bfg lbgf];\ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$^&=

!ck{0f ub{5f} of] ejgnfO{ k|e' O{Zj/nfO{ qf0fstf{ o]z"nfO{

cf/fwgf :t'lt laGtL / k'sf/ u5f}{ oxf“ ca cGt/Wofg .

sf]M ;'lglbgf];\ k'sf/ of] xfd|f] k|e' lng'xf];\ ejg of] -@_

@ef]sf–Kof;f x[bo, :juL{o ef]hgsf] aGwg 8f]/L kfk}sf]

r/0f oxf“ tkfO{sf] pkb]zs tkfO{sf] bf;åf/f lbg'xf]; ef]hg cfTdfsf] .

#ehgflb :t'lt ch{laGtL oxf“ r9fOG5g\ ha tkfO{sxf“ ;'lglbgf];\ v|Li6 o]z"df

ljgo pQ/ kfcf];\ dg zflGt /xf];\ o]z" gfp“ ;bf dlxldt xf];\ .

$k|lt?k xf] of] dg dlGb/sf] sf/Lu/L of] dflgPsf] k|e' lghL{j ejg of]

t} dhL{ xf]cf]; k|e' cfO{ a;L ;'gf}nf dw'/jf0fL tkfO{sf] .

%lgTo–lgTo anf];\ rDsL g} /xf];\ k|sflzt xf]cf];\ o]z" ;b\efjgf of] 5 hxf“

e/k"/ hLjg tof/L ;bf kfg'{xf];\ cfp“5 hf] oxf“ ;bf .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$^*=

!lal;{G5f} s;/L kf]xf]/sf] ;fn

of] 38L dfGb} lyof} gof“ ;fn o;/L

olt rf“8} Tof] ;fn laTof] cfh klg

zlQm 5}g Tof] ;fnnfO{ yfDg] Ps kn klg .

sf]M ;do 5 ;do, 5 eGb} lyof} yfxf geO{ Tof] ;fn laltuof]

ca Tof] ;fnnfO{ labf u/f} / ca kl;hfpm“ xfdL gof“ ;fn of]

gof“ ;fnel/ lx8\gnfO{ O{Zj/sf] cu'jfOdf

@wGojfb r9fpg ;a bfgsf] nflu

O{Zj/nfO{ u/f} hLjg ck{0f pgnfO{

lnO{ pgsf] ;fydf a;L pgsf] cf8df

of] ;fn dfq xf]Og of] hLjg nufpm pgs} lhDdfdf .

#ca labf n]pm x] lk|ox¿ ub}{ z'esfdgf gof“ ;fnsf]

e]6\5f} ls e]6\b}gf} km]l/ gof“ ;fndf

e]6f}nf slxn] g5'6\g] u/L

Tof] cgGt 3/df .


469 o z af nfpf g s n g

469= o]z" af]nfpF%g\ :s]n G

o]z" af]nfp“5g\ ;anfO{ -@_, k|]d;fy af]nfp“5g\

c·nf]df pgsf] o]z" af]nfp“5g\ ;anfO{

!Xbo ltd|f] xtfz eP zlQm 5 ltd|f]nflu -@_

d'lQm / Hof]lt ltd|}nflu o]z"sxf“ lng cfpm cfh -@_

@;a /f]unfO{ lgsf] kfg]{ zlQm 5 pgLsxf“ -@_

tTk/ 5g\ ltd|f] d'lQmbftf Kof/ ug{ ;wF} ltdLnfO{ -@_


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$&)=

sf]M o]z" k|e' cfpm xfd|f] dfemdf hLjg d]/f] n]pm ltd|f] xftdf

cf]7sf] xf]Og of] eQm x[bosf] xf] of] k'sf/ . cf ===

!ofqf d]/f] b'O lbgsf], ;f; d]/f] l5ge/sf] -@_

r"k nfu" s;/L < uLt gufpm“ s;/L <

olt 7"nf] d'lQmdf g/dfpm“ s;/L <

@jrg ltd|f] k9]/ k|fy{gf ;w} u/]/ -@_

cf/fwgfsf] lhGbuL d]/f] latf];\ o;/L

cGwsf/df h"gem} rDsf];\ ;fIfL To;/L .


471 x g x g x g s n c

471= x]/g x]/g x]/g:s]n C

x]/g, x]/g, x]/g snj/Lsf] Tof] 8f“8fnfO{

dxfg k|]d ug'{ef] o]z"n] x]/g, x]/g bfHo"–efO -@_

!kfkLsf] kfknfO{ d]6fpg qm";df dg'{ef] o]z"hL -@_

ljZjf; u/g–u/g qm";}df 6f“luPsf] o]z"nfO{ -@_

@cfpg]5g\ ;+;f/df o]z"hL ljZjf;Lx¿nfO{ p7fpg -@_

hfgnfO{ tof/ xf]pm bfHo"–efO, cfgGbsf] Tof] b]z}df -@_


472 v li sxff cfpm s n c a

472= v|Li^sxfF cfpm:s]n C(A)

v|Li6sxf“ cfpm, ;fyL o]z"sxf“ cfpm ;fyL

hLjgsf] hn lng cfˆgf] Kof; d]l6lng

!hLjgsf] hn pg} x'g\ o'u–o'u t[lKt lbg] -@_, pgnfO{ olb lkof} eg]

ltdL slxNo} Kof;f aGb}gf} o'uffg'o'u;Dd g} .

@hLjgsf] af6f] pg} x'g\ :ju{ /fHodf k'¥ofOlbg] -@_, pgnfO{ olb r'Gof} eg]

lktfsxf“ lgZro k'Ug] 5f} o'ufg'o'u /fGo ug{nfO{ .

#hLjgsf] /f]6L pg} x'g\ ef]sf] dgnfO{ t[lKt lbg] -@_, pgnfO{ ltdL vfof} eg]

ltdL slxNo} ef]sf aGb}gf} o'ufg'o'u';DdnfO{ .

$Pp6f dfq} 9f]sf pg} x'g\ :ju{/fHodf k|j]z ug{nfO{ -@_, oxL af6f] k:of} eg]

lgZro ltdL :ju{ k'Ug]5f} c;Ld ;'vsf] efuL x'gnfO{ .

%Pp6f dfq ;To o]z" x'g\ ;f/f husf] p4f/ ug{nfO{ -@_, olb pgnfO{ ckgfof} eg]

cgGt b08af6 pDsG5f} pgL;“u ;bf /xg]5f} .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$&#=

sf]M cfpg]5g\ -$_ laxfgLsf] tf/fn] cWof/f] x6fpg]5g\

!xfd|f] k|ltIff k'/f x'g]ef] v|Li6sf] k|lt1f ;f“rf] x'g]ef] -@_

x'g] ef] -#_ cfpg]5g\ -@_ dnfO{ lng cfpg]5g\ .

@lz/ p7fO{ dfly x]/ ltd|f] 5'6sf/f ghLs cfsf] 5 -@_

cfsf] 5 -#_ cfpg]5g\ -@_ dnfO{ lng cfpg]5g\ .


474 f f li sf dflns s n g

474= ;f/f ;[li^sf] dflns :s]n G

-x x x xNn]n"ofx, cfldg_

;f/f ;[li6sf] dflns tkfO+{nfO{, ;f/f ;[li6sf] /Ifs tkfO{+nfO{

xfd\f] x[bo ;d]tn] cfb/–k|f0ffd, ;b}j xf];\ tkfO{sf] u'0fufg

x x x xNn]n"ofx -&_ cfldg

!-;a ;+;f/ 6n]/ hfg]5, 6Ng] 5}g tkfO{sf] jrg

lat]/ hfg]5 of] hLjg, t/ ljZjf;L db}{g slxn]_ @

@-gofF ;+;f/ / :ju{ x'g]5, ljZjf; ug]{ ;a}sf] lglDt]

k|z+;f cfb/ x'g]5 ToxfF, xfd|f k/d k|]dL lktfnfO{_ @


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$&%=

sf]M ljZjf; u/L k|e'sf] r/0fdf cfpm

cfkm\gf e"nnfO{ :jLsf/L pgdf Ifdf kfpg

pgL cfP ;+;f/df arfpg xfdL ;a}nfO{

s]jn pgdf 5 d'lQm pgL x'g\ ;f“rf] uf]7fnf]

!snj/L 8f“8fdf o]z"nfO{ em'l08Psf] cfh x]l/b]pm

s]jn ltd|} lglDt dfq pgn] cfkm\gf] k|f0f;Dd lbP -@_

@pgs]f k|]dL af]nfj6 ;'lgb]pm cfkm\gf] x[bo pgnfO{ vf]lnb]pm

pgL cfpg]5g\ ltdLleq lbgnfO{ cgGt hLjg -@_


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$&^=

!o]z" k\e' ;a ;[li6n] ;'gfp“5

pgsf] zlQmn] of] k[YjL agfPYof]

o]z" k|e' o; hutn] b]vfp“5

3fd, tf/f, h"g atfp“5g\ ls v|Li6 x'g\ k|e' .

sf]M o]z" k|e' -@_, ufcf} :t'lt

ufcf] xNn]n"ofx ls v|Li6 x'g\ k|e'

@o]z" k|e' eP klg

:ju{ TofuL dflg; eO{ dg{ cfP >flkt qm";df

o]z" k|e' hLjgbftf ePklg

kfkb08 lt/L lsg] xfd\f] 5'6sf/f .

#o]z" k|e" p7L ljh]tf eP

xl6uof] ca xfd|f] kfk / d[To"

o]z" k|e'n] cfTdfnfO{ k7fP

an–zlQmn] b]vfpg ls v|Li6 x'g\ k|e' .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$&&=

sf]M hLjgel/ g} ufpg] xf] uLtx¿df eg] xf] o]z" g} x'g\ k|e' -@_

!;f; x'g] ;a} k|f0fLn] u/ k|z+;f k/d]Zj/sf]

em08fpg] cfkm}nfO{ qm";df /ut axfO{ o]z" g} x'g\ k|e' -@_

@eg–eg k|e' o]z"nfO{ d]/f] x[bosf /fhf x'g\

:ju{ / k[YjLsf ;a} 3'“8f 6]s o;f] eGb} o]z" g} x'g\ k|e' -@_


478 x bfh s n d

478= x]/ bfh}:s]n D

x]/ bfh} -@_ d'lQmsf] lbg cfof]

o]z"dfly elQm /fvL Wofg /fvL lbg /dfpg] nf} cfof]

!uf]7fnf] hgn] k|e' xf] afns eg]/ hflglnP

a]yn]x]d uf]7df r/0f k/L cjtf/ xf] dflglnP .

va/ k'/fgf] b"tu0fn] Nofsf] s'/f of] ;f“rf]

ljZjf; u/L o]z"nfO{ lng' ;a}sf] vf“rf] xf] .

@;a}n] dfu] lnP/ efu] ltdL / d l/Qf]

sd{sf] rqm wd{sf] lkmqmL h'gL g} ef] tLtf]

cfkm}nfO{ lbg o]z" g} dfq w/tLdf xf] cfpg]

oxL xf] a]nf eh]/ o]z" dgdf af]nfpg] .

#;f/f e"nf]ssf] dflns x'g\ o]z" a'em\g] of] 1fg lbP

uf]7df n8] qm";df r9] cfºg} Tof] Hofg lbP

x6fpg sfnf] kfksf] d}nf] cw]/L hutsf]

au]/ cfof] pn]{/ cfof] vf]nf Tof] /utsf] .


479 xfd f of hljg s n d

479= xfd|f] of] hLjg:s]nD

xfd|f] of] hLjg #fd%fofF dfq xf]

xfd|f] of] hLjg au]sf] vf]nf xf]

kms]{/ cfpFb}g lat]sf] hLjg of]

/f]P/ lkmb}{g uPsf] of}jg of]

!= ldn]/–h'n]/ ;a}n] hohosf/ dgfcf}+

xfF;]/ ufP/ ;a}n] k|e'sf] jrg ;'gfcf}+ .

@= cfhnfO{ clg ef]lnnfO{ :ju{sf] dfu{ agfcf}+

;DemfpFb}–a'emfpFb} c?nfO{ k|e'sf] jrg ;'gfcf}+ .


480 xff v n ub s n c

480= xfF; v]n ub}{:s]n C

xfF;–v]n ub}{ elgb]pm ;+;f/ ;a}nfO{

w/tLsf] af]em p7fOnfg] hlGdP d'lQmbftf

dflg;sf] rf]nf lnP/ u/La uf]7}df -@_

!uf]7fnfx¿nfO{ klxn] bz{g k7fP lktfn] -@_

b"tu0f cfO{ eGg nfu] ;fFemsf] a]nfdf

tf/0fxf/ k|e' hlGdP bfpbsf] zx/df -@_

uO{ x]/ ltd|f] k|e'nfO{ klxn] gh/df -@_

@k"j{sf] 1fgL Hof]ltifL cfsfz x]/]/ aft uy]{ -@_

;fFemsf] gf}nf] tf/f b]vL xif{n] /dfP

/fhfx¿sf /fhf hGd]sf] kQf] nufP -@_

k/dlktfnfO{ dg vf]nL wGojfb r9fP -@_


481 afbndf km l s n g

481= afbndf km]l/:s]n G

afbndf km]l/ cfpg]5g\ o]z" /fhf

oxL cfzfdf xf“l;b]pm, cf“;'nfO{ yfldb]pm

!ltdLn] d'6' af“w]/ sf/fuf/x¿df kv]{sf 5f}

ltdLn] lgGbf rf]6x¿ pgsf] lglDt eg]/ vk]sf 5f}

;fyL–;dfh 5'6]/ hfbf cfsfzdf pgnfO{ s'/]sf 5f} -@_

lgZro g} k|e' cfpg]5g\ ToxL cfsfzdf

ltd|f] wL/hnfO{ gx/fpm s]xL a]/ klv{b]pm .

@ltd|f] gfp“nfO{ klg pgn] hLjgsf] lstfadf n]v]sf 5g\

ltd|f] 7fp“ pgn] cfXgf] 3/df cgGt;DdnfO{ tf]s]sf 5g\

ltd|f] Xbo b'Mlvt gagf];\ pgsf] jrg ;w}F ofb u/ -@_


482 o z wgojfb s n am

482= o]z" wGojfb:s]n Am

o]z" wGojfb d}n] k'Hg'kb}{g

g cfsfz g k[YjLsf cfs[ltx¿

ltdLn] lrgfOlbof} ;f“rf] k/d]Zj/nfO{

o]z" wGojfb .

!kxf8, gbL, h·n / afbn ltd|} ;[li6 xf] -@_

s;/L k'hF" d}n] ltd|f xftsf /rgfx¿ <

ltdLn] atfOlbof} cflb–cGt ltdL g} xf} .

@tf]8F" slt d]/f] hLjgnfO{ d'lQmsf] vf]hLdf -@_

k'0o u/] eG5' 5}g zflGt d]/f] cfTdfdf

ltdLn] b]vfOlbof} af6f] ;To / hLjg .


483 x f f k yjlsf s n g

483= x] ;f/f k[YjLsf:s]n G

x] ;f/f k[YjLsf dflg; xf], k/dk|e'sf] hohosf/ dgfcf}+

cfgGb;fy pgsf] ;]jf u/, ehg ufP/ pgsf] ;fdg] cfcf]

!k/dk|e' g} k/d]Zj/ x'g\, pxfFn] xfdLnfO{ agfpg'eof] -@_

xfdL pxfFsf k|hf clg pxfFsf vs{sf e]8fx¿ xf}+ -@_

@wGojfb;fy / k|z+;f ub}{ pxfFsf] 9f]sf / rf]sleq k; -@_

pxfFnfO{ wGojfb r9fcf+} pxfFsf] gfpFnfO{ wGosf] eg -@_

#k/dk|e' enf] x'g'x'G5, pxfFsf] s[kf ;w+}el/ 5 -@_

clg pxfFsf] ;Totf k':tf};Dd l:y/ /xG5 -@_


484 affwg lsg s n d

484= afFWg ;lsg]%:s]n D

!af“Wg ;lsg]5 8f“6\g ;lsg]5 eufpg ;lsg]5

o]z"sf] gfp“df /utsf] b'xfO{n]

z}tfg / To;sf] ;]gfsf] xf/ lglZrt 5 .

@;f·nf erfpg]5g aGwg ;a km'sfpg]5g\ cfºgf]nfO{ 5'6fpg]5g\

gf;/tsf] o]z"n] cfºgf] ToxL zlQmdf

z}tfg / To;sf] ;]gfnfO{ b"/ eufpg]5g\ .

#o]z"sf] gfp“df -#_ /utsf] b'xfO{n] -@_

z}tfg / To;sf] ;]gfsf] xf/ lglZrt 5 .


485 snj l ff fsf s n d

485= snj/L *fF*fsf] :s]n D

snj/L 8f“8fsf] qm";}df o]z"n] cfkm\gf] k|f0f lbP

ltd|f] / d]/f] kfk w'g rf]6 ;xL /ut aufP -@_

!g7fg pgL s]jn d/] af}/]/ km]l/ klg p7]

/f]Sg ;s]g lrxfgn] lhtg ;s]g d[To"n] -@_

@d[To" / kfksf] 8/ 5}g ljZjf; u/ o]z"df

:ju{sf] af6f] o]z" g} xf], ;'lDkb]pm hLjg pg}df -@_


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$*^=

!of] ;'gfcf} lsg o]z"n] u\x0f u5{g kfkLnfO{

:juL{o dfu{df n8\g] af6f] e'Ng] ofqLnfO{

sf]M xfdL ufcf} lg/Gt/ ufcf} kfkLnfO{ u|x0f u5{g

;';dfrf/ k|i6 ;'gfcf{ o]z"n] arfp“b5g\

@v|Li6sf] jrg ckgfO{ cf/fd kfp“5f} xfdLn]

;a}eGbf b'i6nfO{ u|x0f u5{g o]z"n] .

#dnfO{ v|Li6n] z'4 kf/L C0f r'sfP Joj:yfsf]

ca 7xl/G5' lgbf]{if ;fd'Gg]df k/d]Zj/sf] .

$o]z"n] u5{g u|x0f kfkL ;a dnfO{ klg

:ju{ hfG5' pgsxf“ z'4 eO{ kfkLb]lv .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$*&=

!v'zLsf] lbg, h;df d}n] o]z"dfly /fv] ljZjf;

;a}nfO{ lsg g;'gfpm 5 d]/f] dgdf ;'v–ljnf; .

sf]M v'zLsf] lbg, v'zLsf] lbg o]z"n] kfk ;a d]6fP

cfgGb k|fy{gf ub}{ hfpm“ eg]/ dnfO{ l;sfP

v'zLsf] lbg v'zLsf] lbg o]z"n] kfk ;a d]6fP

@dxfg\ ;f6km]/ k"/f eof] d k|e'sf] pgL d]/f

dnfO{ tfg] :j/n] dL7f] / kl5 nfu] o]z"sf] .

#r'na'n] dg km]l/;Sof] kfP5' o]z"df zflGt

k|e'b]lv hfGg 6f9f] ;a c;n yf]s lbG5g\ pgL .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$**=

!x] k/d]Zj/ v'zL of] dgdf lnP/ dfUb5f} ;a} ldn]/

o]z"sf] cfb/ ug]{ of] 3/ agf];\ tkfO{nfO{ dgkg]{ .

sf]M v'zL of] dgdf lnP/ dfUb5f} ;a} ldn]/

o]z"sf] cfb/ ug]{ of] 3/ agf];\ tkfO{nfO{ dgkg]{

@x] o]z" k|e' sfdgf / e]6L xfd|f] aGg]5 kl5 k'/fgf] -@_

bDklQsf] lz/dfly cflzif\ b]pm ltd|} xft /fvL .

#x] kljq cfTdf ltd|f] jf; ;w} /xf];\ of] 5fgf]d'lg zflGt e/]/ -@_

3fd–5fof / b'Mv–;'vdf k|To]s lbg} 8f]/fP/ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$*(=

!k|an k/fqmdL, gd| / k|]dsf] wgL

u'? pgL x'g\ xfd|f, :j?k g} k/d]Zj/sf]] .

sf]M xfdLdf eg]{ of] k|f0f kljq cfTdf 7"nf] j/bfg

lbg] of] hf]z, cfgGb, ;fx;, /f]Kg]–5g]{ a9fpg] ljZjf;

@u5{ aofg a9fO{ k|e' v|Li6sf] ;a yf]s x6fO{

tNnLg x'g]5 pgdf hf] :ju{ a'em\g;Sg] dflg; xf] .

#;'t]sfnfO{ hufpg] kL/ b'Mv Tof] eufpg]

;a}n] Tofu]sf] hgnfO{ a'lemlbg] cem 5]p cfO{ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$()=

!lktf bofn' labf kfcf} cflzif\ ;a kfO{ 3/df hfcf}

e"n–r"s dfkm lbgf];\ hf] u¥of} pkb]zn] dgdf z'4 xf]cf} .

@5f} kfkL xfdL cg]s af/ t}klg bof 5 ckf/

;]jfnfO{ d~h'/ ug'{xf];\ s'znsf] labf ;anfO{ xf];\ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$(!=

sf]M ufpg ;a}n] k|e'sf] :t'lt ldn]/ ;a} ;[li6 -@_

xNn]n"ofx, ldn]/ ;a} ;[li6

nf} eg ;an] ho xNn]n"ofx lhOp7] o]z" v|Li6

!d[To"sf] aGwg tf]8]/ pxf“n] lrxfgnfO{ 5f]8\g'ef] -@_

hojGt k|e' hf] cfh xfd|f] qf0fstf{ x'g'eof] xNn]n"ofx qf0fstf{ x'g'ef] .

@d[To"sf] eon] /fHon] /fHo ug]{ 5}g o]z" d;Lx ldq -@_

x'g'xG5 xfd|f] tf/0fxf/ ;'gg x] ldq xNn]n"ofx ;'gg x'g'ef] .


492 dlxdfsf k e s n c

492= dlxdfsf] k|e' :s]n C

!dlxdfsf] k|e' el//x]sf pHofnf]df ;w} al;/xg]

dfG5]sf] aLrdf hGd lnP km]l/ o]z" ;+;f/df cfpg]5g\

-o]z" cfpg]5g\_ @ km]l/ o]z" ;+;f/df cfpg]5g\

dfG5]sf] aLrdf hGd lnP km]l/ o]z" ;+;f/df cfpg]5g\ .

@k[YjL, cfsfzdf c6g ;s]g hf] dlGb/df tkfO+{ a:g c;Dej

bLg eO{ uf]7df hGd lng' ef] xfd|f] dgdf tkfO+{sf] dlGb/ agfpgf];\

o]z" dlGb/ agfpgf];\ -@_ xfd|f] dgdf tkfO{sf] dlGb/ agfpgf];\

bLg eO{ uf]7df hGd lng'ef] xfd|f] dgdf tkfO{+sf] dlGb/ agfpgf];\ .

#bflgPnsf] k|fy{gf tkfO{+n] ;'Gg'ef] Ph|fnfO{ klg uf]xf/ lbg'ef]

afa]ndf hfu[lt k7fpg'ef] cfºgf hgnfO{ km]l/ d'lQm lbgf];\

o]z" d'lQm lbgf];\ -@_ cfºgf hgnfO{ km]l/ d'lQm lbgf];\

afa]ndf hfu[lt k7fpg'ef] cfºgf hgnfO{ km]l/ d'lQm lbgf];\ .

$tDa"df cfP/ bz{g lbgf];\ cfkm"sxf“ dfG5]x¿nfO{ kmsf{pgf];\

b]vfpg'xf];\ cfuf] / afbndf km]l/ o]z" cfºgf] zlQm b]vfpgf];\

o]z" zlQm b]vfpgf];\ -@_ km]l/ o]z" cfºgf] zlQm b]vfpgf];\

b]vfpg'xf];\ cfuf] / afbndf km]l/ o]z" cfºgf] zlQm b]vfpgf];\ .

%xfdLx¿sf] /fhf tkfO+{ g} d'lQm lbg;Sg] tkfO{+ dfq

;+;f/df km]l/ k|e' cfpg'x'g]5 Kof/f] k|e' o]z" l5ट्टै cfpg'xf];\

o]z" l5ट्टै cfpg'xf];\ -@_ Kof/f] k|e' o]z" l5ट्टै cfpg'xf];\

;+;f/df km]l/ k|e' cfpg'x'g]5 Kof/f] k|e' o]z" l5ट्टै cfpg'xf];\ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$(#=

!vf“rf] 5 hlt x] d]/f] ldq eg v|Li6 o]z"nfO{

h'/fpg'x'G5 xfd|f] k|e'n] e/k"/ ;a} u/fO{ -@_

pxf“sf] nflu ltd|f] / d]/f] clt ax'd"No 5 k|f0f

o;}n] ;a} TofuL pxf“n] ug'{ef] xfd|f] qf0f -@_

@;dk{0f u/ ltd|f] hLjgnfO{ o]z"sf] xft}df

e/f];f klg pxf“dfly /fv hf] xfd|f] ;fy}df -@_

ug'{x'g]5 x[bosf] OR5f xfd|f] k|e'n] k"0f{

k"/f] xf];\ OR5f k|e' o]z"sf] d]/f] xf];\ ;a r"0f{ .


494 gg xf l d sl s n f g

494= ;'Gg'xf];\ l%d]sL:s]n F(G)

;'Gg'xf];\ l5d]sL xfd|f] of] b'lgof“df sf] xf]nf ;'Gg'xf];\ -@_

!Ps k|f}9 ofqL o¿zn]db]lv hfFb}Yof] h]l/sf]

hf“bf x} hf“bf af6f]df k/] xftdf 8f“s"sf] .

@cwd/f] kf/L n'[6kf6 kf/] h+undf ºofFlsof]

cfkb\sf] kbf{ sf]xL lyPg To;sf] ;';f/]–uf]xf/ .

#Tof] af6f] Pp6f k'hf/L uof] x]/]/ tls{of]

d x'“ k'hf/L sbflk 5'Gg ;Dem]/ 8/fof] .

$k'hf/L uOuf] ta n]jL cfof] Tof] af6f] eP/

8/n] cf“vf tsf{O{ p;} zx/df efluuf] .

%cGt}df ;fd/L hft}sf] t'R5 cfP/ l67fof]

dnxd–kट्टL 3fpdf af“wL uwfdf r9fof] .

^;/fodf nu] :of/–;';f/ u/] v6f{ :ofxf/]

l5d]sL sf] x'g\ egg To;sf] si6df uf]xf/] .

&o]z" x'g\ xfd|f ;b}j l5d]sL si6df :ofxfg]{

kfksf] 3fpdf cf}iflw af“wL :ju{ k'¥ofpg] .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$(%=

!cdf]n /ut o]z" v|Li6sf] lbP snj/Ldf

kfkLx¿ / ljb|f]xL cfpm ;a pgLsxf“ .

sf]M cdf]n–cdf]n ut pgsf] w]/} g} ax]sf]

u/ ljZjf; clg u\x0f lgDtf] pgsf]

@cdf]n /utn] o]z"sf] lgsf] kfb{5

ltd|f] k|f0fnfO{ ;kmf ub}{ clxn] kvfN5 .

#cdf]n /ut h;n] xfdL n8fO{df lhT5f}

kfk, z}tfg, b'i6dfly ;fdy{ /utn] .

$cdf]n /utn] k|e'sf] k'U5f} O{Zj/sxf“

af6f] xfd|f] dlxdfsf] cdf]n /utn] .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$(^=

sf]M k|e'hLsf] hohosf/ xf]O/xf];\ o]z"hLsf] hohosf/ xf]O/xf];\

!>flkt hut\df cjtf/ lnO{ cfP b'Mv p7fO{ cf1fsf/L eP -@_

lgisn° /Qm axfO{ -@_ kfkLnfO{ p4f/ u/fP .

@e'ln/x]Yof} kfkL hut\df latfof} hLjg k|ltlbg kfkdf -@_

c;xgLo b'Mv p7fO{ -@_ arfpg'ef] ;dodf .

#dw'/ :j/n] af]nfpg'x'b}5 h;–hl;n] pgsf] k'sf/ ;'G5g\ -@_

cd/ hLjg kfpg]5g\ -@_ O{Zj/sf ;Gtfg x'g]5g\ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$(&=

!lj:t[t / ulx/f] cem ulx/f] ;fu/eGbf

Kof/ 5 d'lQmbftf v|Li6sf] cgGt cgGt sfn;Dd -@_

@t/ kfk d]/f 5g\ cg]s s] 5 Kof/ pgsf] dxfg\ <

cg'u|x ;a kfksf] nflu Ifdf lbg] /fVg] k|f0f -@_

#d]6\g ;S5g\ ltvf{ ;w} s] cfTdfn] lbG5 an <

hLjg hn lknfp“5g\ pgn] x[bob]lv aU5 en -@_


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$(*=

sf]M d'lQmbftf o]z" gfp“ eg dgn] pgsf] gfp“

!o]z" gfp“, o]z" gfp“ -@_, o]z" gfp“, efO, o]z" gfp“ .

@cflb gfp“, cGt gfp“ -@_, >]i7 gfp“, efO, o]z" gfp“ .

#o]z" gfp“, ;f“rf] gfp“ -@_, d'lQm n]pm, efO, o]z" gfp“ .

$o]z" gfp“, :juL{o gfp“ -@_, :juL{o hLjg o]z" gfp“ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

$((=

sf]M s;/L r9\of], s;/L d¥of] snj/L qm";}df -@_

!lktfsf] k|]dnfO{ k|df0f ug{ :ju{nf]s 5f]8\g'ef]

xfdL kfkLnfO{ arfpg egL hLjg lbg'ef] .

@qm";}df r9L /ut axfO{ kfk gi6 ug'{ef]

kfk / >fk gi6 u/]/ d'lQmnfO{ Nofpg'ef] .

#wGo xf];\ ltd|f] x] d'lQmbftf / u'0ffg'jfb xf];\

hohosf/ ltd|f] k|z+;f ltd|f] cgGt xf]O/xf];\ .


500 g kfn xfd f hgde ld s n d7

500= g]kfn xfd|f] hgde"ld:s]n D7

g]kfn xfd|f] hGd e"le, g]kfn xfd|f] hGd e"ld

b]z–ljb]z 3'd] tfklg g]kfn xfd|f] hGd e"ld

!rf/} lbgsf] lhGbuLdf e'ln/xØf} cfh -@_

s;sf] /xØf] 3/–åf/, s;sf] /xØf] /fh -@_

@;gftgsf] rf]nf 5f]8L b'lgofFsf] e]if -@_

b'lgofFsf] e]if lnO{ e'NofF} :ju{ b]z -@_

#;+;f/sf] ahf/df afx|df;] d]nf -@_

hGd lbP O{Zj/n] k¥of] sfnsf] km]nf -@_

$aQL b]Vbf k'tnLn] Hofg};Dd kmfN5 -@_

o]z"nfO{ e'NofF} eg] kfkn] g/s xfN5 -@_

%;+;f/df lemlnldln slt /fd|f 3/ -@_

o; hLjgdf d'lQm kfpF5fF} o]z"nfO{ x]/ -@_


501 l xf gdf lj fhdfg s n e

501= l;+xf;gdf lj/fhdfg :s]n E

l;+xf;gdf lj/fhdfg\ x'g], k/d]Zj/sf] k|hf xfdL

cfpm pgnfO{ k'hf} elQm;fy, slxn] 5f]8\g] 5}gg xfd|f] xft -@_

!pxf“sf] /utn] wf]O{ kvfn]sf] kljq hflt

cfb/, k|z+;fof]Uo k/d]Zj/sf] k"hfxf/L xfdL

;gftgb]lv ;gftg;Dd, cfpm pgnfO{ k'hfF} elQm;fy

slxn] 5f]8\g] 5}gg xfd|f] xft .

@em/L–3fd / 5fofsf] ;fdgf u/f} xfdL

;a} gof“ ePsf] :jb]zdf hfg] 5f} xfdL

afbnkfl/sf] pgsf] b]z, cfpm pgnfO{ k'hf} elQm;fy

slxn] 5f]8\g] 5}gg xfd|f] xft .


502 x g x s n d

502= x]/g x]/:s]n D

x]/g x]/ ;[li6sf] ;'Gb/tf, o;nfO{ agfpg] k|e'sf] dxfgtf

wgL / u/La b'j} ldn]/, eGg ;S5g\ ‘k|e' wGojfb‘

!v]tsf cfnLx¿, cGg / afnx¿, afbn, j[li6 / atf;x¿ -@_

r/f–r'?·L p8\b} dfly cfsfz 5'bf -@_

:ju{ g} k'uL lbG5 dg d]/f] .

@cgf}7f aftx¿, hLjhLjftx¿, pHofnf lbg clg /ftx¿ -@_

c;+Vo hfltx¿ ljleGg /Ltx¿ -@_

pb]sn] el/G5 of] dg d]/f] .

u/g u/ O{Zj/sf] k|z+;f, ;Dk"0f{ Åbon] pkf;gf

dfG5]–dfG5]sf] ;a} leGgtf, d]l6of] x]/ pgsf] cf“ugdf .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

%)#=

sf]M qm";sf] 5]pdf /fVg'xf];\, hxf“ d'lQmsf] wf/f 5

hxf“ kfksf] k|folZrt 5, hxf“ kL8fsf] cGt 5

qm";sf] 5]pdf /fVg'xf];\ ===

-tkfO{sf] wGo dfGg]5', ;bf d wGo dfGg]5'

tkfO{sf] cfudg;Dd ;bf d wGo dfGg]5'_ @

qm";sf] 5]pdf ha x'g]5' s[kf k|e' dnfO{ ug'{xf];\

qm";sf] 5]pdf ha x'g]5' === .


504 d n lgzro u sf s n e

504= d}n] lgZro u/]sf] %' :s]n E

d}n] lgZro u/]sf] 5' /dfpg o]z"df

-d}n] lgZro u/]sf] 5' ljZjf; ug{ pg}df_ @

!-rfx] bfvsf] af]6df s'g} km"n gkm'nf];\

rfx] d]/f] hLjgdf s'g} ;'wf/ gxf];\_ @

@-rfx] xf“:g k/f];\, rfx] ?g k/f];\

rfx] af“Rg k/f];\, rfx] dg{ k/f];\_ @

#-rfx] vf“rf] k/f];\, rfx] k|z:t xf];\

rfx] d]/f] hLjgdf s'g} ;'wf/ gxf];\_ @

$-k/dk|e' g} d]/f ;xf/f x'g\

k/dk\e' g} d]/f] hLjgsf] Hof]lt x'g\_ @


505 dlxdf dfl psf s n dm

505= dlxdf dfl/Psf]:s]n Dm

dlxdf dfl/Psf] y'dfnfO{, k|z+;f k|e'x¿sf k|e'nfO{

hohosf/ /fhfx¿sf /fhfnfO{ -@_

!wGojfb, :t'lt, cfb/ / elQm

dfl/Psf y'dfnfO{ clt -@_

-OHht, dfg, j}ej / zlQm_ @

clt -kljq_ #, O{Zj/k|lt, O{Zj/k|lt,

@xf];Ggf cfldg, uf}/j / uLlt

dfl/Psf y'dfnfO{ clt -@_

-k|0ffd\, 9f]u, b08jt\, b[li6_ @

Nofp“5f} -ljhoL_ #, O{Zj/k|lt, O{Zj/k|lt,


506 lzv x s n b

506= lzv/x?:s]n B

lzv/x¿ lxp“n] 9fs]em}, of] e"ldnfO{ jrgn] 9fSg}k5{

lsgf/x¿ afn'jfn] 9fs]em}, of] k':tfnfO{ o]z" lrgfpg}k5{ -@_

!-lg/fz 5g\ kxf8df ;fOnf–dfOnfx¿

czfGt 5g\ t/fO{df ;fgL–7"nLx¿_ @

rf}af6f]df ;a}hgf af6f] vf]lh/x]5g\

-o]z" gkfO{ dfG5]x¿ d[To" klv{/x]5g\_ @

@-/f]Psf 5g\ zx/df 3/–3/fgfx¿,

e'n]sf 5g\ kfk}df xfd|f dflg;x¿_ @

bf]wf/df ;a}hgf cNdln/x]sf 5g\

-o]z" gkfO{ dfG5]x¿ d[To" klv{/x]5g\_ @


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

%)&=

sf]M xft km}nfO{ dfof u/]/ 8fS5g\ xfdLnfO{

eG5g\ o]z" /fhf ;'g ;a} gfgLnfO{

!hLjgsf] d's'6 ltd|} xf], cfpm yfKgnfO{

sf]xL g/f]s ;fgf afnsnfO{ -dsxf“ cfpgnfO{_ @

gfgL xfdL ;fgf 5f} k|e'sf nflu Kof/f 5f} @

of] ;fgf dgdf ;a} hLjgdf @

@k|e'sf] /fHo ;w} xf];\ pxf“sf] jf; eO/xf];\

cfsfzsf w]/} tf/fx¿ em} d}bfgsf ;a} km"nx¿ em} @

gfgL xfdL w]/}–w]/} 5f} @

k|e'sf] nflu Kof/f 5f}, pxf“s} eP/ lhpg]5f} @


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

%)*=

!k/dk|e' cl3 a9\b5g\

pgsf] ;]gf ;bf alnof] 5

pgsf] dlxdf o; b]zdfly b]lvg]5

:j/ prfNb} hosf] ufg ufcf}

:t'lt u/f} ljhoL ePsf 5f}

s'g} xft–xltof/ sfd nfUg] 5}g .

@xfdLx¿sf ;]gfklt o]z" x'g\

xfdL pgsf] kfOnf k5ofp“b5f}

sf]xL cl3 v8f x'g ;Sg]5}g

xfdL d;LxL ;]gf xf}

hosf] ;f“rf] pgsf] xftdf 5

k|lt1fsf] b]z lng cl3 a9f} .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

%)(=

!k|e' tkfO{sf] k|]dsf] pHofnf]

rlDs/x]5 hxf“ 5 cWof/f]

o]z" tkfO{sf] jrgsf] t]hn]

hLjg xfd|f] :jtGq u/fpgf];\ ddf rDsgf];\ .

sf]M rDsgf];\, rDsgf];\, o]z"

o; b]znfO{ lktfsf] dlxdfn] 9fSb} bGsfpgf];\ cfTdf

xfd|f] x[bodf cfuf] hnfp“b} aufpgf];\ gbL

o; b]zdf cg'u|x / bofsf] af9L k7fpgf];\ / oxf“ xf];\ pHofnf]

@k|e' d cfp“5' tkfO{sxf“, cGwsf/af6 pHofnf]df

tkfO{sf] /utn] dnfO{ leqofpgf];\

vf]Hgf];\ vfgf]{;, cGwsf/ x6fpgf];\

ddf rDsgf];\, ddf rDsgf];\ .

#ha x]5f}{ /fhsLo pHofnf]]

xfd|f] cg'xf/ x'G5 tkfO{sf] h:tf]

dlxdfaf6 dlxdfdf ablnG5f}

-xfd|f] hLjgn] tkfO{nfO{ lrgfp“5f}, ddf rDsgf];\_ @


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

%!)=

!cfsfzeGbf pRr–pRr 5 gfp“

;fu/eGbf ulx/f]–ulx/f] 5 k|]d

cf;dfgeGbf ljzfn–ljzfn cg'u|x 5

xfd|f] k|e' o]z"sf] .

sf]M -o;}n] u5f}{ k|z+;f ufp“5f} dlxdf pg} o]z"sf]_ @

@jfSon] JoQm gx'g] eGgnfO{ zAb gk'Ug] k|]d

cflbb]lv clxn];Dd ;don] ;fIfL lbPsf] k|]d

:ju{ 5f]8L cfpg'ef] qm";}df dg'{ef]

d[To"nfO{ lhTg'ef] xfdLnfO{ d'lQm lbgnfO{ .

#;f/f ;[li6n] 9f]Ug]5 ;a} 3'“8fx¿ 6]Sg]5g\

lga{n alnof] x'g]5 nf6f]n] k'sfg]{}5 Tof] gfp“

cGwf]n] b]Vg]5 alx/f]n] ;'Gg]5

d'bf{ lap“tg]5 pg}nfO{ dlxdf lbgnfO{ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

%!!=

!cf5'5'5' eof] lg hf8f] :j/ ;a}n] vf]nf} ;fx|f]

x'b}g s;}nfO{ ufpg ufx|f] hGd] uf]7df k|e' xfd|f] .

@u/La uf]7fnf bz{gdf cfP, o]z"nfO{ e]6L cf}wL /dfP -@_

kfk Ifdf hLjg kfP -@_, ;a}sf] nflu g} d'lQmbfg NofP .

#:ju{nfO{ 5f]8L hudf cfP, ?rfP u/La ufO{sf] uf]7 g} -@_

lbPgg\ s;}n] 7fp“ tkfO{nfO{ -@_, cfkm\g}n] nTofP xh'/nfO{ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

%!@=

!k|e' d cfp“5' d]/f] x[bo kl/jt{g ugf]{;\

tkfO{sf] Tof] cg'u|xn]

k|e' hfGb5' d]/f sdhf]/Lx¿

;a} x6\g]5g\ Tof] k|]dsf] zlQmn] .

sf]M c“ufNgf];\ tkfO{sf] k|]dn], 3]gf]{;\

ghLs NofO{ cfkm\gf] 5]pdf /fVgf];\

kv{G5' d rLnem} dfly p8\g

dnfO{ p8fpg'xf];\ tkfO{sf] cfTdfn]

Tof] k|]dsf] zlQmdf

@vf]Ngf];\ cf“vf b]Vg;s" k|]dsf] 1fg

h;} tkfO{ d leq jf; ug'{x'G5

gof“ ugf]{;\ x[bo cfkm\gf] of]hgfcg';f/

x/]s lbg lhp“bf] Tof] k|]dsf] zlQmdf .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

%!#=

!atf; rln/x]5 o; b]zaf6 eP/

:juL{o ;'uGw rln/x]5

yfxf 5}g sxf“af6 cfp“5 <

yfxf 5}g sxf“ hfG5 < t/ xfdLdf axG5,

xf] === xf] === xf] === Tof] atf; xfdLdfly auf];\ .

@j[li6 eO/x]5 jiff{ dflyaf6

k|]d / bofsf a'bx¿ al;{/x]5g\

:ju{lt/ cf“vf p7fpm Tof] jiff{ ePsf] x]g{

h;n] xfdLnfO{ lehfp“5

xf] === xf] === xf] === Tof] j[li6 xfdLdfly a;f]{;\ .

#cfuf] aln/x]5 hf] cfsfzaf6 em5{

cfuf]sf lha|fx¿ h;n] xfdLnfO{ hnfp“5g\

s] ltdL yfxf ug{ ;S5f} <

Tof] cfuf] aln/x]5 xfdLnfO{ z'4 ug{

xf] === xf] === xf] === Tof] cfuf] xfdLdfly a;f]{;\ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

%!$=

sf]M kljq cfTdf, xfdL :jfut u5f}{ /

!cfpgf];\ xfd|f] dfemdf kljq cfuf]em}

;f+;fl/s OR5f xfdL kG5fp“5f} h;}

x[boel/ cfzf lnO{ xft prfNb}

kljq cfTdf #, :jfut 5f} .

@tkfO{sf] pkl:ylt auf];\ atf;em}

tkfO{sf cfkm\g}x¿n] hfg"g\ lgZro g}

s;/L rNg' cfTdfsf] axfpd}

kljq cfTdf #, :jfut u5f}{ .

#laGtL 5 k"/f ug'{xf];\ cfh g}

cg'u|xsf] c;n sfd d]/f] hLjgdf g}

:jtGqtf;fy ug'{xf];\ sfd cfkm\g}

kljq cfTdf #, :jfut u5f}{ .


515 a hfltsf s n dm

515= ;a} hfltsf :s]n Dm

!;a} hfltsf k/d]Zj/, ;f/f k[YjL / :ju{sf] dflns

tkfO+{sf] gfp“ pRr kf5f}{, tkfO{+sf] zlQmsf] a9fO u5f}{ .

@;f/f ;+;f/n] o]z"nfO{ b]Vg'k5{

;f/f dflg;n] o]z"nfO{ lrGg'k5{ -@_

sf/0f tkfO{ dfq /fhf / k|e', Ps dfq k/d]Zj/ -@_

#;f/f hfltn] o]z"nfO{ lrGg]k5{

;f/f g]kfnLn] o]z"nfO{ kfpg'k5{ -@_

sf/0f tkfO{ dfq /fhf / k|e', Ps dfq k/d]Zj/ -@_


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

%!^=

sf]M dnfO{ tkfO{sf] vf“rf] 5 xft k|]dsf] a9fpg'xf];\

l;+xf;gaf6 cfpg'xf];\ gbL k|]dsf] axfpg'xf];\ x] o]z"

!tkfO{sf] pkl:yltdf 8f]¥ofpg'xf];\

d]/f] x[bo, cfTdf 5'g'xf];'\

gof“ cfzf, e/f];f, gof“ r·fO / d'lQm lbg'xf];\ .

@tkfO{sf] :jtGqtfleq nfg'xf];\

d]/f] x[bo, cfTdf km'sfpg'xdf];\

gof“ cfgGb / v'zL, gof“ prfO / zlQm eg'{xf];\ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

%!&=

sf]M x] k/d]Zj/ cfkm\gf] zlQm b]vfpg'xf];\

cl3 u/] em} cfkm\gf] zlQm km]l/ b]vfpg'xf];\

!k|z+;fn] klv{/x]5 tkfO{nfO{ k|e'

k|z+;f cfkm\gf] d08nLsf] .

@xif{sf] uLtnfO{ lgDTofpg] cfgGbsf] k|e'

dflg;sf] cfzf tkfO{ x'g'x'G5 .

#nfvf}–xhf/f} /yx¿df ;jf/ x'g] k|e'

kljq :yfgdf cfpg'xf];\ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

%!*=

sf]M Pp6} lktf, Pp6} ljZjf;, Pp6} cfTdf km]l/ s;/L 6'lqmP5f} < @

lktfsf] x[bo, cfpm gb'vfpm, o]z"sf] k|fy{gf k"/f u/f}

cfTdfnfO{ ;Gtfk ca gb]pm v|Li6sL b'nxL Ps agf} -@_

!k|e'sf] km;nsf] lglDt km'6sf] kvf{n tf]8f}

xfd|f] b]z, zx/sf] lglDt d08nLn] 3'“8f 6]sf}+ .

@oxL k':tf xf];\, k|e' tkfO{sf] /fHof Nofpg]

cfpm xfd|f] x[bonfO{ Roftf}, hfu[lt–rLTsf/ u/f} .


519 dxfg k enfo s n e

519= dxfg\ k|enfO{:s]n E

dxfg\ k|e'nfO{ dlxdf, k/dk|e'nfO{ k|z+;f

of] d]/f] hLjgsf] rfxgf -xNn]n"ofx xf];Ggf_ @

!jt{dfg d]/f] tkfO+{sf] xftdf,

eljio klg tkfO{+sf] ;fydf

-cfglGbt 5' zflGtdf 5' k|e'x¿sf k|e' k/dk|e'df_ @

@;jf{· d]/f] o]z"sf] xftdf ck{0f u5'{ wGojfb;“u

-lglZrGt 5' lgw{Ss 5' /fhfx¿sf /fhfdf o]z" k|e'df_


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

%@)=

!-tkfO{sf] jrg d]/f] v'§fsf] lglDt Hof]lt

/ d]/f] dfu{sf] lglDt pHofnf] xf]_ @

sf]M -sf/0f tkfO{sf] jrg ;gftg / cgGt 5

cfsfzdf Tof] ;bf l:y/ /xG5_ @

@-tkfO{sf] jrg d]/f] lha|f]sf] lglDt :jflbi6

d]/f] d'vdf dxeGbf klg clt dL7f] 5_ @


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

%@!=

sf]M -:t'lt xf];\ k/d]Zj/nfO{ cfh clg ;bfnfO{

hf] x'g'x'Gyof], x'g'x'G5 / x'g cfpg'x'g]5_ @

-x[bo vf]nL r9fp“5f} elQm, x] O{Zj/ tkfO{nfO{

ck{G5f} tg, dg, k|f0f / zlQm ;a} yf]s tkfO{nfO{_ @

[l/Tofpg'xf];\ cfh dnfO{, agfpg'xf];\ cfkm\gf] OR5fdf

rnfpg'xdf];\ kljqfTdf, -d tof/ 5' k|e'_ @] @


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

%@@=

!kxf8df km'Ng] km"n–ntfx¿ slt /fd\f 5g\

kxf8af6 v:g] lxd gbLx¿ slt rf]vf 5g\

kxf8nfO{ ;[li6 ug]{ k|e' cem slt dxfg\ 5g\ -@_

sf]M d dxfg\ k|e'sf] ;[hgf, d dxfg\ k|e'sf] ljkgf

d ;w} u5'{ dxfg\ k|e'sf], dxfg\ k|e'sf] dlxdf

@k[YjLdf lx8\g] kz'–k|f0fLx¿ slt crDdsf 5g\

kfgLdf a:g] ;a} k|f0fLx¿ slt cfsif{s 5g\

k|s[ltnfO{ ;[li6 ug]{ k|e' clt clåQLo 5g\ -@_

#k|e'df ;'lDkPsf hLjgx¿ slt c;fwf/0f 5g\

k|e'nfO{ dfq k'Hg] hLjgx¿ slt ;Gt'li6df 5g\

xfd|f k/d]Zj/ lktf, k'q, cfTdf slt ct'ngLo 5g\ -@_


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

%@#=

sf]M -cfTdfdf zflGt wL/h w/L kvf}{ x} o]z"nfO{

afbndfly cfpg]5g\ o]z"

ltdLnfO{ lngnfO{ [xf], xf]] xfdLnfO{ lngnfO{_ @

!-af6f], ;To / hLjg k|e' o]z" v|Li6 x'g\

arfpm cfTdf cfh ltdLn] [xf], xf]] :ju{ hfgnfO{_ @

@-cGwsf/sf] Tof] ;+;f/df gk/ x] d]/f bfh'–efO

cg'u|xsf] 9f]sf v'nf 5

ltdLnfO{ arfpgnfO{ -xf], xf]_ xfdLnfO{ arfpgnfO{_ @


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

%@$=

!-d]/f] clGtd :jf;;Dd} v|Li6sf] uLt ufO{ g} /xG5'

d]/f] clGtd kfOnf;Dd} pxf“nfO{ g} k5ofOxg]5'_ @

-nf nf nf nf === x'_ $

@-d]/f] clGtd b[li6;Dd} v|Li6nfO{ d ;bf x]g]{5'

d]/f] clGtd cfsf+Iff;Dd} ;';Gb]zsf] aLp 5g'{5' @

-nf nf nf nf === x'_ $

#-d]/f] clGtd :jf;;Dd} Hof]lt 5b}{ 8f“8f–kfvf nfUg]5'

d]/f clGtd OR5f;Dd} pxf“nfO{ g} ;bf rfxg]5'_ @

-nf nf nf nf === x'_ $


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

%@%=

sf]M –km'6]/ xf]Og h'6]/ n8]/ xf]Og, ldn]/

kl/ro k|]dsf] k|rfg'{ 5, gd"gf o]z"sf] b]vfpg' 5 ._ @

!-a9]/ hfpm, lht]/ cfpm, cv8f z}tfgsf] l5g e/df

[-em's]/ cfpm 3'“8fdf cfpm_ @ ljZjf;L xfdL Pstfsf] uf“7f]df] @

@-u/]/ hfpm, ufP/ cfpm, k|z+;f k|e'sf] Ps :j/df

[-;Dem]/ cfpm, k|]ddf cfpm_ @, ljZjf;L xfdL o]z"sf] cfJxfgdf] @


526 o z v li sf s n f

526= o]z" v|Li^sf] :s]n F#

-nf, nf, nf, nf, n}a/L_ @ n} n} n} -xf] xf]_

-o]z" v|Li6sf] hLjg c+ufnL, zflGt, ;'/Iff, k|]dsf] sxfgL_ @

ca hfpm ;'gfp“b} $, ufp“–zx/ @ jl/kl/ xf], xf] ufp“–zx/jl/kl/

!-lhp“bf] k/d]Zj/sf] k|]d–sxfgL, d'lQm cgGt hLjgsf va/ lbO{_ @

-ca hfpm ;'gfp“b}_ $, -d]rLb]lv_ @ dxfsfnL, xf] xf] d]rLb]lv dxfsfnL

-nf, nf, nf, nf, n}a/L_ @ n} n} n} -xf] xf]_ .

@-kljq cfTdfsf] cnf}lss zlQm, 5'6sf/f :jtGqtfsf] nx/L_

-ca hfpm ;'gfp“b}_ $, -g]kfnb]lv_ @

;+;f/el/ xf], xf] g]kfnb]lv ;+;f/el//

xf] xf], ufp“–zx/–jl/kl/, xf] xf], d]rLb]lv dxfsfnL

xf] xf], g]kfnb]lv ;+;fel/ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

%@&=

!tf/0fxf/ k|e' hlGdP a]yn]x]d ufj}df

O{Zj/sf] k'q cfpg'ef] kfkLx¿sf] dfemdf -@_

@Psrf]l6 lgoflnx]/, syf xf]Og Oltxf; xf]

O{Zj/sf] dxfg\ of]hgfdf x'g}kg]{ 36gf xf] -@_

#nf} x} bfHo" lbbL, alxgL, a'em of] syf k|]dsf]

afnssf] ?kdf o]z g} d'lQmdf bftf :jod\ g}

tf/0fxf/ === ltd|f] d]/f] dfemdf, xfdL ;a}sf] dfemdf .


528 l gtf tf s n e

528= l#Gtfª\ tfª\ :s]n E

!lwGtf·–tf·, lwGtf·–tf· dfbn aHof] -@_

cf === xf nf} x}, x]/ a]yn]x]dsf] ufO{sf] uf]7df

hGd]sf x} o]z" /fhf, x]/ x}, x]/ nf}, x]/

@eljiojQmfn] eg]sf em} xf xf xf xf -@_

zAb–zAb k'/f x'g uf], d'lQmdf bftf cfpg' g} ef]

y'gdf gfp“n] k|Voft\ x'g'ef] -@_

#:juL{ob"tn] t;f{P xf xf xf xf -@_

zfGtdo kf/L ;anfO{ ;'gfP, va/ ;To / pb]s}sf]

;f/f ;+;f/nfO{ g} ef] -@_


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

%@(=

!cfP x} cfP

cfP x} o]z" ;+;f/df cfP

uP x} xfd|f] kfk d]l6uP

-cf] xf] cf xf_ $

@-b'O xhf/ jif{cl3 ufO{sf] uf]7df_ @

k/d]Zj/sf] Psnf] k'q -o;} 7fj}df_ @

d'lQmbftf -@_ tf/0fxf/ -dflg; cjtf/ eP_ #

-cf] xf] cf xf_ @

#-xfdL ;a}sf] b'Mv a'em\g ;+;f/df cfP_ @

af6f], ;To, hLjg ;a} -Ps} 7fp“ cfP_ @

o]z" /fhf -@_ xfd|f] dfem -d'lQm agL cfP_ @

-cf] xf] cf xf_ @


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

%#)=

!uf]7 ufO{sf] k'q lktfsf]

kfk xfd|f] qm"; cs}{sf]

d'lQm xfdLnfO{ hLjg xfdLnfO{

cfgGb xfdLnfO{ zflGt xfdLnfO{ .

@To; cWof/f] lr;f] /ftdf

b"tu0f cfP O{Zj/ ;fydf

o]z" kl;|P 8"8}df

ufP b"tu0f dL7f] :j/df -dL7f] :j/df_ @

#a]yn]x]dsf] Psnf] ufp“df

dl/odsf] ;fgf] sf]vdf -@_

cfudg O{Zj/sf]

xif{, cfgGb ;a}nfO{ g} ef] -;a}nfO{ g} ef]_ @


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

%#!=

sfM k|]dsf] lbg of], v'zLsf] lbg of]

/dfpg], ufpg] lbg of]

o]z"sf] hGd lbg of]

o]z"sf] hGd lbg of]

!czflGtdf af“Rg]nfO{ klg

zflGt c“ufNg] lbg of]

la5f]l8PsfnfO{ klg

k|]ddf af“Wg] lbg of] -@_

@lg/fzfdf af“Rg]nfO{ klg

cfzfsf] gof“ lbg of]

n8fO{ n8\g]nfO{ klg

k|]d, ldnfksf] lbg of] -@_


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

%#@=

sf]M gof“ 3/sf] z'?n] ;'Gb/tf Nofof]

k/d]Zj/n] b'j}nfO{ Ps agfP

of]hgf k/d]Zj/sf] ca k"/f ef]

o; sfo{n] pgnfO{ dlxdf k'¥ofof]

!-k|]d clwsf/ o; 3/df a;f];\

k|e'sf] ;fIfL ;w} km]lnof];\_ @

v|Li6Lofg 3/sf] pbfx/0f agL -@_

c? 3/nfO{ klg k|e'df Nofcf];\ .

@-laGtL of] xfd|f] k|e'df /fV5f}

k|fy{gfn] gj–bDklQnfO{ 9fS5f}_ @

OR5f of] tkfO{sf] k"/f xf];\ eGb} -@_

sfdgf xfdL ;a} k|e'df /fV5f} .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

%##=

!-k/d]Zj/nfO{ wGojfb ;bf r9fp“5f}

o; lbgdf cfh oL b'OnfO{ Nofp“5f}_ @

-tflbsf k/d]Zj/ cfh klg pxL

lbg'ePsf] k|lt1fnfO{ k"/f] ug'{x'G5 g}_ @

@pkl:ylt hf] Tof] lyof] au}rf cbgdf

cfgGb lnP/ cfpg'ef] xfd|f] o; x[bodf

-vf]Hg] ;fyL hLjgsf] sfd xf] of] tkfO{sf]

eljio agfpg] ;a of]hgf xf] tkfO{sf] [tkfO{sf]] @_ @


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

%#$=

sf]M hLjgsf] af6f] b]vfpg] af6f] g} pgL x'g\

-ltd|f] / d]/f] hLjgsf] af6f] Ps o]z" x'g\_ @

-hLjgsf] ;To pgL, ;To g} o]z" x'g\_ @

-ltd|f} / d]/f] hLjgsf], ;To g} o]z" x'g\_ @

!-hGdg] / dg]{ qmd of] s]xL If0fsf] xf“;f] / cf“z' of]_ @

-dfq xf]Og x] ;fyL xf], v|Li6ljgf hLjg cw'/f] ef]_ @

@-cfkm\g} v'zL, cfkm\g} OR5fx¿, kne/sf cfkm\g} hLtx¿_ @

-olt xf]Og x] ;fyL xf], v|Li6ljgf hLjg ck"/f] ef]_ @


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

%#%=

sf]M -kxf8L efsf, t/fO{sf] tfn ;a} ldnL o]z"sf] ho–ho ufpm“

a];Lx'b} b]j/fnL hfpm“, hxf“ hfpm“ o]z"sf] ehg ufpm“ @

n -xf] xf] cfxf xf @

!psfnL x]/ em/gf x]/ hxL hfpm o]z"sf] u'0f ufpm @

jgsf] km"n pkjg x]/ ;[li6stf{sf] ehg ldnL ufpm @

P x] x]_ @

@ltd|f] d]/f] dgdf xnrn zflGtsf /fhf o]z"nfO{ k|0ffd\ @

alnbfg pgsf] df]rg xfd|f] p4f/stf{ o]z"nfO{ k|0ffd\

P x] x]_ @

zflGtsf /fhf o]z"nfO{ k|0ffd\ p4f/stf{ o]z"nfO{ k|0ffd\ .


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

%#^=

sf]M /f]s]/ /f]lsb}g gbLsf] k|jfxnfO{

5]s]/ 5]lsb}g ;"o{sf] k|sfznfO{

y'g]/ y'lgb}g xfjfsf] ultnfO{

-o:t} 5, o:t} g} xf]_ @ -k|e'sf] /fHo, k|e'sf] sfd_ @

![/f]dL zf;sn] /f]Sg vf]h], ox"bL hfltn] 5]Sg vf]Hof]

-;f /] ;f ;f /] ;f ;f lg w k ;f /] u /] u d lg ;f /] ;f_ @

-g ;s] /f]Sg, g ;s] 5]Sg_ @ km}lng'kYof]{ km}lnb} cfof]

k|e'sf] /fHo, k|e'sf] sfd] @

@[vf]Ng'k5{ cfjfhx¿ tf]8\g'k5{ aGwgx¿

;f /] ;f ;f /] ;f ;f lg w k ;f /] u /] u d lg ;f /] ;f

-e};Sof] a]nf gu/f} l9nf_ @ km}lng'kYof]{ km}lnb} cfof]

k|e'sf] /fHo, k|e'sf] sfd] @


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

%#&=

sf]M [ztfAbLn] x]/ ca km6\sf] df/]5

lgzfgfdf k'UgnfO{ ufx|f] kf/]5

ef]ln–ef]ln eGb} ca w]/} ga;f}+

dxfg\ cf1f k"/f ug{ sDd/ s;f}+] @

![ljBfyL{ xf} xfdLx¿ o'unfO{ xf“Sg]

cGofof / cTofrf/ p7fP/ km\of“Sg]] @

p7f} ;fyL ljBfyL{ xf], sDd/ s;]/

nIo xfd|f] k"/f x'Gg -o;} a;]/ cfx}_ #

@[ljBfyL{n] ljBfyL{nfO{ r]nf agfp“b}

xfd|f] oxL st{Jo xf] egL lrgfp“b}] @

nfuf} ca cleofgdf sDd/ s;]/

nIo xfd|f] k"/f x'Gg -o;} a;]/ cfx}_ #


1 xnn n ofx xf ggf xnn n ofx 4 s n a

%#*=

sf]M nx–nx wfgsf] afnf atf;df em'Dbf

;// kftx¿ p8]/ hf“bf

P, n} la/fgf] of] dg

km]l/ gfR5, gfR5 dg km]l/ gfR5

!s]6fM -P, xf] xf], nf nf nf nf_

-km;n tof/ 5 -xf] xf]_

PSnL lg ?G5] v]t_ @

P, lbbL–a}gL, ghfpm x} ca

d]nfkft, d]nfkft .

@s]6LM -P, xf] xf], nf nf nf nf_

-;+;f/} /demddf lg, -xf] xf_

5}g v]tfnf klg_ @

P, bfHo"–efO, n hfpm x} ca

ug{ s6gL, ug{ s6gL .


539 lgsof lgsof s n g

539= #lGsof] #lGsof]:s]n G

-3lGsof]–3lGsof] 8Dkm'sf] tfn} 3lGsof]_ @

kfvf–kv]/f] yls{of] -@_ kxf8–dw];, ufp“–a];L, /dfOnf]

v'zLsf] ;Gb]z ;'gfp“b} v|Li6 hGd lbj; dgfp“b} @

-3/–cf“ug–;+;f/} pHofnf]_ @, 3lGsof]_@ 8Dk'msf] tfn} 3lGsof]

! gfrg d}Rof·, gfrg x}, gfrg -cf xf cf_

;dnfdf sDd/ efFrg –cf xf cf_] @

eljiojf0fL Tof] hf] k"/f] x'g] ef]

-ODdfg'Pn v|Li6sf] hGd ef] –xf] xf]_] @

@-;'gg kf/·, ;'gg x} ;'gg cf xf cf @

dgdf s'/f u'gg u'gg -cf xf cf_] @

:t'lt / k|z+;f u/]/ k|e'sf]

Xbodf pgnfO{ /fvg -cf xf xf_] @


540 fu fu lxf sf s n e

540= ;Fu ;Fu} lxF*]sf]:s]n E

;Fu ;Fu} lx*]sf] of] nfdf] af^f] oxL ^'Ë]sf] %}g

z'? x'G% ca ofqf klv{a; d cfpFb}%' 2

!p:t} 5 cfsfz oxf“sf] wtL{ klg p:t} @

ltdLn] /fv]sf] cfzfl;t} klv{a; d cfp“b}5' @

@lbg klg la:tf/} a:t}5 5f]8]sf] ltdLnfO{ d}n] xf]Og @

xfdLn] af“w]sf] afrfl;t} klv{a; d cfp“b}5' @


541 nnf f lsf s n c

541= ;Nnf#f/Lsf]:s]n C

;Nnf#f/Lsf] ;''';]nL xfjf slt dL&f] uLt ufpF% ;[li^stf{

-u/f}+g :t'lt ltdL / xfdL ldn]/ pg}sf]_ 2

!hn–yn–ge ;f/f pg}n] agfsf 3fd–h'g–tf/fx¿ pg}n] 6f“u]sf

vf]nf–gfnf 8f“8f–sf“8f pg}n] a;fsf kz'–k|f0fL–k|s[lt klg pg}n] /r]sf .

u/f}+g :t'lt ltdL / xfdL ldn]/ pg}sf] n}, u/f}+g :t'lt ltdL / xfdL pg}

O{Zj/sf] .

@lxp“–cl;gf–jiff{ klg pg}n] k7fsf km"n km'nfsf, kmn klg pg}n] kmnfsf

/+ula/·L /·x¿ pg}n] kf]t]sf ;'uGw–atf;–hLjg klg j/bfg pg}sf .

u/f}+g :t'lt ltdL / xfdL ldn]/ pg}sf] nf}, u/f}+g :t'lt ltdL / xfdL

hLjgbftfsf] .

;Nnf 3f/Lsf] === ldn]/ pg}sf] .

nf} u/f}+g === pg} O{Zj/sf] .

nf} u/f}+g === hLjgbftfsf] .


542 pl x cfsfz df s n c

542= pl&x]/ cfsfz}df:s]n C

pl&x]/ cfsfz}df gofF tf/f pbfPsf]

;'lgx]/ atf;}df gofFdf ;Gb]z NofPsf]

cfgGbn] k")f{ of] zflGtn] k")f{ of]

o]z" /fhf hGd]sf] ;';Gb]z -ltdL d]/} nflu xf] xf] xf]_ 2

!-cGwsf/k"0f{ hut\df Hof]lt NofP pgn]

lg/fzfnfO{ hLjg lbg cfzf NofP pgn]_ @

k/d]Zj/ cjtf/ lnO{ dfgj agL cfpg'ef]

xfd|f] d'lQmbftf k|e' hut\df cfpg'ef] .

@-nIoxLg hLjgsf] nIo agL v|Li6 cfP hut\df

k|f0fxLg hLjg lng 8F"8}df k|e' k;|g'ef]_

af6f], ;To / hLjg pxf“ dfgj agL cfpg'ef]

ltdL–dnfO{ arfpgnfO{ hut\df cfpg'ef] .


543 p f kbf s n e

543= p#f/]/ kbf{ :s]n E

!=p3f/]/ kbf{ d]/f] sf]7fsf] ha d aflx/ x]b{5'

a;]{/ kfgL ev{/} /x]sf] xl/ofnL kfvf b]Vb5' -@_

@=-w'g'xf];_ @ o]z" d]/f] dg klg tkfO{sf] kljq cfTdfn]] @

-cem} rf]vf] agfpg'xf];\_ @ tkfO{sf] kljq jrgn] .

#lhP/ gd'gf aGg'k/]sf] 5, ha d l;sfp“5' c¿nfO{

af]n]/ dfq x'Fb}g /x]5 alnof] hu lgdf{0f ug{nfO{ .


544 t xlsf rs j df s n em d

544= t'/xLsf] rs{] :j/df:s]n Em-D

t'/xLsf] rsf]{ :j/df k|wfg b"t uh{G%g\ /]

afnbsf] ;jf/Ldf o]z" Ps lbg cfpF%g\ /]

cfkm\gf] b'nxL ;fydf nfgnfO{ afbnsf] ;jf/Ldf .

!lrxfgleq ;'t]sfx¿ dlxldt z/L/df p7\5g\ /]

xfdL ;a} b'nxL agL k|e'nfO{ e]6\g hfG5f}+ /] .

@To; lbg ;a} ;fyL–;+uL a]xfn eO{ oxf“ 5'65g\ /]

Tof] lbg xfd|f] cf“z' k|e'n] k'5L ;w}+ ;fy /fV5g\ /] .


545 xfdl prfnf s n d

545= xfdL prfnf}+:s]n D

-xfdL prfnf}+ dlxldt y'dfnfO{ xfdL prfnf}+ hLljt o]z"nfO{

ufpFb} ahfpFb}, k|z+;f ub}{ r(fcf}+ wGojfb k|dL k|e'nfO{_ 2

!-xfd|f] k|fy{gfdf xfdL prfnf}F xfd|f] jrgdf xfdL prfnf}F_ @

-ufp“b}–ahfp“b} :t'lt ub}{ r9fcf}+ wGojfb k|]dL k|e'nfO{_ @

@-k|z+;f;fy xfdL prfnf}F :t'lt ub}{ xfdL prfnf}F_ @

-ufp“b}–ahfp“b}, hohosf/ ub}{ r9fcf}+ wGojfb k|]dL k|e'nfO{_ @


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