The early industrial and transportation revolution
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The Early Industrial and Transportation Revolution. AMERICAN GROWTH AND PROGRESS. Population growth 1800 = 5.5 million to 33 million by 1861 13 states to 33 states by 1861 Expansion of cities Flow of Immigration – 1830’s to 1860’s Why? Potato famine and European problem Irish

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The Early Industrial and Transportation Revolution

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The Early Industrial and Transportation Revolution


AMERICAN GROWTH AND PROGRESS

  • Population growth

  • 1800 = 5.5 million to 33 million by 1861

  • 13 states to 33 states by 1861

  • Expansion of cities

  • Flow of Immigration – 1830’s to 1860’s

  • Why? Potato famine and European problem

    • Irish

    • German 48er’s

  • Hated by “Nativists”

  • 3. Transformation of American Industry

  • Industrial Revolution – why?

    • American System

      • Sectionalism

  • Industrial pioneers


Westward Movement

Americans marched quickly toward west

very hard w/ disease & loneliness

Frontier people were individualistic, superstitious & ill-informed

Westward movement molded environment

tobacco exhausted land

“Kentucky blue grass” thrived


Population Growth from 1620 to 1860

5.3 million


City growth

Westward expansionGrowth of cities and states by 1850


The March of the Millions

  • High birthrate accounted for population growth

    • Population doubling every 25 years

  • Near 1850s, millions of Irish, German came

  • Beginning in 1830, immigration in the US soared


IMMIGRATION


Irish Immigration

Irish Potato Famine 1845-1849

Main ports of entry – New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Boston

Irish were too poor to move inland and farm so they stayed in the cities

Boston did not particularly like the Irish – catholic, illiterate, poor

“No Irish need apply!”

Ancient Order of Hibernians

Benevolent society to help Irish

Spawned “Molly Maguires” (miners union)

Gradually improved and became active politically

NY’s Tammany Hall, Irish political machine


German Immigration

Most Germans came due to crop failures

Germans better off than Irish, came west, many to Wisconsin

A few were political refugees from collapse of democratic revolutions in 1848

German contributions include Kentucky rifle, Christmas tree, kindergarten, and abolitionists

Some Americans were suspicious because they tried to preserve language, culture and lived in separate communities, and drank beer


Sources of Immigration, 1820-40


Sources of Immigration, 1840-60


IMMIGRATION

  • Settlements of Immigrants

    • Irish in Northeastern cities: New York and Boston

    • Germans would settle in Midwest


Early Nativism

  • American “nativists” feared 1840s & 1850s invasion of immigrants

    • Took jobs, grew Roman Catholicism

    • Catholics built their own schools, were #1 denomination by 1850

  • 1849: Nativists form Order of the Star-Spangled Banner, developed into “Know-Nothing” party

    • Wanted immigration restrictions

    • Nativists occasionally violent, burned Boston convent (1834)

    • Philadelphia Irish fought back, 13 killed in several days of fighting (1844)


INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

  • A shift from goods made by hand to factory and mass production

  • Technological innovations brought production from farmhouse to factories

    • Invented in Britain in 1750; smuggled to U.S.

    • Beginning of US Factory System

  • US slow to embrace factory system

    • Scarce labor

    • Little capital

    • Superiority of British factories


AMERICAN SYSTEM

american system

  • Promote nationalism was internal improvements to unite the US.

    • Transportation system of roads, canals, steamships and rivers.

    • 1800 to 1850 roads, canals and rivers first forms of transportation

    • 1860, the railroad is added

Henry Clay, Congressmen from Kentucky

John C. Calhoun, US Senator from South Carolina

  • Provide economic growth

    • Americans buying American goods

    • American self-sufficiency.

    • Protective tariff (allows US factories to grow)

    • 2nd Bank of the United States

  • 3 Sections working together to build the country


SECTIONAL DIFFERENCES

  • NORTHEAST

  • Business and Manufacturing

  • Daniel Webster____________

  • Wanted Tariffs

  • Backed internal improvements

  • Wanted end to cheap public land

  • Increasingly nationalistic

  • Against Slavery and believed the U.S. Govt. must abolish it.

EconomyLeader

__________

Role ofGovernment


SECTIONAL DIFFERENCES

  • SOUTH

  • Cotton growing

  • John C. Calhoun

  • _____________

  • Opposed tariffs and government spending on American System

  • Increasingly supportive of states’ rights

  • Pro-slavery and opposed any steps of the U.S. Govt. to try and abolish it.

EconomyLeader

__________

Role ofGovernment


SECTIONAL DIFFERENCES

  • WEST

  • Frontier agriculture

  • Henry Clay

  • _____________

  • Supported internal improvements

  • Wanted cheap land

  • Loyal to the U.S. Govt.

  • Against slavery but some supported letting the people decide the slavery issue

EconomyLeader

__________

Role ofGovernment


AMERICAN SYSTEM

  • Population shift because of westward expansion

    • the West demanded transportation.

    • The Land Act of 1820, gave the West its wish by authorizing a buyer to purchase 80 acres of land at a minimum of $1.25 an acre in cash

  • Erie Canal started in 1817 and completed in 1825

    • NY Governor DeWitt Clinton built the Erie Canal

    • Connected New York City from Hudson River with the Great Lakes and the West

      • Clinton’s Big Ditch--------Other canals follow

  • Navigable rivers and the steamboat

    • the first steamboat on western waters was in 1811.


Erie Canal System


Principal Canals in 1840


AMERICAN SYSTEM

Highways

  • Bad roads made transportation highly unreliable

  • The National Road begun in 1811 and completed by 1832

    • Connected Maryland to Illinois.

    • Built by US government


Cumberland (National Road), 1811


Conestoga Covered Wagons

Conestoga Trail, 1820s


  • Help unite the country as well as improve the economy and the infant industry.

  • Because of the British blockade during the War of 1812, it was essential for internal transportation improvements.


The Railroad Revolution,1850s

  • 1850 to 1860, RR proved most significant development toward national economy

  • Americans demanded transcontinental railroad to California.

    • Completed by 1869.


Pioneer Railroad Promoters

  • 1800 to 1850: Roads, canals, navigable rivers with steamboats were the main modes of transportation.

  • 1850 to 1860, RR proved most significant development toward national economy

  • Competition between Railroads and Canals

  • Obstacles

    • opposition from canal backers

    • danger of fire

    • poor brakes

    • difference in track gauge meant changing trains


Map rr


Effects of the Transportation Revolution

  • 1860-61, Pony Express connected East-West

  • Telegraph instantly sent messages across US

  • Attraction of many large capital investments and encouraged risk taking in the US economy

  • People moved faster and country expanded

    • Unifying spirit among fellow country men

    • A need for a transcontinental railroad that connected east to west


  • Telegraph revolutionized communication

  • Would replace the Pony Express by 1861


Trails

TRAILS WESTWARD


US FACTORY SYSTEM

  • Built first textile mill in 1793 in Pawtucket, Rhode Island.

  • Born in England on June 9, 1768 and worked in British factories.

  • Slater came to US to make his fortune in the textile industry.

  • Slatersville Mill was the largest and most modern industrial cotton mill of its day

Samuel Slater was the "Father of the American Factory System."


Early Textile Loom


US FACTORY SYSTEM

The Lowell Mills

  • Americans beat the British at their own game, made better factories

  • Francis C Lowell (a British “traitor”) came over here to build British factories met up with Boston mechanic, Paul Moody

    • Together they improved the mill and invented a power loom that revolutionized textile manufacturing


US FACTORY SYSTEM

The Lowell Mills

  • Americans beat the British at their own game, made better factories

  • Francis C Lowell (a British “traitor”) came over here to build British factories met up with Boston mechanic, Paul Moody

    • Together they improved the mill and invented a power loom that revolutionized textile manufacturing


The Lowell SystemLowell, Massachusetts, 1832

  • Young New England farm girls

  • Supervised on and off the job

  • Worked 6 days a week, 13 hours a day

  • Escorted to church on Sunday


US FACTORY SYSTEM

Women & the Economy

  • 1850: 10% of white women working for pay outside home

    • Vast majority of working women were single

    • Left paying jobs upon marriage

  • “Cult of domesticity”

    • Cultural idea that glorifies homemaker

  • Empowers married women

    • Increased power & independence of women in home led to decline in family size


Workers & Wage Slaves

  • With industrial revolution, large impersonal factories surrounded by slums full of “wage slaves” developed

  • Long hours, low wages, unsanitary conditions, lack of heat, etc.

    • Labor unions illegal

  • 1820: 1/2 of industrial workers were children under 10


Workers & Wage Slaves

  • 1820s & 1830s: right to vote for laborers

    • Loyalty to Democratic party led to improved conditions

    • Fought for 10-hour day, higher wages, better conditions

  • 1830s & 1840s: Dozens of strikes for higher wages or 10-hour day

    • 1837 depression hurt union membership

  • Commonwealth v. Hunt

    • Supreme Court ruled unions not illegal conspiracies as long as they were peaceful


US FACTORY SYSTEM

  • 1830s, Industrialization grew throughout the North…

  • Southern cotton shipped to Northern textile mills was a good working relationship.


New

Inventions:

"Yankee Ingenuity"


Resourcefulness & Experimentation

  • Americans were willing to try anything.

  • They were first copiers, then innovators.

1800  41 patents were approved.

1860 4,357 “ “ “


ELI WHITNEY

The invention which changed the South, cotton and slavery.

  • Eli Whitney’s cotton gin revolutionized the cotton industry.

  • He is also noted for the concept of mass production and interchangeable parts by creating dyes for pistols and rifles.

  • Very important early pioneer in America’s industrial revolution.

Cotton Production


Cotton gin invented in 1793

50 times more effective than hand picking

Raising cotton more profitable

South needs slavery more than ever for “King Cotton”

Whitney Ends the Fiber Famine

  • New England factories flourish with Southern cotton


ROBERT FULTON

  • 1807, Fulton's Clermont, was the first commercially successful and reliable steamboat. Steam boat would revolutionize water travel.

  • The steamboat was often the only mechanical means of river travel and freight transportation from 1808 through 1930.


John Deere & the Steel Plow


Cyrus McCormick& the Mechanical Reaper


Samuel F. B. Morse

1840 – Telegraph

“WHAT GOD HATH WROUGHT”


Cyrus Field & the Transatlantic Cable, 1858


Elias Howe & Isaac Singer

1840sSewing Machine

Perfected by Singer

Gave boost to northern industry

Became foundation for ready-made clothing industry

Led many women into factories


From left to right: Eli Whitney (cotton gin, interchangeable parts), Robert Fulton (steam boat), Thomas Edison (light bulb), Cyrus McCormick (reaper), Richard Hoe (automatic printing press)


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