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Chapter 4 Learning (III). Cognitive Learning. Principle of Contiguity: the association of events in time and space.

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Chapter 4 learning iii

Chapter 4 Learning (III)

Cognitive Learning


Principle of contiguity the association of events in time and space
Principle of Contiguity: the association of events in time and space

  • Contiguity has been used to explain the association of a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus in classical conditioning, and the association of a behavior and its consequences in operant conditioning


Cognitive factors in associative learning
Cognitive Factors in Associative Learning and space

  • In Classical Conditioning

    Robert Rescorla’s experiment(1968)

    CS is a index of prediction

  • Overshadowing—competition between two CS’s

  • (forward) Blocking—(Kamin,1968,69)

  • Conditioned taste aversion


  • In Operant Conditioning and space

  • Intrinsic motivation—the desire to perform a behavior effectively and for its own sake

  • Overjustification effect

  • Learned helplessness


Latent learning learning that occurs without the reinforcement of overt behavior
Latent Learning — learning that occurs without the reinforcement of overt behavior

  • E. Tolman and C. H. Honzik’ s studies (1930)

  • Cognitive map

    — a mental representation of physical reality ( of the layout one’s environment)


The study of behavioral geography parfit 1984
The study of behavioral geography (Parfit,1984) reinforcement of overt behavior

When we mark important places and landmarks in the city

  • Undesirable place—small and far

    Desirable place—big and near

  • Reflects our life experience and depends on our SES


Three types of knowledge in our cognitive map thorndyke etc 1981
Three types of knowledge in our cognitive map (Thorndyke, etc.1981)

  • landmark knowledge—imaginal and propositional representation

  • route-road knowledge—procedural and declarative knowledge

  • survey knowledge—can be represented imaginally or propositionally


Insight a sudden understanding about what is required to solve a problem
Insight—a sudden understanding about what is required to solve a problem

Wolfgang Kohler

1887-1967

Mentality of Apes


Observational learning learning by observing and imitating the behavior of others
Observational Learning— learning by observing and imitating the behavior of others

Albert Bandura (1925- )

Stanford University

Mirrors in the Brain



Observational learning is seen in animals as well as humans
Observational learning is seen in animals as well as humans imitating the behavior of others

English titmouse has learned how to open cardboard caps on milk bottles to swipe milk and cream from its human neighbors


Four factors identified by bandura 1986 that account for o l
Four factors identified by Bandura (1986) that account for O.L.

  • You must pay attention to model’s actions;

  • You must remember the model’s actions;

  • You must have the ability to produce the actions;

  • You must be motivated to perform the actions.


Social learning theory
Social Learning Theory O.L.

  • Social behavior is learned chiefly through observation and the mental processing of information

  • Prosocial behavior and aggression


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