Hubble explores the limits of roundness ceres and vesta
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Hubble explores the limits of “roundness”: Ceres and Vesta. Max Mutchler Space Telescope Science Institute. Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission: October 5 !. Alternate title: “ Hubble hears a Who : how dots become worlds”. Aug 14-15, 2008. Hubble explores “roundness”. 2.

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Hubble explores the limits of “roundness”: Ceres and Vesta

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Hubble explores the limits of roundness ceres and vesta

Hubble explores the limits of“roundness”: Ceres and Vesta

Max Mutchler

Space Telescope Science Institute


Hubble explores the limits of roundness ceres and vesta

Hubble Space Telescopeservicing mission: October 5 !

Alternate title:

“Hubble hears a Who:

how dots become worlds”

Aug 14-15, 2008

Hubble explores “roundness”

2


Http www iau2006 org draft resolution 5 for ga xxvi definition of a planet 16 august 2006

http://www.iau2006.orgDraft Resolution 5 for GA-XXVI: Definition of a Planet16 August 2006

(1) A planet is a celestial body that (a) has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape1, and (b) is in orbit around a star, and is neither a star nor a satellite of a planet.

(2) We distinguish between the eight classical planets discovered before 1900, which move in nearly circular orbits close to the ecliptic plane, and other planetary objects in orbit around the Sun. All of these other objects are smaller than Mercury. We recognize that Ceres is a planet by the above scientific definition. For historical reasons, one may choose to distinguish Ceres from the classical planets by referring to it as a “dwarf planet.”

(3) We recognize Pluto to be a planet by the above scientific definition, as are one or more recently discovered large Trans-Neptunian Objects. In contrast to the classical planets, these objects typically have highly inclined orbits with large eccentricities and orbital periods in excess of 200 years. We designate this category of planetary objects, of which Pluto is the prototype, as a new class that we call “plutons”.

(4) All non-planet objects orbiting the Sun shall be referred to collectively as “Small Solar System Bodies”.

For two or more objects comprising a multiple object system, the primary object is designated a planet if it independently satisfies the conditions above. A secondary object satisfying these conditions is also designated a planet if the system barycentre resides outside the primary. Secondary objects not satisfying these criteria are "satellites". Under this definition, Pluto's companion Charon is a planet, making Pluto-Charon a double planet. If Pallas, Vesta, and/or Hygeia are found to be in hydrostatic equilibrium, they are also planets, and may be referred to as "dwarf planets".


Http www iau2006 org final resolution for ga xxvi definition of a planet 24 august 2006

http://www.iau2006.orgFinal Resolution for GA-XXVI: Definition of a Planet24 August 2006

The IAU therefore resolves that planets and other bodies in our Solar System, except satellites, be defined into three distinct categories in the following way:

(1) A “planet” is a celestial body that (a) is in orbit around the Sun, (b) has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape, and (c) has cleared the neighbourhood around its orbit.

(2) A “dwarf planet” is a celestial body that (a) is in orbit around the Sun, (b) has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape, (c) has not cleared the neighbourhood around its orbit, and (d) is not a satellite.

(3) All other objects, except satellites, orbiting the Sun shall be referred to collectively as “Small Solar System Bodies”.

Pluto is a "dwarf planet" by the above definition and is recognized as the prototype of a new category of trans-Neptunian objects.For now, Charon is considered just to be Pluto’s moon. The idea that Charon might qualify to be called a dwarf planet on its own, may be considered later.


Hubble explores the limits of roundness ceres and vesta

The limits of roundness:a non-hostile borderline?

dwarf planet asteroid

(small solar system body)

with dither / drizzle with MEM deconvolution

Aug 14-15, 2008

Hubble explores “roundness”

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Hubble explores the limits of roundness ceres and vesta

Same initial conditions,but different evolutions

Vesta’s impact crater,

volcanic maria, dry?

Thomas, P. et al., 2005, “Differentiation of the asteroid Ceres as revealed by its shape”, Nature Letters, Vol 437

Thomas, P. et al., 1997, “Impact excavation on asteroid 4 Vesta: Hubble Space Telescope results”, Science, Vol 277

Aug 14-15, 2008

Hubble explores “roundness”

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Hubble explores the limits of roundness ceres and vesta

Vesta:“I coulda been a contender!”

Aug 14-15, 2008

Hubble explores “roundness”

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Hubble explores the limits of roundness ceres and vesta

Ceres dithered and drizzled: partial rotation

Aug 14-15, 2008

Hubble explores “roundness”

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Hubble explores the limits of roundness ceres and vesta

Ceres dithered and drizzled: partial rotation

Aug 14-15, 2008

Hubble explores “roundness”

9


Hubble explores the limits of roundness ceres and vesta

Vesta deconvolved:full-rotation mapping

Li, J. et al., 2008, “Photometric mapping of Vesta from HST observation”, Asteroids, Comets, and Meteors

Aug 14-15, 2008

Hubble explores “roundness”

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Hubble explores the limits of roundness ceres and vesta

Vesta deconvolved:full-rotation movie

Aug 14-15, 2008

Hubble explores “roundness”

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Hubble explores the limits of roundness ceres and vesta

Vesta was discovered in 1807:why not earlier?

Vesta

Jupiter

Vesta “naked eye” in May 2007

http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap070525.html (Jimmy Westlake)

Aug 14-15, 2008

Hubble explores “roundness”

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Hubble explores the limits of roundness ceres and vesta

Waiting for their spaceshipto come in…

Dawn

Ceres

2015

Vesta

2011

Max Mutchler (Space Telescope Science Institute), Lucy McFadden, Jian-Yang Li (U. Maryland),

Peter Thomas (Cornell U.), Joel Parker, Eliot Young (Southwest Research Institute),

Chris Russell, Britney Schmidt (UCLA), Mark Sykes (Planetary Science Institute)

Aug 14-15, 2008

Hubble explores “roundness”

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Hubble explores the limits of roundness ceres and vesta

Small worlds in extrasolar planet systems

Hubble discovery

of 16 transiting planets

(Sahu et al., 2006)

Hubble discovery of a double disk

around Beta Pictoris, implying a planet

(Golimowski et al., 2006)

Aug 14-15, 2008

Hubble explores “roundness”

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