Genes, Genome and DNA. The base materials for inheritance. Human genome. Genome refers to the total genetic material within a cell. In humans there are 30000 genes. Most is in the nucleus.
The base materials for inheritance.
Phosphate way, in complementary base pairs.: Links neighboring sugars
Sugar: One of two types possible: ribose in RNA and deoxyribose in DNA
Base: Four types are possible in DNA: adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. RNA has the same except uracil replaces thymine.Structure of Nucleotides
Purine – double ringed structure. (A & G)
Single ringed structure called pyrimidine.
( T & C)
Nucleus contains inherited information antiparallel because one runs 5’ to 3’, while the other runs 3’ to 5’ ( ‘ read as prime).: The total collection of genes located on chromosomes in the nucleus has the complete instructions for constructing a total organism.
Nuclear pores are involved in the active transport of substances into and out of the nucleus
encloses the nucleus in eukaryotic cells
Cytoplasm: The nucleuscontrols cell metabolism; the many chemical reactions that keep the cell alive and performing its designated role.
Structure of the nucleus
Chromosomes are made up of DNA and protein and store the information for controlling the cell
Nucleolus is involved in the construction of ribosomesGenes in Eukaryote Cells
Mitochondrial antiparallel because one runs 5’ to 3’, while the other runs 3’ to 5’ ( ‘ read as prime).
RibosomeGenes Outside the Nucleusin Eukaryote Cells
Cytoplasm antiparallel because one runs 5’ to 3’, while the other runs 3’ to 5’ ( ‘ read as prime).(no nucleus)
Cell membraneGenes in Prokaryote Cells
Sex pilus conducts the plasmid to the recipient bacterium antiparallel because one runs 5’ to 3’, while the other runs 3’ to 5’ ( ‘ read as prime).
A plasmid about to pass one strand of the DNA into the sex pilus
Plasmid of the
Plasmid of the conjugative typePlasmid DNA
Here is how it works:
RNA polymerase enzyme antiparallel because one runs 5’ to 3’, while the other runs 3’ to 5’ ( ‘ read as prime).
used to construct
the mRNA strand
Template strand of DNA contains the information for the construction of a functional mRNA product (e.g. a protein)
chromosome as found in non-dividing cell
Direction of synthesis
Formation of a single strand of mRNA that is complementary to the template strand (therefore the same “message” as the coding strand)Transcription
The two strands of DNA coil up into a double helix
Ribosomes antiparallel because one runs 5’ to 3’, while the other runs 3’ to 5’ ( ‘ read as prime).
mRNAMovement of mRNA
Nuclear pore through
which the mRNA passes
into the cytoplasm
The ribosome moves along the mRNA to the next codon (three bases).
The second tRNA molecule moves into position P.
Another tRNA molecule pairs with the mRNA in position A bringing its amino acid.
A growing polypeptide is formed in this way until a stop codon is reached.
A stop codon on the mRNA is reached and this signals the ribosome to leave the mRNA. A newly synthesised protein is now complete!
Intron antiparallel because one runs 5’ to 3’, while the other runs 3’ to 5’ ( ‘ read as prime).
Both exons and introns are transcribed to produce a long primary RNA transcript
Double stranded molecule of genomic DNA
Exons are spliced together
Messenger RNA is an edited copy of the DNA molecule (now excluding introns) that codes for a single functional RNA product, e.g. protein.
The primary RNA transcript is edited
Primary RNA transcript
Introns are removed
Introns and Exons
Most eukaryotic genes contain segments of protein-coding sequences (exons) interrupted by non-protein-coding sequences (introns).
6 antiparallel because one runs 5’ to 3’, while the other runs 3’ to 5’ ( ‘ read as prime).