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The Early Middle Ages . Chapter 19 . Fall of Rome . Germanic groups invaded western Roman Empire. These groups overthrew the last emperor in Rome. Western Europe was then divided into many kingdoms, and many Catholic Christianity strongly influenced societies. . Rivers and Seas .

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Fall of rome
Fall of Rome

  • Germanic groups invaded western Roman Empire.

  • These groups overthrew the last emperor in Rome.

  • Western Europe was then divided into many kingdoms, and many Catholic Christianity strongly influenced societies.


Rivers and seas
Rivers and Seas

  • Rivers played an important role in Europe's growth.

  • Major rivers such as the Rhine, Danube, Seine, and Po all flowed from inland mountains into the oceans and seas surrounding the continent.


The franks in europe
The Franks in Europe

  • Strongest Germanic group

  • They settled in what is now France, and western Germany.

  • Clovis was their first King.

  • Clovis was the first Germanic ruler to accept Catholic Christianity. Soon after all Franks became Catholic.


The franks in europe cont
The Franks in Europe cont.

  • After death of Clovis, the power switched from the king to the church.

  • Charles Martel or “Charles the Hammer” became the mayor of the palace, and his power was given to him by the Pope.

  • Stopped the spread of Islam.



Charlemagne1
Charlemagne

  • Grandson of Charles Martel.

  • Became the King of the Franks

  • Nearly doubled the size of the kingdom to include what is today Germany, France, northern Spain, and most of Italy.

  • For the first time since the fall of Rome, most of Western Europe was ruled under one government.

  • This earned the name “Charlemagne” or “ Charles the Great”.


Charlemagne cont
Charlemagne cont.

  • Charlemagne came to Rome and defended the Pope from unruly Roman nobles.

  • The Pope then declared Charlemagne as the new Roman emperor.

  • Charlemagne then wanted to advance learning, and established a school for children of government officials.

  • The students studied religion, Latin, music, literature, and arithmetic.


Waves of invaders
Waves of Invaders

  • After Charlemagne died his empire split into 3 kingdoms.

  • Muslims, Magyars, and Vikings all invaded.

  • Vikings raided from their homeland in Scandinavia.

  • Vikings attacked villages and churches.



Formation of the holy roman empire
Formation of the Holy Roman Empire

  • The eastern Frankish kingdom was known as Germany

  • Germany was ruled by nobles

  • Duke Otto of Saxony was elected king of Germany

  • Defeated the invaders

  • Duke Otto of Saxony tried to unite under a central government but the pope wanted freedom.

  • Pope joined Italy’s cities to resist the emperors forces.


The church and its influence
The Church and Its Influence

  • Priest named Patrick traveled to Ireland and spread Christianity.

  • This inspired Pope Gregory I to spread Christianity.

  • Gregory asked monks to become missionaries.

  • Missionaries- people who are sent out to teach their religion.

  • Most of Western Europe became Catholic Christians.


The church and its influence1
The Church and Its Influence

  • Provided schools and hospitals

  • Taught carpentry and weaving

  • Improved farms

  • Monks lived in communities called abbots

  • Nuns lived in their own monasteries.


Church authority
Church Authority

  • Church Monasteries were very powerful and wealthy.

  • King wanted church to obey him, and churches thought king should obey the church.

  • Pope Gregory declared that King Henry was no longer the emperor and excommunicated him.

  • Henry traveled to Italy and begged for forgiveness

  • Henry then seized Rome and appointed a new Pope.


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