The early middle ages
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The Early Middle Ages . Chapter 19 . Fall of Rome . Germanic groups invaded western Roman Empire. These groups overthrew the last emperor in Rome. Western Europe was then divided into many kingdoms, and many Catholic Christianity strongly influenced societies. . Rivers and Seas .

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The Early Middle Ages

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The Early Middle Ages

Chapter 19


Fall of Rome

  • Germanic groups invaded western Roman Empire.

  • These groups overthrew the last emperor in Rome.

  • Western Europe was then divided into many kingdoms, and many Catholic Christianity strongly influenced societies.


Rivers and Seas

  • Rivers played an important role in Europe's growth.

  • Major rivers such as the Rhine, Danube, Seine, and Po all flowed from inland mountains into the oceans and seas surrounding the continent.


The Franks in Europe

  • Strongest Germanic group

  • They settled in what is now France, and western Germany.

  • Clovis was their first King.

  • Clovis was the first Germanic ruler to accept Catholic Christianity. Soon after all Franks became Catholic.


The Franks in Europe cont.

  • After death of Clovis, the power switched from the king to the church.

  • Charles Martel or “Charles the Hammer” became the mayor of the palace, and his power was given to him by the Pope.

  • Stopped the spread of Islam.


Charlemagne


Charlemagne

  • Grandson of Charles Martel.

  • Became the King of the Franks

  • Nearly doubled the size of the kingdom to include what is today Germany, France, northern Spain, and most of Italy.

  • For the first time since the fall of Rome, most of Western Europe was ruled under one government.

  • This earned the name “Charlemagne” or “ Charles the Great”.


Charlemagne cont.

  • Charlemagne came to Rome and defended the Pope from unruly Roman nobles.

  • The Pope then declared Charlemagne as the new Roman emperor.

  • Charlemagne then wanted to advance learning, and established a school for children of government officials.

  • The students studied religion, Latin, music, literature, and arithmetic.


Waves of Invaders

  • After Charlemagne died his empire split into 3 kingdoms.

  • Muslims, Magyars, and Vikings all invaded.

  • Vikings raided from their homeland in Scandinavia.

  • Vikings attacked villages and churches.


Scandinavia


Formation of the Holy Roman Empire

  • The eastern Frankish kingdom was known as Germany

  • Germany was ruled by nobles

  • Duke Otto of Saxony was elected king of Germany

  • Defeated the invaders

  • Duke Otto of Saxony tried to unite under a central government but the pope wanted freedom.

  • Pope joined Italy’s cities to resist the emperors forces.


The Church and Its Influence

  • Priest named Patrick traveled to Ireland and spread Christianity.

  • This inspired Pope Gregory I to spread Christianity.

  • Gregory asked monks to become missionaries.

  • Missionaries- people who are sent out to teach their religion.

  • Most of Western Europe became Catholic Christians.


The Church and Its Influence

  • Provided schools and hospitals

  • Taught carpentry and weaving

  • Improved farms

  • Monks lived in communities called abbots

  • Nuns lived in their own monasteries.


Church Authority

  • Church Monasteries were very powerful and wealthy.

  • King wanted church to obey him, and churches thought king should obey the church.

  • Pope Gregory declared that King Henry was no longer the emperor and excommunicated him.

  • Henry traveled to Italy and begged for forgiveness

  • Henry then seized Rome and appointed a new Pope.


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