Understanding islam
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Understanding Islam. A Catholic Perspective. The Direction of Intention.

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Understanding Islam

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Understanding islam

Understanding Islam

A Catholic Perspective


The direction of intention

The Direction of Intention

My God, give me the grace to perform this action with youand through love for you.In advance, I offer to you all the good that I will do and acceptall the difficulty I may meet therein.Our Lady of Good Counsel, Pray for us.

St. Francis de Sales, Pray for us.


Overview

Overview

Week Two

The Crusades

Differences between Christianity and Islam

What the Church says about Islam

Understanding Islam from a Catholic perspective

  • Week One

    • Who was Mohammed?

    • Islam as a Religious / Political Movement

    • The Bible and the Quran

    • Islamic view of Judaism and Christianity


Understanding islam

Europe and Middle East 600 AD


The crusades

The Crusades

  • Brief History leading up to Crusades

  • From 638 – 900

    • According to Arab historians of the time, In the year 638 - the Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab personally went to the city (Jerusalem) to receive its submission, slaughtered the garrison and population who had fled to the citadel, and oversaw its cleaning out.

    • Christians discriminated and regulated in worship, movement, ownership of property

    • Tolerated the presence of Christian and Jewish communities in the city with the Jewish population given the most freedom and benefices.


The crusades1

The Crusades

  • Brief History leading up to Crusades

  • From 638 – 900

  • Christians were in essence second class citizens, forbidden to proselytize, worship outside of specific locations, limited in areas where they could travel, forced to bow before Muslim Mosques and Imams, charged to wear specific clothing, ordered to make way on the streets to Muslims, and limited in the number of pilgrims allowed to visit Holy sites.

    • The Emperor Charlemagne started the precedent of Western European influence in the region under various treaties with the Caliphs establishing Frankish protection for pilgrims.


The crusades2

The Crusades

  • 900 – 1095

  • Carolingian Empire collapses in the early 10th century in Europe

  • Periods of persecution of Christians in the area around Jeruslamen by Muslims

  • 1009 - The Egyptian FatimidCaliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah ordered the destruction of all churches throughout Al-Islam starting with the churches in Jerusalem. Permission was later given for its rebuilding.

    • Between 1070 – 1095

      • Jerusalem passes back and forth between rival Caliphs until the first Crusade arrives in 1095


The crusades3

The Crusades

  • Fighting between Catholic Europe and different branches of Islam underway prior to Crusades

    • Iberian Peninsula – Reconquista 1085

    • Expulsion of Islam from Sicily and southern Italy - 1057

  • 4 Crusades lasting between 1095 and 1204

    • Series of less successful crusades would continue until 1272

    • Brief time Holy Land under European protection


Some myths about the crusades

Some MYTHS about the Crusades

  • Myth 1: The Crusades were wars of unprovoked aggression against a peaceful Muslim world.

  • Myth 2: The Crusaders wore crosses, but they were really only interested in capturing booty and land. Their pious platitudes were just a cover for rapacious greed.

  • Myth 3:When the Crusaders captured Jerusalem in 1099 they massacred every man, woman, and child in the city until the streets ran ankle deep with the blood.


Some myths about the crusades1

Some MYTHS about the Crusades

  • Myth 4: The Crusades were just medieval colonialism dressed up in religious finery.

  • Myth 5: The Crusades were a unified attempt to destroy Islam

  • Myth 6: Pope John Paul II apologized for the Crusades.

    • Pope Saint John Paul II did not apologize for the Crusades per se. He apologized for the actions of Christians that were against the values of the Gospel. This is a fine but necessary distinction. Even in a just war there can be individual actions that are contrary to justice and morality.


Differences between christianity and islam

Differences between Christianity and Islam

  • Christians believe Adam is guilty of disobeying God and that we all bear this Original Sin when we are born. We can be saved from this, and other sins, through accepting Jesus Christ's atonement. Christians believe that Jesus was crucified on a cross to atone for man's sins.

  • Muslims believe Adam was faultless (some refer to him as a Prophet). They believe Jesus did not die on the cross and consequently there is no atonement. Muslims believe that each person is born sin-less and must take responsibility for maintaining this state throughout life.


Differences between christianity and islam1

Differences between Christianity and Islam

  • The Islamic concept of sin.

  • Human nature is essentially good. They have many elements to their nature and each one has the potential to bring them benefits.

  • A sin is committed when someone causes harm to themselves or to others or to any part of creation. It is the result of poor planning. Not necessarily from a deliberate act of the will.


Differences between christianity and islam2

Differences between Christianity and Islam

  • The Islamic concept of sin.

  • Forgiveness of sin come from Allah. There is no understanding of the communal nature of sin

    • This is one of the reasons why many Muslims don’t speak out against the “sins” of others, They have no responsibility for their brother.

    • For a Christian – we are our brothers keeper.

  • In Islam there is no need for a savior or redeemer to make atonement for sin.


What the church says about islam

What the Church says about Islam

  • Second Vatican Council, Lumen Gentium 16, November 21, 1964

    • “But the plan of salvation also includes those who acknowledge the Creator, in the first place among whom are the Muslims: these profess to hold the faith of Abraham, and together with us they adore the one, merciful God, mankind’s judge on the last day.”

  • Catechism of the Catholic Church - The Church's relationship with the Muslims.

    • 841 "The plan of salvation also includes those who acknowledge the Creator, in the first place amongst whom are the Muslims; these profess to hold the faith of Abraham, and together with us they adore the one, merciful God, mankind's judge on the last day."[330]


What the church says about islam1

What the Church says about Islam

  • Catechism of the Catholic Church - The Church's relationship with the Muslims.

    • * 842 The Church's bond with non-Christian religions is in the first place the common origin and end of the human race: All nations form but one community. This is so because all stem from the one stock which God created to people the entire earth, and also because all share a common destiny, namely God. His providence, evident goodness, and saving designs extend to all against the day when the elect are gathered together in the holy city. . .[331]


What the church says about islam2

What the Church says about Islam

  • Catechism of the Catholic Church - The Church's relationship with the Muslims.

    • * 843 "The Catholic Church recognizes in other religions that search, among shadows and images, for the God who is unknown yet near since he gives life and breath and all things and wants all men to be saved. Thus, the Church considers all goodness and truth found in these religions as 'a preparation for the Gospel and given by him who enlightens all men that they may at length have life.'


What the church says about islam3

What the Church says about Islam

  • "Outside the Church there is no salvation"

    • 846 How are we to understand this affirmation, often repeated by the Church Fathers?335 Re-formulated positively, it means that all salvation comes from Christ the Head through the Church which is his Body:

    • Basing itself on Scripture and Tradition, the Council teaches that the Church, a pilgrim now on earth, is necessary for salvation: the one Christ is the mediator and the way of salvation; he is present to us in his body which is the Church.


What the church says about islam4

What the Church says about Islam

  • "Outside the Church there is no salvation"

    • He himself explicitly asserted the necessity of faith and Baptism, and thereby affirmed at the same time the necessity of the Church which men enter through Baptism as through a door. Hence they could not be saved who, knowing that the Catholic Church was founded as necessary by God through Christ, would refuse either to enter it or to remain in it.336

  • 847 This affirmation is not aimed at those who, through no fault of their own, do not know Christ and his Church:

    • 848 “…are ignorant of the Gospel, to that faith without which it is impossible to please him, the Church still has the obligation and also the sacred right to evangelize all men."338


Understanding islam from a catholic perspective

Understanding Islam from a Catholic Perspective

  • “Christians must work with [all] other religions to secure peace. JP II

  • “The Catholic Church intends to `share in and promote' such ecumenical and inter-religious cooperation” JP II

  • A Common Word – Joint Catholic Muslim Declaration – 2008

    • Affirms respect for life at all stages and for the dignity of each person, man or woman, respect for freedom of conscience and religion; the rejection of discrimination on account of faith; the importance of bearing witness through prayer to the transcendent dimension of life in an increasingly secularized world; an affirmation of the duty to give young people a solid moral, civil, and religious education, and teach them about the faith of others.


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