Scientific methods
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Scientific Methods. Section 1.3. Observations. Using the senses to gather information Scientific methods begin with observations Good observations lead to testable predictions. Form a Question. After making an observation, a problem or question is stated

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Scientific Methods

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Scientific methods

Scientific Methods

Section 1.3


Observations

Observations

  • Using the senses to gather information

  • Scientific methods begin with observations

  • Good observations lead to testable predictions


Form a question

Form a Question

  • After making an observation, a problem or question is stated

  • The question is based on information that you want to reveal about your observations


Hypothesis

Hypothesis

  • Develop a testable prediction

  • A hypothesis is tested by conducting experiments

  • The hypothesis may be supported by evidence but is never PROVED


Gather data

Gather Data

  • Includes all information that scientists gather

  • Quantitative data= Measured in numbers

    (measurements, temperature, weight)

  • Qualitative data= descriptive


Conduct experiment

Conduct Experiment

  • A variable is tested and compared to a control group

  • Experimental group= the group subjected to a specific factor

  • Control group= identical to experimental group except for the factor

    (used for comparison)


Variables

Variables

  • Independent variable= the factor being tested (example: fertilizer)

  • Dependent variable= the factor that is being measured (example: plant growth)

  • The dependent variable results from the independent variable


Organize and analyze data

Organize and Analyze Data

  • Data should be placed in tables, charts, and graphs

  • Statistical analysis determines whether or not the data supports the hypothesis


Form conclusion

Form Conclusion

  • Based on the conducted experiment, the results are summarized into a conclusion

  • Provides an explanation supported by data


Publish research

Publish Research

  • Valid experiments can be published in scientific journals

  • If proper protocol has been followed, even student research can be published


Inferences

Inferences

  • Conclusions made on the basis of facts or premises rather than on direct observations

  • Example: where there is smoke, there must be fire


Theories and laws

Theories and Laws

  • Theory= an explanation based on many observations supported by experimental results (example: theory of evolution)

  • Law= a rule of nature that sums up related observations and experimental results

    (example: law of gravity)


Implementing scientific methods

Implementing Scientific Methods

  • Problem solving skills are used to solve a wide variety of global problems such as human infectious diseases

  • Communication allows scientists to build on the work of others


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