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Scientific Methods - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Scientific Methods. Section 1.3. Observations. Using the senses to gather information Scientific methods begin with observations Good observations lead to testable predictions. Form a Question. After making an observation, a problem or question is stated

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Presentation Transcript
observations
Observations
  • Using the senses to gather information
  • Scientific methods begin with observations
  • Good observations lead to testable predictions
form a question
Form a Question
  • After making an observation, a problem or question is stated
  • The question is based on information that you want to reveal about your observations
hypothesis
Hypothesis
  • Develop a testable prediction
  • A hypothesis is tested by conducting experiments
  • The hypothesis may be supported by evidence but is never PROVED
gather data
Gather Data
  • Includes all information that scientists gather
  • Quantitative data= Measured in numbers

(measurements, temperature, weight)

  • Qualitative data= descriptive
conduct experiment
Conduct Experiment
  • A variable is tested and compared to a control group
  • Experimental group= the group subjected to a specific factor
  • Control group= identical to experimental group except for the factor

(used for comparison)

variables
Variables
  • Independent variable= the factor being tested (example: fertilizer)
  • Dependent variable= the factor that is being measured (example: plant growth)
  • The dependent variable results from the independent variable
organize and analyze data
Organize and Analyze Data
  • Data should be placed in tables, charts, and graphs
  • Statistical analysis determines whether or not the data supports the hypothesis
form conclusion
Form Conclusion
  • Based on the conducted experiment, the results are summarized into a conclusion
  • Provides an explanation supported by data
publish research
Publish Research
  • Valid experiments can be published in scientific journals
  • If proper protocol has been followed, even student research can be published
inferences
Inferences
  • Conclusions made on the basis of facts or premises rather than on direct observations
  • Example: where there is smoke, there must be fire
theories and laws
Theories and Laws
  • Theory= an explanation based on many observations supported by experimental results (example: theory of evolution)
  • Law= a rule of nature that sums up related observations and experimental results

(example: law of gravity)

implementing scientific methods
Implementing Scientific Methods
  • Problem solving skills are used to solve a wide variety of global problems such as human infectious diseases
  • Communication allows scientists to build on the work of others
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