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Markus Amann International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA). GDP. After 1990 Asian emissions have grown rapidly due to fast economic development. SO 2. NO x. Per-capita NO x emissions 1940-2030. Per-capita NO x emissions 1940-2030.

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Markus Amann International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)

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Markus Amann

International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)


GDP

After 1990 Asian emissions have grown rapidlydue to fast economic development

SO2

NOx


Per-capita NOx emissions1940-2030


Per-capita NOx emissions1940-2030


Air pollution causes severe health impactsIndia, 2000 (Source: GAINS-India)

Loss in statistical life expectancy

from exposure to outdoor PM2.5

DALYs from air pollution


CO2

2000 = 100%

The economic projection of the Indian government provided by TERI


2000 = 100%

Air pollution will grow toodespite the current Indian pollution control legislation

SO2

NOx

PM2.5


Health impacts from PM2.5 in 2030for governmental energy projection + current AQ legislation

Loss in statistical life expectancy

from exposure to outdoor PM2.5

DALYs from air pollution


CO2/capita

Total CO2 emissions

GDP/capita

CO2 emissionsBaseline projections with current measures, 2000 and 2030


Combined AQ and CC measures:1) Phase-out of solid fuels in domestic sector

DALYs from air pollution CO2 emissions


Combined AQ and CC measures:2) End-of-pipe measures

Emissions from electricity generation in Andra Pradesh

Level in 2000


Costs of electricity generation Andra Pradesh, 2030 (Source: GAINS-India)


Combined AQ and CC measures:3) Sustainable energy systems

Loss in statistical life expectancy from PM2.5 in 2020

(with current legislation on air pollution controls)

Governmental energy baseline

Alternative sustainability energy path

Governmental energy baseline

Differences:

1 million ton less CO2 emissions/year in 2020

7 billion $/yr less control costs for air pollution

8 months life expectancy or 10 million life years gained per year


Emission trends in China1990-2005-2030


Costs of CO2 reductions for China in 2020and associated changes in air pollutants emissions


Conclusions

  • In addition to “conventional” air pollution problems from industrial sources, AQ impacts from poverty add an additional burden in developing countries.

  • Interactions between air pollution and GHG mitigation are equally relevant for developing countries. Well-selected measures to improve local air quality in the near term can deliver co-benefits on GHG emissions.


GAINS-Asia is freely accessible at the Internetwww.iiasa.ac.at/web-apps/apd/gains/AS/index.login


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