MOTOR SYSTEMS. Muscles and Joints Muscles Moving The Spinal Cord Spinal Reflexes Reciprocal Control of Opposing Muscles Polysynaptic Adaptations and Reflexes The Motor Cortex The Basal Ganglia Limbic System The Cerebellum Cranial Nerves.
Higher levels of control
Numerous reflexive behaviors are involved
-Cross-modal Sensory integration
Integrates cross modal input- may initiate goal-directed behaviors
Lesions of the dorsolateral frontal areas results in a number of “executive” motor impairments. These include perseveration, incoordination, motor impersistence, apraxias and hypokinesia.
Stimulation= complex sequences of behavior (aimless behavior)
Stimulation = relatively simple fragments of behavior
Decussates at medullary pyramids
Distal muscle groups
More volitional control
Higher resolution of control
Does not cross
Medial muscle groups
Gives off spinal collaterals
Lower resolution of control
The basal ganglia are involved in motor regulation, but are only one component of the control of behavior. The way in which the basal ganglia controls movement is complicated and not completely understood, but at his time may be fairly described as the gate-keeper of movement. Disorders of the basal ganglia can either lead to too much behavior or too little behavior.
( composed of the caudate nucleus and the Putamen)
The Globus Pallidus ( the striato-pallidal circuit= the behavioral “brakes” system)