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Colour Theory and Application. B.Sc. (Hons) Multimedia Computing. Media Technologies. Agenda. Describing Colour Colour Models and Synthesis Colour Palettes Colours for the Web. B.Sc. (Hons) Multimedia Computing. Media Technologies. Describing Colour.

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colour theory and application

Colour Theory and Application

B.Sc. (Hons) Multimedia Computing

Media Technologies

agenda
Agenda
  • Describing Colour
  • Colour Models and Synthesis
  • Colour Palettes
  • Colours for the Web

B.Sc. (Hons) Multimedia Computing

Media Technologies

describing colour
Describing Colour
  • Words we might use when naming and describing colours:
  • ‘shade, hue, warm, tone, bright, dim, pale, intense, vivid, rich, saturated, cold, strong, wishy-washy, glowing, colour, flat, weak, muddy, soft, vibrant, luminance, bold, tint’
  • Very subjective - influenced by perception and characteristics of illuminating light source.

B.Sc. (Hons) Multimedia Computing

Media Technologies

hue saturation value hsv
Hue, Saturation, Value (HSV)

The HSV model is based on the following concepts

  • Hue - this is what most people would refer to as the colour or shade. Red, yellow, green and blue are hues.
  • Saturation - this is a value that represents where the colour is on a scale from achromatic white to the pure hue.
  • Value - is the attribute, sometimes referred to as brightness, which determines how intense the colour is on a a scale from black to the pure hue.
the colour wheel maya
The Colour Wheel (Maya)

B.Sc. (Hons) Multimedia Computing

Media Technologies

colour models
Colour Models
  • Additive Synthesis - Start with no light. Add red green and blue light to make white and complementary colours
  • Subtractive Synthesis start with white light. Subtract red green and blue light to achieve complementary colours and black

B.Sc. (Hons) Multimedia Computing

Media Technologies

additive synthesis
Additive Synthesis

B.Sc. (Hons) Multimedia Computing

Media Technologies

additive synthesis1
Additive Synthesis

B.Sc. (Hons) Multimedia Computing

Media Technologies

colour models rgb
Colour Models:RGB
  • Display devices generally use a color model called RGB.
  • Stands for Red-Green-Blue
  • Based on the additive synthesis model
  • RBG colour value specified in three bytes

B.Sc. (Hons) Multimedia Computing

Media Technologies

colour models rgb1
Colour Models: RGB
  • Each RGB value is given a number from

0 – 255 starting from Black, R = 0 , B = 0, G = 0

to White, R = 255 B = 255 B = 255

  • Thus 256 colours can be represented by one byte = 2 8
  • Total possible colours from RGB code is 255 x 255 x 255 = 16 581 375 colours = True colour, but will require 3 bytes per pixel ( 24 bit colour ).

B.Sc. (Hons) Multimedia Computing

Media Technologies

subtractive synthesis
Subtractive Synthesis

B.Sc. (Hons) Multimedia Computing

Media Technologies

subtractive synthesis1
Subtractive Synthesis

B.Sc. (Hons) Multimedia Computing

Media Technologies

colour models cmyk
Colour Models:CMYK
  • Cyan-Magenta-Yellow-Black, and pronounced as separate letters. CMYK
  • Based on the subtractive synthesis model
  • CMYK is a colour model in which all colors are described as a mixture of these four process colours.
  • CMYK is the standard colour model used in offset printing for full-colour documents. Because such printing uses inks of these four basic colours, it is often called four-colour printing.

B.Sc. (Hons) Multimedia Computing

Media Technologies

rgb additive
RGB Additive
  • Additive color: Combine light sources, starting with darkness (black).
  • The additive primary colors are red (R), green (G), and blue (B).
  • Adding R and G light makes yellow (Y). Similarly, G + B = cyan (C) and R + B = magenta (M).
  • Combining all three additive primaries makes white.

B.Sc. (Hons) Multimedia Computing

Media Technologies

cmyk subtractive
CMYK Subtractive
  • Subtractive color: Illuminate objects that contain dyes or pigments that remove portions of the visible spectrum.
  • The objects may either transmit light (transparencies) or reflect light (paper, for example).
  • The subtractive primaries are C, M and Y.
  • Cyan absorbs red; hence C is sometimes called "minus red" (-R). Similarly, M is -G and Y is -B.

B.Sc. (Hons) Multimedia Computing

Media Technologies

colour models rgb cmyk
Colour Models: RGB & CMYK

B.Sc. (Hons) Multimedia Computing

Media Technologies

matching rbg to cmyk
Matching RBG to CMYK
  • One of the most difficult aspects of desktop publishing in colour is colour matching
  • Properly converting the RGB colours into CMYK colours so that what gets printed looks the same as what appears on the monitor.
  • RGB Most important for multimedia as it corresponds to the way colour is produced on a computer monitor
palettes indexed colour
Palettes ( Indexed Colour )
  • Computer monitor may be able to display 24 bit colour but video driver hardware may be limited to less than 24 bit.
  • Thus use a subset of 24 bit in an 8 bit palette – a selection of colours appropriate to the image colours
  • Palettes provide a finite sub-set of colours required for a given image
  • If the colour requirements change then some colours in the palette will need to be substituted for others to enable the new colours to be represented
  • Approximation to original colour in scene

B.Sc. (Hons) Multimedia Computing

Media Technologies

colour palettes
Colour Palettes
  • Palettes provide a finite sub-set of colours required for a given image
  • If the colour requirements change then some colours in the palette will need to be substituted for others to enable the new colours to be represented
  • Approximation to original colour in scene

B.Sc. (Hons) Multimedia Computing

Media Technologies

web colours
Web Colours
  • Websafe colours were specified from the days when most of the web audience could only access 256 colours.
  • Most contemporary display hardware is now able to provide 24 bit colour
  • Still need to be aware of potential deployment issues for now.

B.Sc. (Hons) Multimedia Computing

Media Technologies

munsell system
Munsell System
  • Albert Henry Munsell
  • This system is based on the principle of "perceived equidistance”
  • Munsell attempts to account for each colour attribute in ordered visual steps. He introduced 100 steps for colour "hue", starting with five main colours and five additional colours, and adopts an ordering system with 10 units of colour "value" and an open scale called "chroma" (similar to saturation)
  • Used in paint industry and photographic applications
references
References

The Colour Group ( founded in 1940 ) 19-11-04

http://www.city.ac.uk/colourgroup/

(City University)

Colour Wheel

http://www.ficml.org/jemimap/style/color/wheel.htm

Visbone Colour Resources 19-11-04

http://html-color-codes.com/l

Weinman L. Web Pallets 19-11-04

http://www.lynda.com/

Koren N. Light and Colour

http://www.normankoren.com/light_color.html 21-11-04

Roberts M HSV Colour Model. 21-1104

http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/~mer/colour/hsv.html

Munsell System

http://www.colorsystem.com/projekte/engl/31mune.htm

B.Sc. (Hons) Multimedia Computing

Media Technologies

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