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Chapter 4. System Unit. Overview. Describe System Unit Components Identify Motherboard Components Describe Processor Functions Explain Computer Data Representation Differentiate Memory Types Differentiate Ports & Connectors. System Unit. Case Containing Electronic Components.

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Chapter 4

Chapter 4

System Unit


Overview

Overview

  • Describe System Unit Components

  • Identify Motherboard Components

  • Describe Processor Functions

  • Explain Computer Data Representation

  • Differentiate Memory Types

  • Differentiate Ports & Connectors


System unit

System Unit

  • Case Containing Electronic Components


Common components

Common Components

  • Processor

  • Memory

  • Adapter Cards

    • Video

    • Sound

    • Modem

    • Network

  • Ports

  • Drive Bays

  • Power Supply


Motherboard

Motherboard

  • Main Circuit Board in System Unit

  • Contains

    • Processor

    • Memory

    • Adapter Cards

    • Chips

      • Integrated Circuits


Processor

Processor

  • Central Processing Unit (CPU)

    • Interprets & Executes Basic Instructions

    • Components

      • Control Unit

        • Directs & Coordinates Operations

      • Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

        • Arithmetic (+-*/)

        • Comparison (=<>)

        • Logical (and or not)


Processor1

Processor

  • System Clock

    • Controls Timing of All Operations

    • Generates Ticks

      • Regular Electronic Pulses

      • Smallest Unit of Time Recognized by a Device


Processor2

Processor

  • System Clock

    • Processor Speed Measured by Ticks/Second

      • MHz – One Million Ticks/Second

        • Type 100 Words/Minute = 8 Characters/Second

        • 8088 Processor @ 4.77 MHz

        • Character ► 50,000 Other Tasks ► Character

      • GHz – One Billion Ticks per Second


Processor3

Processor

  • Machine Cycle

    • Fetch

      • Obtain Instruction From Memory

    • Decode

      • Translate Instruction to Commands

    • Execute

      • Carry Out Command

    • Store

      • Write Result to Memory

  • CPU Executes 1-3+ Cycles per Tick


Processor4

Processor

  • Machine Cycle Example

1) Fetch instruction: “Get number at address 123456”

2) Decode instruction

3) Execute: ALU finds the number (which is 5)

4) Store: The number ‘5’ is stored in a register

5 – 8)  Repeat steps for another number (which is 6)

9) Fetch instruction: “Add number in Reg1 to Reg2”

10) Decode instruction

11) Execute: ALU adds the numbers

12) Store: The answer is stored in a register

13) Fetch instruction: “Display answer on screen”

14) Decode instruction

15) Execute: Display answer on screen


Processor5

Processor

  • Cooling Systems

    • Heat Sink

      • Component that Cools Processor

    • Heat Pipe

      • Used in Notebooks

    • Liquid Cooling

      • Continuous Fluid Flow Transfers Heat Away


Data representation

Data Representation

  • Binary

    • Most Computers are Digital

    • Recognize Two Discrete States

      • On / Off

      • Equivalent Numbering System

        • Bits (Binary Digit)

          • Two Unique Digits

          • 0 / 1


Data representation1

3

5

D

Data Representation

  • Byte

    • Eight Bits Grouped Together

    • Represent

      • Numbers

      • Uppercase & Lowercase Letters

      • Punctuation

      • Special Characters


Data representation2

Data Representation

  • Coding Systems

    • ASCII

      • PC

    • EBCDIC

      • Mainframe

    • Unicode

      • Other Languages


Memory

Memory

  • One or More Chips on Motherboard

  • Each Byte Stored in Unique Location

    • Address

  • Stores Three Basic Categories of Items

    • OS & Other System Software

    • Application Program Instructions

    • Data Being Processed & Resulting Info


Memory1

Memory

  • Sizes


Memory2

Memory

  • RAM (Random Access Memory)

    • Read From / Written To by Processor

    • Volatile

      • Content Lost When Power is Absent

    • More = Faster Operation

  • DRAM (Dynamic)

    • Standard

  • SRAM (Static)

  • MRAM (Magnetoresistive)


Memory3

Memory

  • Location

    • Memory Resides on Small Circuit Board

      • Memory Module

    • Memory Slots Hold Memory Modules

      • On Motherboard


Memory4

Memory

  • System Requirements

    • Based on Types of Applications Used

  • Cache

    • Speeds Computer Processes

      • Stores Frequently Used Instructions & Data


Memory5

Memory

  • ROM (Read Only Memory)

    • Stores Permanent Data & Instructions

    • Non-volatile

    • Types

      • Firmware – Permanently Written Data

        • BIOS (Basic Input / Output System)

          • Sequence of Instructions to Start Computer

      • PROM – Blank

      • EEPROM – Electrically Erasable PROM


Memory6

Memory

  • Flash

    • Non-volatile

    • Can be Erased & Reprogrammed

    • Used in

      • Cell Phone

      • Digital Camera

      • MP3 Player

      • USB Storage


Additional functionality

Additional Functionality

  • Expansion Slots & Adapter Cards

    • Expansion Slot

      • Socket on Motherboard Holds Adapter Card

    • Adapter Card

      • Enhances System Unit

      • Provides Connections to Peripherals

    • Plug n’ Play

      • Automatically Configured When Installed


Additional functionality1

Additional Functionality

  • Port

    • Connects Peripheral to System Unit

  • Connector

    • Joins Cable to Peripheral

    • Male or Female


Additional functionality2

Additional Functionality

  • Ports & Connectors


Additional functionality3

Additional Functionality

  • USB (Universal Serial Bus)

    • Printer, Digital Camera, Phone, Flash, etc.

    • Bluetooth

      • Wireless

  • Firewire

    • Data Transfer

  • IrDA

    • Wireless Data Transfer


System unit

Bus

  • Pathway Used to Communicate

    • On Motherboard

      • Allows Devices to Communicate with Each Other

  • Data Bus

  • Address Bus

  • Bus Width

    • Word

      • Number of Bits Processor can Use at Once


Other components

Other Components

  • Bay

    • Opening Inside System Unit

    • Used to Install Additional Equipment

      • Typically Holds Disk Drives

  • Power Supply

    • Converts AC Power into DC Power

    • Fan Keeps System Unit Components Cool


Maintenance

Maintenance

  • Clean Device Once or Twice a Year

    • Turn Off & Unplug Device

    • Compressed Air to Blow Out Dust

    • Clean Case Exterior

      • Antistatic Wipe

    • Clean Monitor

      • Cleaning Solution & Soft Cloth


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