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Today:. Quiz 7 Hormones and the Endocrine System. How Does an Animal Body Communicate to Coordinate Function?. Two Options The nervous system Signaling Molecules! (the Endocrine System ) Types and Functions??. Types of Signaling Events. Types of Hormones.

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Today

Today:

Quiz 7

Hormones and the Endocrine System


How does an animal body communicate to coordinate function
How Does an Animal Body Communicate to Coordinate Function?

Two Options

  • The nervous system

  • Signaling Molecules! (the Endocrine System)

    Types and Functions??



Types of hormones
Types of Hormones

Usually categorized by structure and mode of synthesis.

Useful Idea: Where will the targets of each of these molecules have to be???



Signaling by water soluble hormones
Signaling by Water-Soluble Hormones

Can trigger activation of enzymes, uptake or secretion, rearrangement of cytoskeleton, or transcription changes

Example: Epinephrine

How should your blood sugar level respond to a surge in epinephrine (adrenaline)?


Cell surface reception usually requires signal transduction
Cell-Surface Reception Usually Requires Signal Transduction

Let’s Watch:

http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=V_0EcUr_txk



Aside interesting application of vg expression
Aside: Interesting Application of Vg Expression?

Vitellogenin Gene Expression in Male Fathead Minnow as an Indicator of Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) in an Aquatic Environment

Objective:

To develop molecular tools for monitoring fish exposures to EDCs implicated in feminization of male fish around the world and in USA, that are present in surface waters, effluents from sewage treatment plants and sediments



An aside so why epi pens
An Aside: So Why EpinephrineEpi-Pens??

In Anaphylaxis, patients experience bronchial constriction and systemic vasodilation...


Localized signaling
Localized Signaling Epinephrine

Can be paracrine (from neighboring cells) or autocrine (same cell)

Fast!

Examples: cytokines, growth factors, nitric oxide (NO), prostoglandins


Negative feedback in the endocrine system supports homeostasis
Negative Feedback in the Endocrine System Supports Homeostasis

Homeostatic challenges in your duodenum??


Paired pathways insulin and glucagon
Paired Pathways: Insulin and Glucagon Homeostasis

Ideal Blood Sugar: 90-100mg/100mL

Balanced by two negative feedback loops (antagonists!)


Adding the nervous system to the story
Adding the Nervous System to the Story Homeostasis

Neurohormones play critical functions in reproduction and metamorphosis in invertebrates

Example: prophoracicotrophic hormone (PTTH) triggers ecdysis and metamorphosis


Vertebrate coordination of endocrine and nervous systems
Vertebrate Coordination of Endocrine and Nervous Systems Homeostasis

Hypothalmus: endocrine gland in the brain of vertebrates


Vertebrate coordination of endocrine and nervous systems1
Vertebrate Coordination of Endocrine and Nervous Systems Homeostasis

Oxytocin: Positive-feedback mechanism involved in release of milk from mammary glands and uterine contraction


Vertebrate coordination of endocrine and nervous systems adh
Vertebrate Coordination of Endocrine and Nervous Systems: HomeostasisADH

What would an Anti-Diuretic Hormone (ADH) do? When would I produce it?



Vertebrate coordination of endocrine and nervous systems2
Vertebrate Coordination of Endocrine and Nervous Systems Homeostasis

  • Anterior pituitary produces a variety of tropic and nontropic hormones

  • Tropic hormones regulate the function of endocrine cells or glands. Example: TSH

  • Nontropic hormones target nonendocrine tissues. Example: MSH



Vertebrate coordination of endocrine and nervous systems4
Vertebrate Coordination of Endocrine and Nervous Systems Homeostasis

These impacts make GH tempting for adult athletes to abuse!

A few hormones, like Growth Hormone (GH) have both tropic and nontropic effects


LONDON – In a major breakthrough in the fight against doping, a British rugby league player has become the first athlete to be suspended for using human growth hormone.

Terry Newton admitted taking the substance in a statement released by his attorneys on Friday. The United Kingdom Anti-Doping authority announced a two-year ban on Monday after Newton was fired by his club, Wakefield.

"It's the first time and very significant," WADA director general David Howman said. "It shows the people who say that HGH cannot be detected that it can. The sports people who said it can't be detected are fooling themselves."

Rugby player makes history with growth hormone ban

By ROBERT MILLWARD, AP Sports Writer Robert Millward, Ap Sports Writer – Mon Feb 22, 2010 2:48 pm ET


Example tsh a tropic hormone acts in a hormone cascade
Example: doping, a British rugby league player has become the first athlete to be suspended for using human growth hormone.TSH, a tropic hormone, acts in a hormone cascade


Functions of the thyroid hormone
Functions of the Thyroid Hormone doping, a British rugby league player has become the first athlete to be suspended for using human growth hormone.

Involved in both homeostasis (blood pressure, heart rate, etc.) and development

Excessive secretion = hyperthyroidism (high temp, high blood pressure, weight loss)

Insufficient production = hypothyroidism (weight gain, lethargy, intolerance to cold)



Controlling calcium ca 2
Controlling Calcium (Ca adults suffered from goiter!2+)


Stress and the adrenal gland
Stress and the Adrenal Gland adults suffered from goiter!


Moving on to applications
Moving on to Applications adults suffered from goiter!


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