A comparison between two ways to capture these behaviours using mobile technologies
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Learners’ questions and requests for help at the workplace Jean-Luc Gurtner, Anya Hitz, Dept of Education, University of Fribourg Elisa Motta, Alberto Cattaneo Swiss Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training.

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A comparison between two ways to capture these behaviours using mobile technologies

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A comparison between two ways to capture these behaviours using mobile technologies

Learners’ questions and requests for help at the workplaceJean-Luc Gurtner, Anya Hitz, Dept of Education, University of FribourgElisa Motta, Alberto CattaneoSwiss Federal Institute for VocationalEducation and Training

A comparison between two waysto capture these behaviours using mobile technologies


Asking questions seeking help and self regulated learning

Asking questions, seeking help and self-regulated learning

  • Asking questions and Help seeking as important self-regulated learning strategies (Newman, 1994; Karabenick, 2006)

  • Instrumental (adaptive) help seeking vs executive (expedient) help seeking (Karabenick, 2004)

  • At the confluence of motivation, cognition and metacognition

  • Help-seeking vs help-avoiding behaviours (Butler, 1998; Ryan & Pintrich, 1997)

ICM - Porto Sept. 2010


Methodological concerns

Methodological concerns

  • Almost all the studies on help-seeking behaviours have been conducted in general academic contexts

  • Almost all the studies on help-seeking behaviours have been conducted with questionnaires and have used self-reported data

  • Few exceptions:

    • Webb, Ing, Kersting & Nemer’s study on cooperation in small groups (2006).

    • Kempler & Linnenbrink (2006) study on group interactions in collaborative groups in math.

ICM - Porto Sept. 2010


Different contexts different methodologies

Different contexts - different methodologies?

At the workplace

  • Nobody is there just to answer your questions

  • Not asking when needed may have funest consequences

  • Are apprentices as reluctant to seek help in action?

At school

  • Teachers are there to answer students’ questions

  • But asking questions may make you look stupid (Karabenick & Newmann, 2006)

  • Students are reluctant to ask for help even if they need it (Butler, 1998)

ICM - Porto Sept. 2010


One tool two conditions

One tool, two conditions

A posteriori collection

  • Mobile phones “off” while working

  • Researcher sends a signal and apprentice calls back after completion of duties

  • He/she comments on what he/she has been doing recently and answers specific questions

Live collection

  • Apprentices are equipped with mobile phones, headset and microphones

  • Researcher calls apprentice at work for one hour and asks him or she to comment “live” what he/she is doing

  • Focus on each (meaningful) interaction with another person at the WP

ICM - Porto Sept. 2010


Participants in the research and corpus

Participants in the research and corpus

  • 28 volunteer apprentices in car mechanics

    from 10 different garages (dual track system)

  • Between 15 and 19 years old

    In year 1 through 4 of their vocational training

  • 72 one hour records of work (live collection)

    (800 questions or requests)

  • 71 “a posteriori“ interviews (119 questions or requests)

ICM - Porto Sept. 2010


Overall frequency and nature of requests observed

Overall frequency and nature of requests observed

  • On average, apprentices introduce one question or request every 5’ 47“ at the workplace

  • More advanced apprentices ask twice as many questions as beginners

  • Instrumental requests are approx. 50 times more frequent than expedient ones (Karabenick, 2004)

  • Only one out of four requests brings the helper to stay aside the helpee for more than one minute

ICM - Porto Sept. 2010


Social contexts in which questions or requests are introduced

Social Contexts in which questions or requests are introduced

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Types of questions and help requests 1

Types of questions and help-requests (1)

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Types of questions and help requests 2

Types of questions and help-requests (2)

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Types of questions and help requests 3

Types of questions and help-requests (3)

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Types of questions and help requests 4

Types of questions and help-requests (4)

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Frequencies of types of questions according to collection technique

Frequencies of types of questions according to collection technique

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To whom do they ask questions

To whom do they ask questions?

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Summary of results

Summary of results

  • Apprentices introduce questions and requests more often when they are already working collaboratively (live collection)

  • But they are not aware of this (a posteriori collection) or..

  • They appreciate to see themselves as autonomous

ICM - Porto Sept. 2010


Summary of results1

Summary of results

  • Apprentices requests are mainly introduced for information purposes (live collection)

  • They underestimate however the frequency of such requests and overestimate the frequency of requests for intervention (a posteriori collection) or ….

  • They (deliberately) minimize the importance of (simple) questions in order to feel more competent

ICM - Porto Sept. 2010


Summary of results2

Summary of results

  • Apprentices make use of a large variety of “helpers“ (live collection)

  • They underestimate however the support they get from other apprentices or persons outside of the workshop (a posteriori collection) or …

  • They value becoming more central (and recognized) in their professional environment (LPP: Lave & Wenger, 1991).

ICM - Porto Sept. 2010


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Mobile technologies offer good opportunities to approach apprentices self-regulated learning strategies at the WP

  • The way these technologies are used might however introduce some “noise“ into the data or …

  • Give valuable insights into the construction of apprentices’ professional identities.

ICM - Porto Sept. 2010


A comparison between two ways to capture these behaviours using mobile technologies

Thank you

for your attention!

ICM - Porto Sept. 2010


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