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A Structured Approach to Database Administration using the principles of ITIL and ITSM. By Iggy Fernandez. Speaker Introduction. 10+ years of Oracle DBA experience Previously, Manager of Database Administration Services at Corio Currently, Lead DBA at Intacct. Presentation Structure.

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A Structured Approach to Database Administration using the principles of ITIL and ITSM

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A structured approach to database administration using the principles of itil and itsm l.jpg

A Structured Approach to Database Administration using the principles of ITIL and ITSM

By Iggy Fernandez


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Speaker Introduction

  • 10+ years of Oracle DBA experience

  • Previously, Manager of Database Administration Services at Corio

  • Currently, Lead DBA at Intacct

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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Presentation Structure

  • Part I- Problem Statement

  • Part II- Other approaches

  • Part III- ITIL and ITSM

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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Part I – The Problem Statement


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How many DBAs does it take to change a light bulb?

  • “A chief technology officer of a G2000 company recently told me that he had three database administrators (DBAs) managing 130 instances of software on a 24/7 basis. I shuddered at the thought. No matter how qualified and knowledgeable those individuals might be, three IT professionals were not sufficient for the task” – Dr Tim Chou – President, Oracle Outsourcing

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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What are the deliverables of the DBA function?

  • “What is a DBA's responsibility? This million-dollar question is difficult for most IS organizations--let alone DBAs themselves--to answer” – Published Oracle author

  • “If you don't know Which to Do, Of all the things in front of you, Then what you'll have when you are through, Is just a mess without a clue” – Winnie the Pooh Bear

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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Wiretap Recording

First DBA: it seems very quiet this week...

First DBA: i don't think i'll have 4 - 5 hours of real work

Second DBA: why don’t you enter the time for regular db maintenance on the servers

First DBA: uhhhhhhhhhhh, what regular maint?

First DBA: there hasn't been any this week

Second DBA: but at least you can enter the time for proactive maintenance

First DBA: what proactive maint?

First DBA: haven't touched a box this week.

Second DBA: check the error log and other db related logs

First DBA: hmmmmm

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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HA technology does not produce HA

  • Intel DBA writes quickie script

  • eBay DBA types in wrong window

  • Amazon database cannot be restarted

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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Wiretap Recording

First DBA: too many fires

Second DBA: ?

First DBA: oh the usual

First DBA: prod is down, archive logs missing

First DBA: etc etc

First DBA: and everybody is running around like a headless chicken

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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Recap – The Problem Statement

  • Inadequate staffing?

  • No consensus on deliverables

  • No rating methodology

  • Bad things happen easily

  • HA Technology does not produce HA

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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Part II – Other Approaches


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Capability Maturity Model (Software Development)

  • INITIAL – “Individual Heroics”

  • REPEATABLE – Basic Processes e.g. Project Management, Quality Assurance

  • DEFINED – Documentation, Standardization, Integration, Communication

  • MANAGED – Monitoring, Measurement, Reporting

  • OPTIMIZING – Continuous Improvement

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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Other Quality Management Systems

  • ISO 9000 family

  • Six Sigma

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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Deficiencies of Quality Management Systems

  • No specific guidance for I.T. (SW-CMM)

  • No specific guidance for any field (ISO 9000)

  • Only applicable to manufacturing (Six Sigma)

  • Top-heavy bureaucracy

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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COBIT

  • Control Objectives for Information Technology

  • “Controls” and “Control Objectives”

  • Key Success Factors

  • Key Goal Indicators

  • Key Performance Indicators

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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What about SAS 70?

  • Not a check list of best practices – no such thing as “SAS 70 compliance”

  • Auditing methodology published by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants

  • Type I and Type II audits

  • Can hide as much as they reveal

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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Part III – ITIL and ITSM


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I.T. Service Management

  • Created by the U.K. government

  • Described in the ITIL publications (I.T. Infrastructure Library)

  • Adopted by I.T. Service Providers like IBM Global Services and by Fortune 100 companies like eBay and Genentech

  • 10 interrelated management processes in two groups (over-simplification)

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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Service Support

  • Incident Management

  • Problem Management

  • Configuration Management

  • Change Management

  • Release Management

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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“Restore normal service operation as quickly as possible and minimize the adverse impact on business operations, thus ensuring that the best possible levels of service quality and availability are maintained” – Best Practice for Service Delivery – ITIL Series

Reactive, Break-fix

Database down, Database slow, Job failure, Schema Changes, Add users

Service Desk, Call Center, Ticketing System, P1, SEV-1

24x7, Remote Access, VPN

Incident Management

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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“Minimize the adverse impact of Incidents and Problems on the business that are caused by errors within the IT infrastructure, and to prevent recurrence of Incidents related to these errors” – Best Practice for Service Delivery – ITIL Series

Proactive, Root Cause Analysis, Post-Mortem, Trend Analysis

Keep separate from Incident Management

Problem Management

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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“Provide accurate information on configurations and their documentation to support all the other Service Management processes” – Best Practice for Service Delivery – ITIL Series

How does Server A differ from Server B?

Who has access to Server A?

Which patches have been applied to this Peoplesoft environment?

When does the Support Contract expire?

Who is the Business Owner?

Configuration Management

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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“Ensure that standardized methods and procedures are used for efficient and prompt handling of all Changes, in order to minimize the impact of Change related incidents upon service quality, and consequently to improve the day-to-day operations of the organization” – Best Practice for Service Delivery – ITIL Series

Risk Analysis, ROI Analysis

Pre-Test Plan

Pre-Communication Plan

Pre-Signoffs

Backup Plan

Execution Plan

Backout Plan

Post-Test Plan

Post-Communication Plan

Post-Signoffs

Documentation Updates

Contingency Plan Updates

Change Management

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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“Design and implement efficient procedures for the distribution and installation of Changes to I.T. Systems” – Best Practice for Service Delivery – ITIL Series

Installs

Upgrades

Patches

Release Management

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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Service Delivery

  • Service Level Management

  • Financial Management

  • Capacity Management

  • Continuity Management

  • Availability Management

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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“Maintain and improve I.T. Service quality, through a constant cycle of agreeing, monitoring and reporting upon I.T. Service achievements and instigation of actions to eradicate poor service – in line with business or cost justification” – Best Practice for Service Delivery – ITIL Series

Service Level Agreements

Operational Level Agreements

Satisfaction Surveys

Service Level Management

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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“Provide cost-effective stewardship of the I.T. assets and resources used in providing I.T. Services” – Best Practice for Service Delivery – ITIL Series

Hardware, Software, Personnel, Facilities, Service Contracts

TCO, ROI, Budgeting, Accounting, Charging

Server Consolidation, Standard Edition, Colocation, Linux, Open Source

Financial Management

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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“Ensure that cost-justifiable I.T. capacity always exists and that it is matched to the current and future needs of the business” – Best Practice for Service Delivery – ITIL Series

Monitoring

Tuning!

Capacity Planning

Demand Management

Capacity Management

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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“Support the overall Business Continuity Management process by ensuring that the required I.T. technical and service facilities (including computer systems, networks, applications, technical support and Service Desk) can be recovered within required, and agreed, business timescales” – Best Practice for Service Delivery – ITIL Series

Disaster Recovery, Contingency Planning

Fire, earthquake, flood, power failure

Continuity Management

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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“Understand the Availability requirements of the business and plan, measure, monitor and continuously improve the Availability of the I.T. Infrastructure, services and supporting organization to ensure that these requirements are met consistently” – Best Practice for Service Delivery – ITIL Series

Availability is Job #1!

High Availability, Data Guard

Redundancy, RAC

SAN, NAS, Active-Passive Configuration

Backups! Backups! Backups! Test! Test! Test!

Availability Management

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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What are the deliverables of the DBA function?

  • A stable, secure and resilient infrastructure

  • A log or database or all operational events, alerts and alarms

  • A set of operational scripts

  • A resilience and fail-over testing schedule

  • A set of operational work schedules

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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What are the deliverables of the DBA function?

  • A set of operational management tools

  • Management reports and information

  • Exception reviews and reports

  • Review and audit reports

  • A secure Operational Document Library

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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Do we have the time?

  • Quadrant I – Activities that are Important and Urgent e.g. Incident Management

  • Quadrant II – Activities that are Important but not Urgent e.g. Configuration Management

  • Quadrant III – Activities that are not Important but Urgent

  • Quadrant IV – Activities that are not Important and not urgent

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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Recap (How many DBAs does it take to fix a light bulb?)

  • Rate each ITSM focus area

  • Rate the quality of each deliverable

  • Decide what level you want to reach

  • Determine how much work is involved

  • Determine how many DBAs you need

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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Further Reading

  • CMMsei.cmu.edu/cmm/

  • Six Sigmage.com/sixsigma/

  • ISO 9000iso.org

  • COBITisaca.org

  • SAS 70 systemexperts.com/tutors/sas70.pdf

  • ITSMitsmf.com

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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ITIL Series

  • Best Practice for Service Delivery

  • Best Practice for Service Support

  • Best Practice for ICT Infrastructure Management

  • Best Practice for Application Management

  • Best Practice for Security Management

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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Q & A

  • Send e-mail to [email protected]

A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO DATABASE ADMINISTRATION


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