Industrial revolution
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Industrial Revolution. Pre-Industrial Society Mostly rural 3 field system Forces for change Growing population Need for more food. Agrarian Improvements. Enclosure movement Fencing around landowners property Landowners gained wealth; peasants became poorer Variation of crops

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Industrial Revolution

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Industrial revolution

Industrial Revolution

  • Pre-Industrial Society

    • Mostly rural

    • 3 field system

    • Forces for change

      • Growing population

      • Need for more food


Agrarian improvements

Agrarian Improvements

  • Enclosure movement

    • Fencing around landowners property

    • Landowners gained wealth; peasants became poorer

    • Variation of crops

  • Crop Rotation

    • Rotate crops

    • No more fallow fields

    • More crops, more food, more people

  • Advancements in farming tools – seed drill

  • New crops – corn and potato


Dev of capitalism and early industry

Dev. Of Capitalism and Early Industry

  • Goal of industrial production

    • lessen the unit cost of production through improved technology

  • Capitalism :incentive to the growing industries

  • Cottage Industry/Domestic System

    • textiles

    • Merchants supply; Women spin cloth

  • Effects

    • $$$ for new merchant class

    • $$$ for peasants

    • Products were cheaper


The rise of the factory

The Rise of the Factory

  • Cottage Industry: could not keep up

  • New machines: too big to fit in home

  • Dev. Of Water frame

    • water =source of energy

    • Early factories located on water

  • Hundreds of workers under one roof

    • single pay scale

    • single, repetitive part of the production process

    • All decisions in the hands of the employer

  • Other power sources: coal and iron


Britain the birthplace of the revolution

Britain: The Birthplace of the Revolution

  • Geography

    • Good climate, natural resources, separate from Europe and European conflicts

  • Government

    • trade, peasants movement, funding

  • Social Factors

    • Society: less rigid

  • Colonial Empire

    • raw materials and markets for goods

  • Advantages of Industrializing 1st

    • monopoly on technology

  • Effects of Textile Factories in Great Britain

    • Prices were lower

    • More jobs

    • Increased population

    • Urbanization

    • Immigration


Steam energy

Steam Energy

  • James Watt (1760s)

  • Need for more power

  • Factories: now away from water

  • Requires coal

    • Increased mining, more jobs

  • Iron industry develops

    • Machinery, railways

    • Later: steel and the modernization of building

    • By 1860s, industry had spread to Belgium, France, Prussia, Italy, and the U.S.


Spread of the industrial revolution

Spread of the Industrial Revolution

  • Industry spread slowly during the 18th & early 19th centuries

    • No other country had England’s combination of advantages

    • England protected industrial techniques as state secrets

    • Napoleon’s wars prevented Europe from industrializing


Advancements

Advancements

  • Transportation

    • Paved roads

    • Canals

    • Railroads (1829)

      • steam power

      • Effects: cheaper transportation, increased profit, fueled other industries

    • Engine – Daimler (1885)

    • Planes – Wright brothers (1903)

  • Communication

    • Telegraph – Morse (1837)

    • Telephone – Bell (1876)

  • Electricity

    • Edison – factories can now run at night


Impact of industrialization on society

Impact of Industrialization on Society

  • Dev. Of a working class

  • Poor factory conditions led to change in labor laws

  • Child labor

  • Inequality of labor

  • Dev. of Big Business, Corporations, Business Cycle

  • Led to organized labor and labor unions

  • Socialism and Communism

    • Karl Marx – history is a class struggle between the haves and the have-nots

    • The working class should seize control

    • The society as a whole would own everything


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