Economic Geography. Spatial organization and distribution of economic activity Outcome of financial decisions (government, business, consumers) Highly uneven at all scales Technology and access to resources shifts economic advantages. Uneven Distribution (GDP Per Capita).
Spatial organization and distribution of economic activity
U.S., Europe, Asia
(extracting raw materials)
Geography of the Coal Industry
Primary activities often lead to“Resource Dependency”(“Banana Republic,” “Oil state,” etc.)
Cartel(Strategy used to treat resource dependency)
Processing and manufacturing materials
Notice relative location to coal belts!
February 12, 2008
DETROIT (AP) - General Motors Corp. reported a $38.7 billion loss for 2007 today, the largest annual loss ever for an automotive company, and said it is making a new round of buyout offers to U.S. hourly workers in hopes of replacing some of them with lower-paid help.
But GM Chairman and Chief Executive Rick Wagoner said that the company made significant progress in 2007, reducing structural costs in North America, negotiating a historic labor agreement and growing aggressively in Latin America and Asia.
The Detroit-based automaker said it was offering a new round of buyouts to all 74,000 of its U.S. hourly workers who are represented by the United Auto Workers.
Ford Motor Co. and Chrysler already have announced similar buyout offers.
GM barely retained its title as the world's largest automaker in 2007, selling just 3,000 more vehicles than Toyota Motor Corp. GM sold a total of 9,369,524 vehicles worldwide, up 3 percent from the year before. http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/business/2012/02/gm-posts-record-7-6-billion-profit/
Economic Structure hourly workersUS Employment by Labor Sector
Collapse of Industrial hourly workers(Rust) Belt
Factory jobs replaced in
Pittsburgh, Cleveland, Boston, others by high-tech and financial industries
Some cities have adjusted hourly workers… others have not.
Lower wages, taxes
+ Weaker labor, safety and environmental regulations
+ Ability to pit workers against each other, or to repress unions
= “Race to the Bottom”
SEZ’s hourly workers
Established by Chinese government for trade $$$
EPZs, hourly workersSEZs, FTZs
“Free Trade Zones”
Jebel Ali (Dubai) Free Zone
Kingston (Jamaica) Free Zone
Northern Mariana Islands hourly workers
U.S. stock exchange
Sales, exchange, trading goods and services
Call Center: India
August 1, 2004
(CBS) - For decades, American manufacturers of everything from blue jeans to semiconductors have searched the world for the cheapest labor they could find. It may have cost hundreds of thousands of American jobs, but it's made American products more affordable. Now, some of the most familiar companies -ones we deal with every day - are moving a whole new class of jobs overseas. They call it outsourcing.
As Correspondent Morley Safer first reported last January, that person at the other end of the line is more likely to be in India than in Indiana. To many American employers, India is Nirvana. It has a stable democracy, an enormous English-speaking population, and a solid education system that each year churns out more than a million college graduates -- all happy to work for a fraction of the salary of their American counterparts.
India epitomizes the new global economy -- a country that often looks on the edge of collapse, a background of grinding poverty, visually a mess. And yet, whether you know it or not, when you call Delta Airlines, American Express, Sprint, Citibank, IBM or Hewlett Packard's technical support number, chances are you'll be talking to an Indian…who take on phone names such as Sean, Nancy, Ricardo and Celine so they can sound like the girl or boy next door. "The real name is Tashar. And name I use is Terrance," says one representative. "My real name is Sangita. And my pseudonym is Julia," says another representative. "Julia Roberts happened to be my favorite actress, so I just picked out Julia." American movies are part of an agent's training in how to sound all-American.
Processing knowledge and information
From above (elites)
Trade Alliances hourly workers(Free Trade Agreements)
NAFTA = US + Canada + Mexico, 1994
DR-CAFTA = US + some Middle American Countries, 2006
Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas
Alternative to NAFTA,
Principles of Developmentalism:
Urban Growth Rates hourly workers
4/5 growth in Periphery; 50% under poverty line
xxxxxx hourly workers
Number of Core
Cities in Top 30
Rio de Janeiro
* World Bank 2009