Personal variation in language learning
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PERSONAL VARIATION IN LANGUAGE LEARNING. LEARNING STYLES. Field independence. ability to form a complete picture - female feature sociability, empathy interaction. ability to see the details even among disturbing factors increases with age male feature

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PERSONAL VARIATION IN LANGUAGE LEARNING

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Personal variation in language learning

PERSONAL VARIATION IN LANGUAGE LEARNING


Learning styles

LEARNING STYLES


Field independence

Field independence


Field dependence and independence

ability to form a

complete picture

- female feature

sociability, empathy

interaction

ability to see the details even among disturbing factors

increases with age

male feature

independent, competitive, self-confident

analysis, classroom learning, focus on details

Field dependence and independence


Types

Types

  • Left or right brain dominance

  • Ambiguity tolerance

  • Reflexivity – impulsivity

  • Sensual orientation

    • Visual

    • Audial

    • Kinesthetic

Please, look it up in your book!


Learning strategies

LEARNING STRATEGIES


Good language learners rubin 1975 stern 1975

Good language learners(Rubin, 1975; Stern, 1975)

  • take charge of their own learning.

  • organise info about language.

  • creative, experimenting.

  • find opportunities to practice.

  • live with uncertainty.

  • use conscious memory strategies for recall.


Personal variation in language learning

  • learn from errors.

  • rely on their L1 and L3,4… systems.

  • use contextual cues in comprehension.

  • make intelligent guesses.

  • learn chunks and formulas.

  • learn to keep the conversation going.

  • learn different styles and vary them according to context.


Types1

Metacognitive

Advance organisers

Selective/directed attention

Self-management

Self-monitoring

Self-evaluation

Socioaffective

- Cooperation

- Clarification

Cognitive

Repetition

Resoucring

Translation

Grouping

Note-taking

Imagery

Keyword

Transfer

Inferencing

Types


Communication strategies oxford 1990 d rnyei 1995

Communication strategiesOxford (1990), Dörnyei (1995)

Avoidance

  • Message abandonment

    e.g.:

    - I lost my road.

    - You lost your road?

    - Uh, … I lost. I lost. I got lost.

    - Topic avoidance


Compensation

Compensation

  • Circumlocution

    e.g. „ the thing you open the bottle with”

  • Approximation

    e.g. ship for sailboat

  • All-purpose words

    e.g. „Could you pass me that thingie?”

  • Word coinage

    e.g. vegetarianist


Personal variation in language learning

- Prefabriacted patterns

e.g. „Could you tell me the way to …?”

  • Non-linguistic signals

  • Literal translation

    e.g. „one-and-a-half room flat”

  • Foreignizing

    e.g. „löncsölni”, „Hozd már ki a hoovert a bedroomból!”

    - Code-switching

    e.g. „Where is posta?”


Personality features

PERSONALITY FEATURES


The affective domain

The affective domain

  • Receiving-tolerating

  • Responding-committing

  • Valuing

  • Organisation of values

  • Developing an individual value system

    Schuman (1997-1999): amygdala

    Learning = emotionally motivated activity


Aspects

Aspects

  • Self-esteem

  • Inhibition

  • Risk-taking

  • Anxiety

  • Extroversion

  • Motivation


Self esteem

Self-esteem

  • „a personal judgement of worthiness” (Coopersmith, 1967)

  • Types:global

    situational or specific

    task-related

  • MacIntyre, Dörnyei, Clément &

    Noels (1998): direct + relation to „willingness to communicate”


Inhibition

Inhibition

  • Self-defence mechanism to protect ego

  • Language ego (Guiora, 1972, Ehrman, 1996)

  • Guiora et. Al. (1972)- the alcohol test

    ?? Effect on muscular tension

  • Guiora et.al. (1980)- the Valium test

    ?? Significant tester effect


Personal variation in language learning

  • Stevick (1976) alienation between

    • Critical me and performing me

    • L1 culture and L2 culture

    • Self and other learners

    • Self and teacher

  • Ehrman (1999): thick and thin egos in SLL

    tolerance of mistakes


Risk taking

Risk-taking

  • Relation to inhibition

    and ambiguity tolerance

  • Moderate risk-taking correlates with language learning success

    accurate guesses

    based on skill

  • Low-risk takers=avoidance

  • High-risk takers=wild guesses


Anxiety

Anxiety

  • Types (Oxford, 1999)

    • Trait

    • State

  • Language anxiety

    (MacIntyre & Gardner, 1989)

    - communication apprehension

  • fear of negative social evaluation

  • text anxiety

  • Debilitative and facilitative anxiety


Extroversion

Extroversion

Sociable, talkative

Western ideal

Need to receive ego-enhancement, self-esteen from others

Introversion

Quiet, reserved

Derive a sense of wholeness and fulfillment independent of others

Inner strength

Extroversion


Motivation

Motivation

  • Types

    • Integrative

    • Instrumental

    • Intrinsic

    • Extrinsic


Measuring personality factors

Measuring personality factors

  • Problems

    - accuracy of self-perceptions

    - self-flattery syndrome

    - culturally ethnocentric, not transferrable

  • Solutions

    - variety of methods and instruments

    - validating


Personal variation in language learning

  • Myers and Briggs


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