personal variation in language learning
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PERSONAL VARIATION IN LANGUAGE LEARNING. LEARNING STYLES. Field independence. ability to form a complete picture - female feature sociability, empathy interaction. ability to see the details even among disturbing factors increases with age male feature

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field dependence and independence
ability to form a

complete picture

- female feature

sociability, empathy

interaction

ability to see the details even among disturbing factors

increases with age

male feature

independent, competitive, self-confident

analysis, classroom learning, focus on details

Field dependence and independence
types
Types
  • Left or right brain dominance
  • Ambiguity tolerance
  • Reflexivity – impulsivity
  • Sensual orientation
    • Visual
    • Audial
    • Kinesthetic

Please, look it up in your book!

good language learners rubin 1975 stern 1975
Good language learners(Rubin, 1975; Stern, 1975)
  • take charge of their own learning.
  • organise info about language.
  • creative, experimenting.
  • find opportunities to practice.
  • live with uncertainty.
  • use conscious memory strategies for recall.
slide10
learn from errors.
  • rely on their L1 and L3,4… systems.
  • use contextual cues in comprehension.
  • make intelligent guesses.
  • learn chunks and formulas.
  • learn to keep the conversation going.
  • learn different styles and vary them according to context.
types1
Metacognitive

Advance organisers

Selective/directed attention

Self-management

Self-monitoring

Self-evaluation

Socioaffective

- Cooperation

- Clarification

Cognitive

Repetition

Resoucring

Translation

Grouping

Note-taking

Imagery

Keyword

Transfer

Inferencing

Types
communication strategies oxford 1990 d rnyei 1995
Communication strategiesOxford (1990), Dörnyei (1995)

Avoidance

  • Message abandonment

e.g.:

- I lost my road.

- You lost your road?

- Uh, … I lost. I lost. I got lost.

- Topic avoidance

compensation
Compensation
  • Circumlocution

e.g. „ the thing you open the bottle with”

  • Approximation

e.g. ship for sailboat

  • All-purpose words

e.g. „Could you pass me that thingie?”

  • Word coinage

e.g. vegetarianist

slide14
- Prefabriacted patterns

e.g. „Could you tell me the way to …?”

  • Non-linguistic signals
  • Literal translation

e.g. „one-and-a-half room flat”

  • Foreignizing

e.g. „löncsölni”, „Hozd már ki a hoovert a bedroomból!”

- Code-switching

e.g. „Where is posta?”

the affective domain
The affective domain
  • Receiving-tolerating
  • Responding-committing
  • Valuing
  • Organisation of values
  • Developing an individual value system

Schuman (1997-1999): amygdala

Learning = emotionally motivated activity

aspects
Aspects
  • Self-esteem
  • Inhibition
  • Risk-taking
  • Anxiety
  • Extroversion
  • Motivation
self esteem
Self-esteem
  • „a personal judgement of worthiness” (Coopersmith, 1967)
  • Types: global

situational or specific

task-related

  • MacIntyre, Dörnyei, Clément &

Noels (1998): direct + relation to „willingness to communicate”

inhibition
Inhibition
  • Self-defence mechanism to protect ego
  • Language ego (Guiora, 1972, Ehrman, 1996)
  • Guiora et. Al. (1972)- the alcohol test

?? Effect on muscular tension

  • Guiora et.al. (1980)- the Valium test

?? Significant tester effect

slide20
Stevick (1976) alienation between
    • Critical me and performing me
    • L1 culture and L2 culture
    • Self and other learners
    • Self and teacher
  • Ehrman (1999): thick and thin egos in SLL

tolerance of mistakes

risk taking
Risk-taking
  • Relation to inhibition

and ambiguity tolerance

  • Moderate risk-taking correlates with language learning success

accurate guesses

based on skill

  • Low-risk takers=avoidance
  • High-risk takers=wild guesses
anxiety
Anxiety
  • Types (Oxford, 1999)
    • Trait
    • State
  • Language anxiety

(MacIntyre & Gardner, 1989)

- communication apprehension

  • fear of negative social evaluation
  • text anxiety
  • Debilitative and facilitative anxiety
extroversion
Extroversion

Sociable, talkative

Western ideal

Need to receive ego-enhancement, self-esteen from others

Introversion

Quiet, reserved

Derive a sense of wholeness and fulfillment independent of others

Inner strength

Extroversion
motivation
Motivation
  • Types
    • Integrative
    • Instrumental
    • Intrinsic
    • Extrinsic
measuring personality factors
Measuring personality factors
  • Problems

- accuracy of self-perceptions

- self-flattery syndrome

- culturally ethnocentric, not transferrable

  • Solutions

- variety of methods and instruments

- validating

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