PERSONAL VARIATION IN LANGUAGE LEARNING. LEARNING STYLES. Field independence. ability to form a complete picture - female feature sociability, empathy interaction. ability to see the details even among disturbing factors increases with age male feature
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Please, look it up in your book!
- I lost my road.
- You lost your road?
- Uh, … I lost. I lost. I got lost.
- Topic avoidance
e.g. „ the thing you open the bottle with”
e.g. ship for sailboat
e.g. „Could you pass me that thingie?”
e.g. „Could you tell me the way to …?”
e.g. „one-and-a-half room flat”
e.g. „löncsölni”, „Hozd már ki a hoovert a bedroomból!”
e.g. „Where is posta?”
Schuman (1997-1999): amygdala
Learning = emotionally motivated activity
situational or specific
Noels (1998): direct + relation to „willingness to communicate”
?? Effect on muscular tension
?? Significant tester effect
tolerance of mistakes
and ambiguity tolerance
based on skill
(MacIntyre & Gardner, 1989)
- communication apprehension
- accuracy of self-perceptions
- self-flattery syndrome
- culturally ethnocentric, not transferrable
- variety of methods and instruments