Great depression
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Great Depression. Major international issue: Unemployment! Many responses…. Welcome to Noblestan !. We are a post WWI government struggling with the effects of the Great Depression. Our first need is to elect a leader to lead us out of this crisis.

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Great Depression

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Great depression

Great Depression

  • Major international issue:

    Unemployment!

  • Many responses…


Welcome to noblestan

Welcome to Noblestan!

  • We are a post WWI government struggling with the effects of the Great Depression.

  • Our first need is to elect a leader to lead us out of this crisis.

  • We need the right leader to help our country survive!


Great depression

The economic problems we face mean that it is time for our class to be looking for a new leader. Examine the candidates for what you think our country needs. Which candidate would you choose? Why?

Candidate A

I come from a family with ties to government. I suffer from severe ailing health. I have an agenda to bring sweeping and controversial change to the political landscape of our country. I have been known to have affairs, but it doesn’t interfere with my political ambitions.

Candidate B

I am a decorated war hero. I understand how badly our country has been treated. The current leadership is indecisive and weak; I offer change and hope. We need a leader that will represent the strength of our nation. I will provide the economic stability our country needs.

Candidate C

I am often considered defiant. I have a mouth that my enemies think causes trouble. I’ve served in the military and worked my way to power. Some people say that I am short tempered and have a problem with alcohol.


Great depression

The economic problems we face mean that it is time for our class to be looking for a new leader. Examine the candidates for what you think our country needs. Which candidate would you choose? Why?

Candidate A

I come from a family with ties to government. I suffer from severe ailing health. I have an agenda to bring sweeping and controversial change to the political landscape of our country. I have been known to have affairs, but it doesn’t interfere with my political ambitions.

Candidate B

I am a decorated war hero. I understand how badly our country has been treated. The current leadership is indecisive and weak; I offer change and hope. We need a leader that will represent the strength of our nation. I will provide the economic stability our country needs.

Candidate C

I am often considered defiant. I have a mouth that my enemies think causes trouble. I’ve served in the military and worked my way to power. Some people say that I am short tempered and have a problem with alcohol.


Wwii at a glance

WWII at a Glance

A Bird’s Eye view of the bloodiest war in human history.


Quick facts

Quick Facts

A. War Costs

  • US Debt 1940 - $9 billionUS Debt 1945 - $98 billion

  • The war cost $330 billion -- 10 times the cost of WWI & as much as all previous US Federal spending since 1776


Quick facts1

Quick Facts

B. Human Costs

  • Over 60 million people died (compared to 15 million in WWI)

2/3rds of deaths civilian

21.3 million Soviets (7.7 million civilians)

11 million died as a result of the HOLOCAUST(6 million Jews + 5 million others)


Quick facts2

Quick Facts

B. Human Costs


Great depression

When?

1939-1945

US involvement 1941-1945

1939

1941

1942-43

1944

1945

Aug.- Feb. Battle of Stalingrad

Dec. 7 – Japan bombs Pearl Harbor; US enters the War

May - Germans Surrender

Sept. - Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima & Nagasaki, Japanese Surrender

Sept.1 - Germany invades Poland (official start to the war)

Sept. 3 -Britain & France declare war on Germany

June 6, D-Day invasion of Normandy France.


Great depression

Who?

Axis

Allies

(major powers)

(major powers)

Great Britain

Germany

USSR

Italy

United States

Japan

France

(note: France surrendered to Germany in 1940 (after 6 weeks of fighting)


Major leaders

Major Leaders

Adolf Hitler

Nazi Germany

Benito Mussolini

Italy


Major leaders1

Major Leaders

Hideki Tojo

Japanese Prime Minister

Winston Churchill

British Prime Minister


Major leaders2

Major Leaders

Joseph Stalin

Soviet Leader

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

US President


Why underlying causes of wwii

Why? (underlying causes of WWII)

1. Treaty of Versailles (WWI)

A. Germany lost land to surrounding nations

B. War Reparations

1) Allies collect $ to pay back war debts to U.S.

2) Germany must pay $33 billion (paid less than 21 billion from 1919-1932)

3) Bankrupted the German economy & embarrassed Germans

4) Germans began printing money and giving to French – destroying the German Economy

Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau, and Woodrow Wilsonduring negotiations for the Treaty


German marks needed to buy one us dollar

German Marks needed to buyone US dollar

  • 1919 April--12

  • December--47

  • 1921 November--263

  • 1922 July--493 

  • December--7,000

  • 1923 January--17,000

  • July--53,000

  • August--4,621,000 

  • October--25,260,000,000 

  • November--2,193,600,000,000 

  • December--4,200,000,000,000


Hitler attempted to take power

Hitler attempted to take power

  • During the height of economic depression in 1923, Hitler tried to take overthrow the government

  • He failed, was tried and convicted

  • He went to prison for almost two years.

  • The German economy slowly began to recover with foreign loans (mainly from the United States)


Why underlying causes of wwii1

Why? (underlying causes of WWII)

2. World-wide Depression

A. The Depression made Germany’s debt even worse as US loans stopped

B. Desperate people turn to desperate leaders

1) Hitler seemed to provide solutions to Germany’s problems in 1933; President Hindenburg appoints Hitler as Chancellor.

1923 - Wallpapering with German Deutchmarks


Why underlying causes of wwii2

Why? (underlying causes of WWII)

2. World-wide Depression

2) Hitler provided scapegoats for Germany’s problems (foreigners, Jews, communists, Roma [Gypsies], mentally-ill, homosexuals) 3) Kristallnacht - vandalism & destruction of Jewish property & synagogues in 1938


Great depression

Why?

  • 3. Rise of Totalitarian Regimes

A. In a Totalitarian country, individual rights are not viewed as important as the needs of the nation

Communist Dictatorship (USSR)

Fascist Dictatorship (Germany, Italy)

Fascism: military government with elements of racism & nationalism with strong support from the business community

Totalitarianism

Military Dictatorship (Japan)


Great depression

Why?

  • 4. Appeasement/ Isolationism

A. Why was the U.S. Isolationist?

1. Great Depression (problems at home)

2. Perceptions of WWI

a. WWI did not seem to solve much

b. People began to think that US had entered into WWI for the wrong reasons (greedy American businessmen!)

3. Opposition to war (Pacifism)

a. Washington Conference - Limits on size of country's navies

b. Kellogg-Briand pact - condemned war as a way to solving conflicts


Great depression

Why?

  • 4. Appeasemen/Isolationism Powers

B. This led to policies of “Appeasement”

1. Appeasement: give dictators what they want and hope that they won’t want anything else

2. Began with Japanese invasion of Manchuria, Italian invasion of Ethiopia, and continued with Hitler . . .

Now we have “peace in our time!Herr Hitler is a man we can do business with.” British Prime Minster Chamberlain in 1938


So what was hitler asking for

So What Was Hitler Asking For?

  • Return of German Speaking Lands - “Lebensraum”

Austria - Peacefully Annexed in 1938

Sudentenland - (now part of Czech Republic)

Munich Conference - Great Britain & France give it to Hitler in return for peace

Hitler then invaded (illegally) the rest of Czechoslovakia

German Troops Parade in Streets of Czechoslovakian Town, ca. 1939


So what was hitler asking for1

So What Was Hitler Asking For?

  • Return of German Speaking Lands

Nonaggression PactUSSR stays out of the war in return for 1/2 of Poland.

Hitler invaded Sept. 1

September 3, 1939 Great Britain & France finally declare war on Germany (following through on pledge to support Poland).

Hitler's triumphal entry into Danzig, Poland 1939


Great depression

  • The non-aggression pact was surprising. Hitler and Stalin were seen as natural enemies.

  • When Hitler talked of taking over new land for Germany, many thought that he meant USSR.

  • Hitler also hated Communism, the form of government in USSR


What was hitler s war strategy

What was Hitler’s war strategy?

  • Blitzkrieg “Lightning War” – Poland 1939

In Spring of 1940, Hitler invaded:

  • Denmark

  • Norway

  • The Netherlands

  • France

Hitler in Paris


Vichy france

Vichy France

  • General Petain’s agreement and partitioning of German Occupied France.


Who was left to oppose hitler

Who was left to oppose Hitler?

  • Battle of Britain

  • 1,000 Nazi planes a day bombed Great Britain.

    • London was a frequent target.

  • 30,000 Londoner sdied

  • 120,000 injured

  • Refused to surrender

  • Royal Air Force pilots flew

    6-7 missions a day to keep

    up with the much larger

    Luftwaffe.


  • Us assistance

    US Assistance

    • Roosevelt provided aid to the Allies:

    Lend-Lease - 1939

    US “lent” war materials to cash-strapped Great Britain

    Atlantic Charter

    US secretly met with England to commit to defeating Germany

    London Firefighter Tackles an Air Raid Blaze


    Meanwhile in the pacific

    Meanwhile … in the Pacific

    • Pearl Harbor: “a date which will live in infamy”

    What?

    Surprise attack by the Japanese on American forces in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii December 7, 1941

    Effect?

    US declared war on Japan; Germany declared war on USA

    USS Arizona Sinking in Pearl Harbor


    U s helps the allies defeat hitler

    U.S. Helps the Allies Defeat Hitler


    Holocaust

    Holocaust…

    • Roots of Anti-Semitism

    • Systematic removal and murder of Jewish people

      • 11 Million Jewish People

      • 5 million others

    • Post War…

      • Creation of Israeli State


    Stalingrad 1942 43 winter

    Stalingrad 1942-43 (Winter)

    D-Day (June 6, 1944)


    Allies turn their attention on japan

    Allies turn their attention on Japan

    • Hiroshima – August 6, 1945

    • Nagasaki – August 9, 1945

    • V-J Day Celebrations


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