Answering short questions
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Answering Short Questions. q uestion a nalysis. t ypes of paper 2 questions. Contextual or Literal Direct Qns Inferential Qns. E nduring U nderstanding. 1 ) Contextual or Literal Direct questions derive their answers directly from the passage . E nduring U nderstanding.

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Answering Short Questions

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Answering short questions

Answering Short Questions

question analysis


T ypes of paper 2 questions

types of paper 2 questions

  • Contextual or Literal Direct Qns

  • Inferential Qns


E nduring u nderstanding

Enduring Understanding

1) Contextual or Literal Direct questions derive their answers directly from the passage.


E nduring u nderstanding1

Enduring Understanding

2) Inference questions require the use of textual clues to formulate answers. (Word choice, signposts, examples, etc.)

3) Inference questions require the use of background knowledge and information to formulate answers.


Cambridge examiner s report

Cambridge Examiner’s Report

  • Candidates should remember that the shorter, lower tariff questions should be answered concisely: having offered an answer, do not repeat it in different words. Time taken up by unnecessary repetition means less time available for the application question, where far more marks are at stake, and where a noticeable deterioration in the quality of organisation, technical accuracy and even handwriting can occur.

  • The questions on the paper are worded very carefully and should be read very carefully


Q uestion type contextual

Question type: Contextual

  • First clue to look for:

    “Use your own words as far as possible.” UYOWAFAP.

    Contextual / Literal Direct


Question type inferential

Question type: Inferential

  • Background knowledge

  • Clues from the passage

  • An educated guess


Try identifying

Try identifying!

  • What are the three myths which reinforce the idea of America as “the land of opportunity” (line 2)? Use your own words as far as possible.

  • What is the writers’ intention of using ‘yet’ (line 47) when they discuss how free market economies cause materialism?

  • Explain in your own words why the “changing timetable for adulthood” is a “double-edged sword” (line 41) for the young adults.


Try identifying1

Try identifying!

  • What are the social impacts of materialism when people are less likely to “adopt community-based values” (line 58)? Use your own words as far as possible.

  • What does the writer intend you to understand by the three dots (…) at the end of the first paragraph?

  • What is the writer suggesting when he uses “sputters”?


Try identifying2

Try identifying!

  • How can we use ‘psychology to slow materialism’ (line 71)? Use your own words as far as possible.

  • Suggest one reason for the author ending the passage with the Latin phrase rus in urbe(line 79).

  • Explain the irony in “America, that began first as a land of immigrants, is now fearful of immigrants” (lines 75-76).


Pay attention to the key words

Pay attention to the key words…

BOTH contextual and inferential questions use words like

‘what’, ‘why’ and ‘how’.


W hat i assume you know

what I assume you know…


Inferential question t ypes

Inferential Question Types

*word choice

tone & attitude

paradox & irony

punctuation

metaphor

*how…illustrate

suggest…

*author’s intention


Inferential word choice

Inferential: Word choice

know and show understanding

of certain words/phrases and

their usage in context

What does the writer mean by the word ‘sexier’ ?

The psychoanalysts give a rather sexier reading.


Inferential tone attitude

Inferential: Tone & attitude

identify accurately

the author’s ‘sound’ and/or feeling

with regard to the point his is making

What is the author’s tone in calling people of the modern world ‘worshippers of money’?


Inferential literary devices paradox irony

Inferential: Literary devicesParadox & irony

explain

the (seeming) contradiction

in the contextual situation

Explain the irony in “America, that began first as a land of immigrants, is now fearful of immigrants.”


Inferential literary devices punctuation

Inferential: Literary devicesPunctuation

show an understanding

of what punctuations are used for

and

why they are used in certain contexts

What does the writer intend you to understand by the three dots (…) at the end of the first paragraph?


Inferential literary devices metaphors

Inferential: Literary devicesMetaphors

show an understanding

of how metaphors work

to clarify complex ideas

Explain how the phrase ‘costume jewellery’ reflects the artificiality of life.


Inferential how illustrate

Inferential: How…illustrate

show an understanding of

the method used to

illustrate a point the author is making

How does the author illustrate men’s souls?


Inferential suggest

Inferential: Suggest

use strong contextual and background knowledge to write a logical answer

Suggest one reason for the author ending the passage with the Latin phrase rus in urbe.


Inferential author s intention

Inferential: Author’s intention

show author’s purpose and

point that he is making

What is the author’s purpose in using the word ‘illusory’ to describe visits to zoos and gardens?


Interesting disclaimer

Interesting disclaimer

  • The interesting thing about Paper 2 questions is that a question can be a combinationof types.

  • Take for example the question:

    Explain what the author means by calling Nero ‘vain’?

  • What type of question is this?

  • Word choice


Examples

Examples

  • What is the author’s intention in using the word ‘vain’ to describe Nero?

    author’s intention + word choice

  • How does the author illustrate his description of Nero as ‘vain’?

    illustrate + word choice


Examples1

Examples

  • Explain the irony in calling Nero ‘vain’.

    irony + word choice

    Do paper 2 questions consciously with your eyes open! Meet the demands of the question.


Recapitulation

Recapitulation

Contextual or Literal Direct questions derive their answers directly from the passage.

“Use your own words as far as possible.”


Recapitulation1

Recapitulation

Inference questions require the use of textual clues to formulate answers.

  • Word choice,

  • Signposts,

  • Examples,

  • Punctuations, etc.

    Inference questions require the use of background knowledge and information to formulate answers.


S ome tips

some tips…

  • Read the questions thoughtfully.

  • Write intentionally: Formulate the answer in your mind nicely before putting pen to paper.

  • Meet the demand of the questions. Do not be caught up with the number of marks indicated.

  • Let’s try!!


Let s practice

Let’s practice!


Answering short questions

Question 1Is sport’s appeal also, perhaps, to be found in the sense of order and completion which its rules and time-limits impose, so unlike the endless arbitrary flow of events in our everyday lives?(A-level 2009)

Explain why the author uses the word ‘arbitrary’.

Author’s intention/purpose & word choice:

Your answer should include the author’s purpose and point that he is making (bringing out meaning of ‘arbitrary’)


Answering short questions

Question 1Is sport’s appeal also, perhaps, to be found in the sense of order and completion which its rules and time-limits impose, so unlike the endless arbitrary flow of events in our everyday lives?(A-level 2009)

Explain why the author uses the word ‘arbitrary’.

What is the author’s purpose?

To draw a contrast.

What is the author’s point in using ‘arbitrary’? (word choice)

Sports appeals to Man because it has an order to it quite unlike our everyday lives which are arbitrary.


Answering short questions

Question 1Is sport’s appeal also, perhaps, to be found in the sense of order and completion which its rules and time-limits impose, so unlike the endless arbitrary flow of events in our everyday lives?(A-level 2009)

Explain why the author uses the word ‘arbitrary’.

Ans:The author uses the word ‘arbitrary’ to contrast how our unpredictable/random/subjective lives make man appreciatesports and its rules because they provide order.

purpose

Meaning of ‘arbitrary’


Answering short questions

Question 2In addition to advertisements influencing more citizens to pursue unrealistic material aspirations, the presence of free-market economies that have proliferated in our society is yet another contributing factor. (SAJC Promos 2011)

What is the writers’ intention of using ‘yet’ (line 47) when they discuss how free market economies cause materialism?

Author’s purpose and punctuation/word choice:

Your answer should include the author’s purpose and bring out the point through the meaning/use of ‘yet’.


Answering short questions

Question 2In addition to advertisements influencing more citizens to pursue unrealistic material aspirations, the presence of free-market economies that have proliferated in our society is yet another contributing factor. (SAJC Promos 2011)

What is the writers’ intention of using ‘yet’ (line 47) when they discuss how free market economies cause materialism?

What is the author’s purpose?

To put emphasis on…

What is the point made as brought out by the use of ‘yet’?

Free-market economies is another factor in addition to advertisements that make people pursue unreal aspirations.


Answering short questions

Question 2In addition to advertisements influencing more citizens to pursue unrealistic material aspirations, the presence of free-market economies that have proliferated in our society is yet another contributing factor. (SAJC Promos 2011)

What is the writers’ intention of using ‘yet’ (line 47) when they discuss how free market economies cause materialism?

Ans: Yet is used to emphasise that free market economies can be one of the many factor[s] that drives/fuels/powers our materialistic aspirations.

purpose

Point bringing out meaning of ‘yet’


Answering short questions

Question 4Our identity is determined by a complex mix of things. To begin with, every one of us is born unique. Our individual DNA and our unique fingerprints serve to identify us among all other beings. We also have natural gifts, strengths and capabilities. We acquire core values and beliefs and basic orientation toward the world around us. We may even consider our name to be part of our identity, and yet many of us have common names that we share with others. Society assigns us personal identification numbers to distinguish one individual from another.

How does the author illustrate that ‘every one of us is born unique’?

How…illustrate

Your answer should show the method used to surface a point.


Answering short questions

Question 3Some people define themselves individually or collectively based on certain criteria and deem themselves as superior to those who do not identify themselves by the same criteria. Worldwide, these ethnic and sectarian divisions assert their ‘superior’ identity and afflict many countries through terrorism and violence. ( adapted from AJC Prelim 2012)

Why does the author put the word ‘superior’ in inverted commas?

Author’s intention and punctuation

Your answer should include the author’s purpose and an understanding of the use of inverted commas and the meaning of the word in context.


Answering short questions

Question 3Some people define themselves individually or collectively based on certain criteria and deem themselves as superior to those who do not identify themselves by the same criteria. Worldwide, these ethnic and sectarian divisions assert their ‘superior’ identity and afflict many countries through terrorism and violence. ( adapted from AJC Prelim 2012)

Why does the author put the word ‘superior’ in inverted commas?

What is the author’s intention?

To draw attention to/highlight…

What is the true meaning of “superior” in inverted commas in this case?

Superiority here is only as defined by ethnic and sectarian divisions. It is not necessarily superior in the widely-accepted term of the word.


Answering short questions

Question 3Some people define themselves individually or collectively based on certain criteria and deem themselves as superior to those who do not identify themselves by the same criteria. Worldwide, these ethnic and sectarian divisions assert their ‘superior’ identity and afflict many countries through terrorism and violence. (adapted from AJC Prelim 2012)

Why does the author put the word ‘superior’ in inverted commas?

Ans: The author is highlighting that the idea that this superiority is only a subjective perception/feeling/thinking which may not necessarily be true.

purpose

Meaning in Context

Meaning of inverted commas


Answering short questions

Question 4Our identity is determined by a complex mix of things. To begin with, every one of us is born unique. Our individual DNA and our unique fingerprints serve to identify us among all other beings. We also have natural gifts, strengths and capabilities. We acquire core values and beliefs and basic orientation toward the world around us. We may even consider our name to be part of our identity, and yet many of us have common names that we share with others. Society assigns us personal identification numbers to distinguish one individual from another.

How does the author illustrate that ‘every one of us is born unique’?

What is the method?

By pointing out/ by drawing our attention to the fact that…

What is the illustration for the point?

Each of us is born unique as can be seen from our DNAs and unique fingerprints.


Answering short questions

Question 4Our identity is determined by a complex mix of things. To begin with, every one of us is born unique. Our individual DNA and our unique fingerprints serve to identify us among all other beings. We also have natural gifts, strengths and capabilities. We acquire core values and beliefs and basic orientation toward the world around us. We may even consider our name to be part of our identity, and yet many of us have common names that we share with others. Society assigns us personal identification numbers to distinguish one individual from another.

How does the author illustrate that ‘every one of us is born unique’?

Ans: : The author does so by pointing out that we have we have different genetic makeups/genes and different fingerprints at birth.

method

Point


Remember

Remember!!!

Contextual or Literal Direct questions derive their answers directly from the passage.

“Use your own words as far as possible.”


Remember1

Remember!!!

Inference questions require the use of textual clues to formulate answers.

  • Word choice,

  • Signposts,

  • Examples,

  • Punctuations, etc.

    Inference questions require the use of background knowledge and information to formulate answers.


S ome tips1

some tips…

  • Read the questions thoughtfully.

  • Write intentionally: Formulate the answer in your mind nicely before putting pen to paper.

  • Meet the demand of the questions. Do not be caught up with the number of marks indicated.


T hank you

thank you!

(:


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