The french revolution
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THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. The Age of Napoleon Begins Napoleon’s Rise to Power. Born on the Isle of Corsica in the Mediterranean Family of nobles, no real power Age 9, sent to France for military training Age 20, revolution broke out and found himself favoring the Jacobins and republican rule.

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THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

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The french revolution

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION


The age of napoleon begins napoleon s rise to power

The Age of Napoleon BeginsNapoleon’s Rise to Power

  • Born on the Isle of Corsica in the Mediterranean

  • Family of nobles, no real power

  • Age 9, sent to France for military training

  • Age 20, revolution broke out and found himself favoring the Jacobins and republican rule


The age of napoleon begins napoleon s rise to power1

The Age of Napoleon BeginsNapoleon’s Rise to Power

Early Successes

December 1793, successfully drove British forces out of Toulon

Successive victories on the battlefield help build his reputation

Was even able to hide the disaster of the Egyptian campaign from most admirers

Led to his entrance in Politics, 1799 overthrew the Directory and set up the three man governing body, The Consulate

Taking the title of First Consul and declaring himself consul for life in 1802


The age of napoleon begins napoleon s rise to power2

The Age of Napoleon BeginsNapoleon’s Rise to Power

A Self-made Emperor

1804 he was able to crown himself Emperor of the French

Invited the Pope to the coronation

Held a plebiscite each step he took to power

A ballot in which voters say yes or no

Napoleon each time had the strong support of the French people


The age of napoleon begins france under napoleon

The Age of Napoleon BeginsFrance Under Napoleon

Reforms

Replaced liberty, equality, property motto with “Order, security, and efficiency”

Economic reforms

Controlled prices, encouraged new industry, and built infrastructure

Education

Set up a system of public schools under government control

Security

Trained military officers and officials


The age of napoleon begins france under napoleon1

The Age of Napoleon BeginsFrance Under Napoleon

Reforms

1801 Concordat

Made peace with the Catholic Church

Kept Church under state control but recognized freedom for Catholics

Allowed Emigres to return to France if they took an oath of loyalty

Peasants were allowed to keep the land they took during the Revolution

Jobs were now open to “all talent”


The age of napoleon begins france under napoleon2

The Age of Napoleon BeginsFrance Under Napoleon

Napoleonic Code

One of his most lasting reforms

Embodied Enlightenment principles

Equality of all citizens in front of the law, religious toleration, and advancement based on merit

Women lost out on much of the newly gained freedoms

Male heads regained authority in the household

Napoleon valued order and authority


The age of napoleon begins building an empire

The Age of Napoleon BeginsBuilding an Empire

  • 1804-1814 Napoleon worked on building the French empire

  • Successfully took down European countries on the battlefield

  • By 1810, France was at its peak

  • Master on the battlefield

    • Created a different battle plan for each battle


The age of napoleon begins building an empire1

The Age of Napoleon BeginsBuilding an Empire

The Grand Empire

Annexed majority of Europe under French jurisdiction

Netherlands, Belgium, parts of Germany, and Italy

Abolished the Holy Roman Empire and cut Prussian territory in half

Used forceful diplomacy

Placed friends on the throne of other countries

Forced alliances

Nationalism overflowing with each victory

Parades and celebrations filled the streets of Paris


1810 vs 1914 french empires

1810 vs. 1914French Empires


The age of napoleon begins building an empire2

The Age of Napoleon BeginsBuilding an Empire

France versus Britain

Britain used powerful navy to keep Napoleon at bay

1805 Battle of Trafalgar

Fought off the coast of Spain

Britain fleet smashed the French

Napoleon then ruled out an invasion and turned to attack on commerce

Continental System

Made agreements with the continental European countries to not trade with Britain

War of blockades

Shutting off ports to keep people from moving goods


The age of napoleon begins building an empire3

The Age of Napoleon BeginsBuilding an Empire

France Versus Britain Impacts

War of 1812

British Naval ships attacked American ships

Ultimately failed in attempt to cripple Britain

Created a scarcity of good, resulting in an increase in prices of goods

Tension from other European countries against the French Empire


The end of an era challenges to napoleon s empire

The End of an EraChallenges to Napoleon’s Empire

  • Napoleon’s armies helped spread revolutionary ideas across Europe

  • Helped install revolutionary governments in place of Absolutism

  • Napoleonic Code was carried throughout Europe

  • Ultimate pursuit of Russia led to Napoleon’s downfall


The end of an era challenges to napoleon s empire1

The End of an EraChallenges to Napoleon’s Empire

Impact of Nationalism

European countries saw Napoleon’s troops as invaders rather than champions of freedom

Resented the Continental System and effort to impose French culture

Ultimately resulted in counter-nationalism against the French occupation


The end of an era challenges to napoleon s empire2

The End of an EraChallenges to Napoleon’s Empire

Resistance in Spain

Napoleon placed brother Joseph Bonaparte on the throne of Spain

Set to make reforms to undermine the Spanish Church

Spanish citizens remained loyal to the King

Turning to violence, Joseph used military force to oppress the riots

Rather than crushing the resistance it only intensified the Spanish drive to force Joseph and France out of Spain


The end of an era challenges to napoleon s empire3

The End of an EraChallenges to Napoleon’s Empire

Resistance in Spain

Spanish patriots resorted to guerilla warfare (hit and run raids) against the French

Attacked supply trains

Attacked troops

Forced Napoleon to keep a large number of troops in Spain

Britain ended up sending troops over to aid the Spanish


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The End of an EraChallenges to Napoleon’s Empire

War With Austria

Using Spain as a motive, Austria began to become hostile

Battle of 1805, Napoleon’s defeat of Austria helped fuel the Austrians in 1809

Austrians were unsuccessful

Napoleon divorced his wife and married Austrian princess Marie Louise


The end of an era challenges to napoleon s empire5

The End of an EraChallenges to Napoleon’s Empire

War With Russia

The alliance of France and Austria worried Czar Alexander I of Russia

Territory of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw enlarging

Bordered Russia

Alexander I withdrew Russia from the Continental System

This led Napoleon to comprise his “Grand Army”


The end of an era challenges to napoleon s empire6

The End of an EraChallenges to Napoleon’s Empire

War With Russia cont.

Grand Army

400,000 troops to march on Russia

Russians retreated back east towards Russia

“Scorched Earth”

Russians destroyed crops and burned villages

Resulting in starvation and cold living conditions for French soldiers during Winter

Napoleon made it Moscow in September but was forced to turn back home in October

  • Napoleon was unable to feed and supply his entire army through the Winter

  • Retreat back to France was met with attacks by Russian armies and the Russian winter

  • Returned home with 10,000 troops

  • Reputation was forever shattered


The end of an era downfall of napoleon

The End of an EraDownfall of Napoleon

Exile and Return

1813 Russian, British, Austrian, and Prussian alliance defeated Napoleon at Leipzig

1814 Napoleon abdicated to the island of Elba

Louis XVIII (Louis XVI brother) took the crown

Emigres returned to France in fear of a return of the old order

Economic depression led to the return of Napoleon

Returned to Paris in triumph and Louis XVIII fled


The end of an era downfall of napoleon1

The End of an EraDownfall of Napoleon

Battle of Waterloo

Return was short lived

1815 the allies reorganized their troops and met Napoleon in Belgium

Took one day to crush Napoleon’s army and he again abdicated forever to St. Helena


The end of an era the congress of vienna

The End of an EraThe Congress of Vienna

Balance of Power

Redrew the map of Europe

Purpose was to surround France with strong countries

Gave Prussia land along the Rhine River

Austria reasserted control over Northern Italy territories


The end of an era the congress of vienna1

The End of an EraThe Congress of Vienna

Restoration of Monarchs

Legitimacy (restoring hereditary monarchies back to power)

Louis XVIII was put in power

“Legitimate” monarchs returned to power in Portugal, Spain, and Italian states


The end of an era the congress of vienna2

The End of an EraThe Congress of Vienna

Problems of the Peace

Quadruple Alliance

Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Great Britain

To protect the new order

Pledged to act together to maintain power

Did not foresee the problem of redrawing Europe without concern for national culture

German impact for the future


Significance of the french revolution

Significance of the French Revolution

  • Age of Absolute Monarchy came to a definitive end, people were now the driving force of politics

  • Republicanism replaced Absolutism

  • Nationalism became a driving force throughout Europe

  • Opened the door for modern era politics

  • French Church experienced a major reconstruction and was forced to give up majority of power


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