Clauses and phrases
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Clauses and Phrases. And parallelism too. First, let’s review. Nouns Whatever exists can be named. That name is a noun Bob, girl, school, Room 103 Verbs Describes the behavior or action of someone or something Run, walk, listen State of Being Verbs and Linking Verbs

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Clauses and Phrases

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Clauses and phrases

Clauses and Phrases

And parallelism too.


First let s review

First, let’s review

  • Nouns

    • Whatever exists can be named. That name is a noun

    • Bob, girl, school, Room 103

  • Verbs

    • Describes the behavior or action of someone or something

      • Run, walk, listen

    • State of Being Verbs and Linking Verbs

      • Connects a noun or a pronoun with words that describe or identify a word or pronoun

      • Jane is tired


Clauses and phrases

  • Adjectives

    • Modify nouns

    • Hungry, yellow, awesome (like Mrs. France!)

  • Adverbs

    • modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs

    • Breathing angrily


Clauses and phrases

  • Pronouns

    • Words that replace nouns.

    • Identify persons, places, things, and ideas without renaming them

    • Christine texts me all the time. Good thing I have an unlimited plan, or she would be costing me tons of money.

  • Prepositions

    • A word or word phrase that shows a relationship between a noun or pronoun and other words in a sentence.

    • With, to, from, through


Clauses and phrases

  • Conjunctions

    • Words that connect individual words or groups of words (in other words, they conjoin).

    • FANBOYS, however, therefore

  • Interjections

    • exclamatory word or phrase that can stand by itself.

    • WOOHOO!


Phrases

Phrases

A group of words without a subject and verb that functions as one part of speech

  • Gerund phrase

    • Gerund with modifiers or a complement (words that complete its meaning), all acting together as a noun.

      • Gerund = Noun formed from the present participle of a verb (aka ends in –ing).

    • This getting up so early thing sucks.


Clauses and phrases

  • Prepositional phrase

    • Includes preposition and noun

    • I was awake before dawn

  • Adjective phrase

    • Prepositional phrase that modifies noun or pronoun

    • The likeness of the dog would get mixed up with that of the cat


Clauses and phrases

  • Adverb phrase

    • Prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, adjective, or adverb

    • From every side men ran to the succor of the dame.

  • Appositive phrase

    • Noun or pronoun with modifiers, placed next to a noun or pronoun to add information and details

    • Mousse, Mrs. France’s dog, is the coolest dog ever.


Clauses and phrases

  • Participial phrase

    • Participle that is modified by an adjective or adverb phrase or that has a complement (a group of words that completes the participle’s meaning)

      • The entire phrase acts as an adjective

    • Her stepmother seem drained of strength

  • Infinitive phrase

    • Infinitive with modifiers, complements, or a subject, all acting together as a single part of speech.

    • And he felt it his duty to explain to his traveling companions that the poor woman was to be pitied


Clauses

Clauses

Group of words with its own subject and verb

  • Independent clause

    • Can stand on its own as a complete sentence

  • Dependent/subordinate clause

    • Cannot stand by itself

      I’m tired because Connor woke up in the middle of the night


Clauses and phrases

  • Adjective clause

    • Subordinate clause that modifies a noun or pronoun by telling what kind or which one

    • The more stubborn among them, who were the youngest, still lived for a few hours with the illusion that…his name might be Lautaro.


Clauses and phrases

  • Subordinate adverb clause

    • Modify verbs, adjectives, adverbs, or verbals by telling where, when, in what way, to what extent, under what condition, or why.

    • Mousse is exhausted because he hiked a 14er.

  • Subordinate noun clause

    • Act as nouns

    • …she thanked them in tears for the dismissal, as if for the greatest favor that had ever been done to her in this house


Parallelism

Parallelism

  • Using the same pattern of words to show that two or more ideas have the same level of importance.

    • This can happen at the word, phrase, or clause level.

    • The usual way to join parallel structures is with the use of coordinating conjunctions such as "and" or "or.“

      Mary likes hiking, swimming, and bicycling.

      Mary likes to hike, to swim, and to ride a bicycle.

      Mary likes to hike, swim, and ride a bicycle.


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