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R esident E ducator D evelopment. The RED Program A Residents-as-Teachers Curriculum Developed by Heather A. Thompson, MD. The RED Program. Team Leadership How to Teach at the Bedside The Microskills Model: Teaching during Oral Presentations How to Teach EBM The Ten Minute Talk

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R esident e ducator d evelopment

ResidentEducatorDevelopment

The RED Program

A Residents-as-Teachers Curriculum

Developed by Heather A. Thompson, MD


The red program
The RED Program

  • Team Leadership

  • How to Teach at the Bedside

  • The Microskills Model: Teaching during Oral Presentations

  • How to Teach EBM

  • The Ten Minute Talk

  • Effective Feedback

  • Professionalism

  • Patient Safety and Medical Errors


Teaching at the bedside

Teaching at the Bedside

Resident Educator Development (RED) Program


Sir william osler

“Medicine is learned by the bedside and not in the classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but see first.”

Sir William Osler


An exercise
An exercise classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but

  • Recall a bedside teaching session that was effective. What made it go well?

  • Recall a bedside teaching session were learning was minimal. What made this session ineffective?


Why teach at the bedside
Why Teach at the Bedside? classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but


Why teach at the bedside1
Why Teach at the Bedside? classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but

  • Reinforces skills of medical interviewing, communication, and patient education.

  • Opportunity to observe, teach, and practice physical exam skills.

  • Contributes to a greater understanding of patient’s needs.


Why teach at the bedside2
Why Teach at the Bedside? classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but

  • Sets the tone for professional interaction between patients and teams in a teaching hospital.

  • Often the first encounter with “real live” patients for the medical students.

  • You need to see and examine your patients every day; may as well make the most of the encounter!


Is there data
Is there data? classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but

  • Survey of Australian Medical Students and Residents:

    --99% agreed that bedside teaching was valuable and effective for teaching PE skills --HOWEVER only 53% stated they had enough bedside teaching to improve their PE skills

    --Medical Education Sept 1997 31(5): 341-346


Is there data1
Is there data? classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but

  • Actual time spent at the bedside is decreasing: 15-25% of total time on wards

  • Attendings at the bedside a frequency of once every 2-4 days

Annals Int Med 1997 126 (7): 217-220

JAMA 1986 256:725-739

J Med Educ. 1982 57:854-859


Is there data2
Is there data? classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but

  • Survey in JGIM:

    --88% of attendings prefer that cases NOT be presented at bedside

  • Survey out of MCOW:

    --only 2% of housestaff and 4% of students feel comfortable presenting at bedside

  • Why is this happening?


Barriers
Barriers classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but

  • Focus groups at Boston University have identified barriers to bedside teaching, broken down by category. Academic Medicine April 2003 78(4):384-390


Teacher related
Teacher-Related classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but

  • Inexperience with bedside teaching

  • Lack of confidence in physical exam skills

  • Performance pressure


Teacher related1
Teacher-Related classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but

  • Lack of control over situation

  • Difficulty in engaging all team members


Teaching climate related
Teaching Climate-Related classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but

  • Time constraints: too many patients to see on morning rounds, limited time for H&P

  • Lack of training in bedside skills

  • Lack of teaching role models


Systems related
Systems-Related classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but

  • Too many interruptions (phone calls, visitors, lab draw, trip to radiology)

  • Shortened patient stays: average length of stay is 3 days

  • Technology: overabundance of data to discuss (scans, lab tests) rather than the patient’s symptoms and physical exam signs


Patient related perception vs reality
Patient-related classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but (perception vs. reality?)

  • Patients not comfortable being discussed by a large team

  • Patient too medically unstable to cooperate with history or exam

  • Absent patient

  • Patient misinterpretation of discussion

  • Uncooperative/angry patient


Miscellaneous
Miscellaneous classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but

  • Learner fatigue, boredom

  • Fear of being called upon

  • Privacy Issues (HIPPA)

  • Physical environment:

    --large crowd in a small room

    --no blackboard/Xray view box

    --inability to refer to textbook, computer resources, lit seach


General strategies
General Strategies classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but

  • Improve Your PE skills

    --Working up patients

    --Program Workshops

    --Physical Diagnosis Textbooks, CDs

    --Professor’s Rounds/Chief Resident Rounds

    --Mini-CEX: an observed physical

    --Participating in an OSCE


General strategies1
General Strategies classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but

  • Diminish the aura of bedside teaching

    “You may not be an expert but you still know a fair amount…even as a junior clinician. You can’t get everything, but you can still get more than you did as a third year student.”

    --Boston U Focus Group Participant

    “You don’t need gray hair (or lack of hair) to teach at the bedside.”

    --Former U Chief Resident


General strategies2
General Strategies classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but

  • Use laptops or PDAs at the bedside

    --Lit searches/EBM

    --UptoDate

    --Info Retriever

    --Clinical prediction rules, likelihood ratios, pos predictive values


General strategies3
General Strategies classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but

  • Realize that most patients enjoy bedside teaching rounds

    --77% found the experience enjoyable --68% found that it increased their understanding of their medical problems (NEJM 1997 336:1150-5)


Before encounter prepare
Before Encounter: Prepare classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but

  • Formulate specific goals and objectives for each session.

  • Read up on the topic/technique.

  • Choose the patient wisely.

  • Orient the patient to the purpose and format.


Before encounter teaching considerations
Before Encounter: Teaching considerations classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but

  • Discuss what one might expect to find on PE in certain disease states.

  • Discuss how to elicit these PE findings. (demonstrate on a volunteer)

  • Discuss sensitivity/specificity, PPV/NPV


During the encounter patient considerations
During the Encounter: Patient considerations classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but

  • Begin and end with the patient.

  • Opening lines: “Tell us what brought you in the hospital.” “Can you describe how you are feeling today?”

  • Close with: “What questions do you have for us?” “What is it that you want most from the doctors caring for you?”


During the encounter patient considerations1
During the Encounter: Patient considerations classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but

  • Try to have as many people SEATED in the room as possible during the initial interview.

  • Explain to the patient during rounds when you are going to use medical jargon, or avoid shoptalk altogether.


During the encounter patient considerations2
During the Encounter: Patient considerations classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but

  • Be careful about listing a differential diagnosis, such as “cancer”.

  • Avoid asking a question of the group that they might not be able to answer: undermines patient confidence.


During the encounter teaching considerations
During the Encounter: Teaching considerations classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but

  • In a larger group: shift from open-ended (“listen to the heart and tell me what you hear”) to directive (“listen with the diaphragm at the LUSB where you will hear a blowing diastolic murmur consistent with aortic insufficiency”)


During the encounter teaching considerations1
During the Encounter: Teaching considerations classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but

  • Goal is to gain some experience with a certain PE finding as opposed to evaluating learner’s technique

  • Establish a comfortable environment (it’s OK to say “I don’t know” or “I don’t hear it”)


After debrief
After: Debrief classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but

  • The group should leave the bedside, and observations are made as to what was seen.

  • Learners should have time to ask questions, and give and receive feedback.


Admitting a patient
Admitting a Patient classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but

  • One on one, with your intern or student

    --helps to be the “Fly on the Wall” (observer) or the “Midwife” (lets the process happen, intervenes at critical moments)

    --Again, review beforehand what PE findings you might expect

    --This is the opportunity to assess learner’s specific skills or technique, give feedback


Admitting a patient1
Admitting a Patient classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but

  • With your student

    --Often, they want to know “how much” of the PE needs to be done

    --Remember, in 2nd year medical school an exhaustive 2+ hour exam is taught

    --Students need to learn how to tailor the exam to the presenting problem

    --They also want to know how to “remember” all the elements of the admit H&P


Admitting a patient2
Admitting a Patient classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but

  • Medical Student Strategies

    --Refer to templates.

    --Can teach the “top down” or “head to toe” approach by body areas: general appearance, HEENT, Heart, Lungs, Abd, Extremities (peripheral pulses/edema/joints), Skin, Neuro.

    --Expand on any one area based on symptoms or abnormal findings.

    (FYI: 8+ covers billing, too)


Daily work rounds
Daily Work Rounds classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but

  • Again, always consider the patient

    --Sitting down patient overestimates time spent with MDs

  • Opportunity to model communication skills/“bedside manner”

  • Review new or fixed findings with other team members

  • Can review or demonstrate a specific technique


Video exercise
Video Exercise classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but

  • View the bedside teaching rounds represented in this video vignette

  • Discuss what went well, and what could be improved upon


In summary
In summary classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but

  • Go to the bedside with a specific purpose

  • Teach PE skills when the opportunity arises

  • Model communication skills

  • Maintain a comfortable and positive environment for the patient, learners, and you


In summary1
In summary classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but

There should be “no teaching without a patient for a text, and the best is that taught by the patient himself.” --Sir William Osler


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