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Oxygen Therapy & O 2 Delivery Systems. Dr. J. S Dali MAMC. www.anaesthesia.co.in [email protected] Oxygen Therapy. ?. Oxygen Therapy. Partial Pr of O 2 in insp. gas (P i o 2 ). Oxygen Therapy. Partial Pr of O 2 in insp. gas (P i o 2 ). Conc. of O 2 (Fi o 2 )

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Oxygen therapy o 2 delivery systems

Oxygen Therapy & O2 Delivery Systems

Dr. J. S Dali

MAMC

[email protected]


Oxygen therapy

Oxygen Therapy

?


Oxygen therapy1

Oxygen Therapy

Partial Pr of O2 in insp. gas

(Pi o2)


Oxygen therapy2

Oxygen Therapy

Partial Pr of O2 in insp. gas

(Pi o2)

Conc. of O2 (Fi o2)

(Orthobaric)

Total Pressure

(Hyperbaric)


Father of modern o 2 therapy

Father of modern O2 Therapy

?


Father of modern o 2 therapy1

Father of modern O2 Therapy

O2 lack not only stops the machine,

but totally ruins the supposed machinery

J.S Haldane-1917


Aim of o 2 therapy

Aim of O2 Therapy

?


Aim of o 2 therapy1

Aim of O2 Therapy

To restore tissue O2 towards normal


O 2 cascade

O2 Cascade

Air

mitochondria


O 2 cascade1

O2 Cascade

159mm Hg

(20.95 % of 760)

Atm. Air

(dry)

?

Lower Resp. Tract

(moist 37oc)

149mm Hg

(20.95 % of 713)


O 2 cascade2

O2 Cascade

159mm Hg

(20.95 % of 760)

Atm. Air

(dry)

Humidification

6 Vol % (47mm Hg)

Lower Resp. Tract

(moist 37oc)

149mm Hg

20.95 % of 713 (760-47)


O 2 cascade3

O2 Cascade

Lower Resp. Tract

(moist 37oc)

149mm Hg

(20.95 % of 713)

?

?

101mm Hg

(14 % of 713) or (15 % of 673)

673 = 760 – 47 – 40

Alveolar air

PA O2 = FI O2 (Pb – 47) – PaCo2 x F

= PI O2 –PaCo2

= PI O2 – PaCo2 if breathing 100% O2

R.Q


O 2 cascade4

O2 Cascade

Lower Resp. Tract

(moist 37oc)

149mm Hg

(20.95 % of 713)

O2 consumption

Alv. ventilation

101mm Hg

(14 % of 713) or (15 % of 673)

673 = 760 – 47 – 40

Alveolar air

PA O2 = FI O2 (Pb – 47) – PaCo2 x F

= PI O2 –PaCo2

= PI O2 – PaCo2 if breathing 100% O2

R.Q


O 2 cascade5

O2 Cascade

101mm Hg

(14 % of 713) or (15 % of 673)

673 = 760 – 47 – 40

Alveolar air

?

Arterial blood

97mm Hg

Pa O2 = 100 – 0.3 x age (years) mm Hg

A – a = 4 – 25 mmHg


O 2 cascade6

O2 Cascade

101mm Hg

(14 % of 713) or (15 % of 673)

673 = 760 – 47 – 40

Alveolar air

Venous admixture

Arterial blood

97mm Hg

Pa O2 = 100 – 0.3 x age (years) mm Hg

A – a = 4 – 25 mmHg


Venous admixture physiological shunt

O2 Cascade

Venous admixture(physiological shunt)

Low VA/Q

Normal True shunt

(normal anatomical shunt)


Venous admixture physiological shunt1

O2 Cascade

Venous admixture(physiological shunt)

Low VA/Q

Normal True shunt

(normal anatomical shunt)

Pulmonary

(Bronchial veins)

Extra Pulm.

(Thebesian veins)


Venous admixture physiological shunt2

O2 Cascade

Venous admixture(physiological shunt)

Low VA/Q

Normal True shunt

(normal anatomical shunt)

Pulmonary

(Bronchial veins)

Extra Pulm.

(Thebesian veins)

Normal = upto 5 % of cardiac output


O 2 cascade7

O2 Cascade

PA O2 = 101mm Hg

(14 % of 713) or (15 % of 673)

673 = 760 – 47 – 40

Alveolar air

?

Venous admixture

?

Arterial blood

Pa O2 = 97mm Hg

Pa O2 = 100 – 0.3 x age (years) mm Hg

A – a = 4 – 25 mmHg


O 2 cascade8

O2 Cascade

PA O2 = 101mm Hg

(14 % of 713) or (15 % of 673)

673 = 760 – 47 – 40

Alveolar air

PI O2

Venous admixture

PV O2

Arterial blood

Pa O2 = 97mm Hg

Pa O2 = 100 – 0.3 x age (years) mm Hg

A – a = 4 – 25 mmHg


O 2 cascade9

O2 Cascade

Pa O2 = 97mm Hg

(Sat. > 95 %)

Arterial blood

Utilization by tissue

Cell Mitochondria PO2 7 – 37 mmHg

Mixed Venous blood

PV O2 = 40mm Hg

Sat. 75%

– The critical level for aerobic metab. to continue


O 2 cascade10

O2 Cascade

Pa O2 = 97mm Hg

(Sat. > 95 %)

Arterial blood

Utilization by tissue

Cell Mitochondria PO2 7 – 37 mmHg

Mixed Venous blood

PV O2 = 40mm Hg

Sat. 75%

Pasteur point – The critical level for aerobic metab. to continue (1 – 2 mmHg PO2 in mitochondria)


Which patient is better placed

Which patient is better placed – ?

AB

Hb 14gm (normal) 7gm (Anaemic)

C.O. 5 L (normal) 4 L (Low)

PaO2 23 mm 60 mm

O2 Flux 375ml 350ml


Which patient is better placed1

Which patient is better placed – ?

AB

Hb 14gm (normal) 7gm (Anaemic)

C.O. 5 L (normal) 4 L (Low)

SPO2 40 % 90 %

PaO2 23 mm 60 mm

O2 Flux 375ml 350ml

Min. gradient for O2 transfer from cap. to cell (app. 20 mm Hg)

= sat. 20 – 30% = 200 – 300ml O2 flux

Critical Level for O2 delivery / critical O2 flux


O 2 cascade11

O2 Cascade

Pa O2 = 97mm Hg

(Sat. > 95 %)

Arterial blood

Utilization by tissue

Cell Mitochondria PO2 7 – 37 mmHg

Mixed Venous blood

PV O2 = 40mm Hg

Sat. 75%

Pasteur point – The critical level for aerobic metab. to continue (PO2 1-2 mmHgin mitochondria, 22mmHg in capillary)


O 2 cascade12

O2 Cascade

Pa O2 = 97mm Hg

(Sat. > 95 %)

Arterial blood

?

Utilization by tissue

?

Cell Mitochondria PO2 7 – 37 mmHg

Mixed Venous blood

PV O2 = 40mm Hg

Sat. 75%

Pasteur point – The critical level for aerobic metab. to continue (PO2 1-2 mmHgin mitochondria, 22mmHg in capillary)


O 2 cascade13

O2 Cascade

Pa O2 = 97mm Hg

(Sat. > 95 %)

Arterial blood

Perfusion

Utilization by tissue

O2 content (Hb Conc.)

Cell Mitochondria PO2 7 – 37 mmHg

Mixed Venous blood

PV O2 = 40mm Hg

Sat. 75%

Pasteur point – The critical level for aerobic metab. to continue (PO2 1-2 mmHgin mitochondria, 22mmHg in capillary)


Oxygen therapy o 2 delivery systems

O2 contentPer 100 mlArt. blood 14g x 1.39 x 100% = 20 ml Ven. blood 14g x 1.39 x 75% = 15ml Tissue extraction 25% = 5ml


Oxygen therapy o 2 delivery systems

O2 contentPer 100 mlArt. blood 14g x 1.39 x 100% = 20 ml Ven. blood 14g x 1.39 x 75% = 15ml Tissue extraction 25% = 5ml 1% = 0.2ml Art. blood 7g x 1.39 x 100% = 10 ml Ven. blood 7g x 1.39 x 50% = 5mlTissue extraction 50% = 5ml 1% = 0.1ml


Oxygen therapy o 2 delivery systems

PO2O2 contentPer 100 ml97mmArt. blood 14g x 1.39 x 100% = 20 ml 40mmVen. blood 14g x 1.39 x 75% = 15ml Tissue extraction 25% = 5ml 1% = 0.2ml 97mmArt. blood 7g x 1.39 x 100% = 10 ml ? Ven. blood 7g x 1.39 x 50% = 5mlTissue extraction 50% = 5ml 1% = 0.1ml


Oxygen therapy o 2 delivery systems

PO2O2 contentPer 100 ml97mmArt. blood 14g x 1.39 x 100% = 20 ml 40mmVen. blood 14g x 1.39 x 75% = 15ml Tissue extraction 25% = 5ml 1% = 0.2ml 97mmArt. blood 7g x 1.39 x 100% = 10 ml 27mmVen. blood 7g x 1.39 x 50% = 5mlTissue extraction 50% = 5ml 1% = 0.1ml


Oxygen therapy3

Oxygen Therapy

Indications


Oxygen therapy indications

Oxygen Therapy Indications

FIO2

Barometric Pressure

PIO2


Oxygen therapy indications1

Oxygen Therapy Indications

FIO2

-FIO2 during anaes.

- Rebreathing

Barometric Pressure

- High altitude

PIO2


Oxygen therapy indications2

Oxygen Therapy Indications

FIO2

-FIO2 during anaes.

- Rebreathing

Barometric Pressure

- High altitude

PIO2

  • O2 Consumption

Alveolar Ventilation

PAO2


Oxygen therapy indications3

Oxygen Therapy Indications

FIO2

-FIO2 during anaes.

- Rebreathing

Barometric Pressure

- High altitude

PIO2

  • O2 Consumption

  • convulsions

  • thyrotoxicosis

  • -shivering

  • -pyrexia

  • Alveolar Ventilation

  • resp. depression

  • Resp. muscle paresis

  • resp.effort (trauma)

  • airway obstruction

PAO2


Oxygen therapy indications4

Oxygen Therapy Indications

FIO2

-FIO2 during anaes.

- Rebreathing

Barometric Pressure

- High altitude

PIO2

  • O2 Consumption

  • convulsions

  • thyrotoxicosis

  • -shivering

  • -pyrexia

  • (7 % / o C)

  • Alveolar Ventilation

  • resp. depression

  • Resp. muscle paresis

  • resp.effort (trauma)

  • airway obstruction

PAO2


Oxygen therapy indications5

Oxygen Therapy Indications

Low VA/Q

Normal Anat. shunt

PaO2


Oxygen therapy indications6

Oxygen Therapy Indications

  • Low VA/Q

  • Abn. Pulmonary shunt

  • - pneumonia

  • lobar atelectasis

  • ARDS

  • Normal Anat. shunt

  • Abn.extra Pulm. Shunt

    • cong. heart disease

    • (R L )

PaO2


Oxygen therapy indications7

Oxygen Therapy Indications

  • Low VA/Q

  • Abn. Pulmonary shunt

  • - pneumonia

  • lobar atelectasis

  • ARDS

  • Normal Anat. shunt

  • Abn.extra Pulm. Shunt

    • cong. heart disease

    • (R L )

PaO2

Hypoxic hypoxia


Oxygen therapy o 2 delivery systems

Simple Rule

Hypoxia due to hypoventilation

Slight increase in O2 conc.

(Thus the importance of ventimask)

Higher O2 conc.


Oxygen therapy o 2 delivery systems

Simple Rule

Hypoxia due to hypoventilation

Slight increase in O2 conc.

(Thus the importance of ventimask)

Higher O2 conc.

  • hypercapnoea

  • absence of cynosis


Oxygen therapy indications8

Oxygen Therapy Indications

  • Low VA/Q

  • Abn. Pulmonary shunt

  • - pneumonia

  • lobar atelectasis

  • ARDS

  • Normal Anat. shunt

  • Abn.extra Pulm. Shunt

    • cong. heart disease

    • (R L )

PaO2

Perfusion

Hb concentration

Cell

PO2


Oxygen therapy indications9

Oxygen Therapy Indications

  • Low VA/Q

  • Abn. Pulmonary shunt

  • - pneumonia

  • lobar atelectasis

  • ARDS

  • Normal Anat. shunt

  • Abn.extra Pulm. Shunt

    • cong. heart disease

    • (R L )

PaO2

Perfusion

local - PVD, thrombosis gen – shock, Hypovol., card. Failure cardiac arrest

  • Hb concentration

  • Anaemia

  • CO poisoning

Cell

PO2


Which patient is better placed2

Which patient is better placed – ?

AB

Anaemic patientPatient with Hb 14gm%

Hb = 7gm % Normal Hb 7gm%

Hb Co 7gm%


Which patient is better placed3

Which patient is better placed – ?

AB

Anaemic patientPatient with Hb 14gm%

Hb = 7gm % Normal Hb 7gm%

Hb Co 7gm%

2,3 DPG

Shift to RShift to L

unloading of O2 unloading of O2

(blood tissue)(blood tissue)

PVO2 – ?PVO2 – ?


Which patient is better placed4

Which patient is better placed – ?

AB

Anaemic patientPatient with Hb 14gm%

Hb = 7gm % Normal Hb 7gm%

Hb Co 7gm%

2,3 DPG

Shift to RShift to L

unloading of O2 unloading of O2

(blood tissue)(blood tissue)

PVO2 – 27 mm HgPVO2 – ?


Which patient is better placed5

Which patient is better placed – ?

AB

Anaemic patientPatient with Hb 14gm%

Hb = 7gm % Normal Hb 7gm%

Hb Co 7gm%

2,3 DPG

Shift to RShift to L

unloading of O2 unloading of O2

(blood tissue)(blood tissue)

PVO2 – 27 mm HgPVO2 – 14mmHg


Hypoxia in co poisoning is out of proportion to degree of anemia

Hypoxia in co poisoningis out of proportion to degree of anemia


Which patient is better placed6

Which patient is better placed – ?

AB

Anaemic patientPatient with Hb 14gm%

Hb = 7gm % Normal Hb 7gm%

Hb Co 7gm%

2,3 DPG

Shift to RShift to L

unloading of O2 unloading of O2

(blood tissue)(blood tissue)

PVO2 – 27 mm HgPVO2 – 14mmHg

Cardiac Output


Dissolved o 2 in plasma

Dissolved O2 in plasma

0.003ml / 100ml of blood / mm PO2

Breathing Air (PaO2 100mm Hg)

0.3ml / 100ml of blood


Dissolved o 2 in plasma1

Dissolved O2 in plasma

0.003ml / 100ml of blood / mm PO2

Breathing Air (PaO2 100mm Hg)

0.3ml / 100ml of blood

Breathing 100% O2


Dissolved o 2 in plasma2

Dissolved O2 in plasma

0.003ml / 100ml of blood / mm PO2

Breathing Air (PaO2 100mm Hg)

0.3ml / 100ml of blood

Breathing 100% O2 (PaO2 600mm Hg)

1.8ml / 100ml of blood


Dissolved o 2 in plasma3

Dissolved O2 in plasma

0.003ml / 100ml of blood / mm PO2

Breathing Air (PaO2 100mm Hg)

0.3ml / 100ml of blood

Breathing 100% O2 (PaO2 600mm Hg)

1.8ml / 100ml of blood

Breathing 100% O2 at 3 Atm. Pressure


Dissolved o 2 in plasma4

Dissolved O2 in plasma

0.003ml / 100ml of blood / mm PO2

Breathing Air (PaO2 100mm Hg)

0.3ml / 100ml of blood

Breathing 100% O2 (PaO2 600mm Hg)

1.8ml / 100ml of blood

Breathing 100% O2 at 3 Atm. Pressure

5.4ml / 100ml of blood


Dissolved o 2 in plasma5

Dissolved O2 in plasma

0.003ml / 100ml of blood / mm PO2

Breathing Air (PaO2 100mm Hg)

0.3ml / 100ml of blood

Breathing 100% O2 (PaO2 600mm Hg)

1.8ml / 100ml of blood

Breathing 100% O2 at 3 Atm. Pressure

5.4ml / 100ml of blood

Basis of Hyperbaric O2 therapy


Benefit of o 2 therapy in hypoxia

Benefit of O2 therapy in Hypoxia

Hypoxic hypoxia (gas phase) + + +

Anaemic hypoxia (fluid phase – const.)+

Stagnant hypoxia (fluid phase – flow)+

Histotoxic hypoxia (tissue phase)-


Benefit of o 2 therapy in hypoxia1

Benefit of O2 therapy in Hypoxia

Hypoxic hypoxia (gas phase) + + +

Anaemic hypoxia (fluid phase – const.)+

Stagnant hypoxia (fluid phase – flow)+

Histotoxic hypoxia (tissue phase)-

Normal Person (breathing 100% O2)

14gm x 1.34ml = 18.7ml + 1.8ml = 20.5ml (1.8 is 9% 20.5)


Benefit of o 2 therapy in hypoxia2

Benefit of O2 therapy in Hypoxia

Hypoxic hypoxia (gas phase) + + +

Anaemic hypoxia (fluid phase – const.)+

Stagnant hypoxia (fluid phase – flow)+

Histotoxic hypoxia (tissue phase)-

Normal Person (breathing 100% O2)

14gm x 1.34ml = 18.7ml + 1.8ml = 20.5ml (1.8 is 9% 20.5)

Anaemic patient (breathing 100% O2)

4gm x 1.34ml = 5.4ml + 1.8ml = 7.2 ml (1.8 is 25% of 7.2)


Oxygen therapy indications10

Oxygen Therapy Indications

Physical effects of O2


Oxygen therapy indications11

Oxygen Therapy Indications

Physical effects of O2

“Air in the body – where it should not be”


Oxygen therapy indications12

Oxygen Therapy Indications

Physical effects of O2

“Air in the body – where it should not be”

Surgical emphysema

Pneumothorax

Air embolism

Bowel decompression


Oxygen therapy o 2 delivery systems

Gas Tensions


Oxygen therapy o 2 delivery systems

Gas Tensions


Oxygen therapy o 2 delivery systems

Tissue requirement per 100ml = 5ml

Dissolved Fraction = 1.8 ml

Balance = 3.2 ml

0.2ml x 16% = 3.2ml

84% saturation = PO2 50mm Hg


Oxygen therapy indications13

Oxygen Therapy Indications

Pre oxygenation / ?


Oxygen therapy indications14

Oxygen Therapy Indications

Pre oxygenation / denitrogenation

To the O2 reserve in the body – ?


O 2 stores in the body

O2 stores in the body


O 2 delivery systems

O2 Delivery systems


O 2 delivery systems1

O2 Delivery systems

Ambient pressure

  • Variable performance devices

  • Fixed performance devices


O 2 delivery systems2

O2 Delivery systems

Ambient pressure

  • Variable performance devices

  • Fixed performance devices

    Positive pressure ventilation

  • Non invasive (BIPAP, CPAP)

  • Invasive


O 2 delivery systems3

O2 Delivery systems

Ambient pressure

  • Variable performance devices

  • Fixed performance devices

    Positive pressure ventilation

  • Non invasive (BIPAP, CPAP)

  • Invasive

    ECMO


O 2 delivery systems4

O2 Delivery systems

Ambient pressure

  • Variable performance devices (Pt. dependent) low flow

    • No capacity system – no rebreathing

      nasal catheter / cannulae

    • Capacity system – chance of rebreathing

      • Small – (mass shell only)

      • Large – (with reservoir bag)

  • Fixed performance devices (Pt. independent) high flow

    • HAFOE (ventimask)

    • Anaesthesia circuits


Oxygen therapy o 2 delivery systems

High flow system

The gas flow is sufficient to meet all inspiratory requirement

Low flow system

The gas flow is insufficient to meet all inspiratory requirement.

Part of tidal volume is provided by room air.


Variables

Variables

O2 flow rate

Patient factors

Device factors


Variables1

Variables

O2 flow rate

Patient factors

  • Inspiratory flow rate

  • Expiratory time (active exp. flow + exp. pause)

    Device factors


Variables2

Variables

O2 flow rate

Patient factors

  • Inspiratory flow rate

  • Expiratory time (active exp. flow + exp. pause)

    Device factors

  • Physical volume (capacity)

  • Vent resistance (tight fit)


Nasal catheter

O2 Flowrate (L/min)

1

2

3

4

5

6

Fi O2

0.24

0.28

0.32

0.36

0.40

0.44

Nasal Catheter


Oxygen therapy o 2 delivery systems

Normal Anatomic Reservoir

(50ml)

6 Ltr/min

= 100ml/sec

= 50ml/1/2 Sec


Nasal catheter1

Nasal Catheter

Merits

  • Easy to fix

  • Keeps hands free

  • Not much interference with further airway care

  • Useful in both spont. breathing and apnoeic


Oxygen therapy o 2 delivery systems

10-15 Ltr/min flow rate ----------- 50-60 % O2 conc.


Nasal catheter2

Nasal Catheter

Merits

  • Easy to fix

  • Keeps hands free

  • Not much interference with further airway care

  • Useful in both spont. breathing and apnoeic

  • Small but definite rise in FiO2 (dose not critical)

    Demerits

  • Mucosal irritation (uncomfortable)

  • Gastric dilatation (especially with high flows)


Oxygen therapy o 2 delivery systems

For higher O2 Concentration

gadgets with storage capacity (reservoir)

problem of re-breathing

minimized / avoided by higher flows


Simple face mask

Simple Face Mask – ?

Simple face mask


Simple face mask1

Simple Face Mask

Simple face mask

NO YES


Simple face mask2

O2 Flowrate (L/min)

5-6

6-7

7-8

Fi O2

0.40

0.50

0.60

Simple face mask


Oxygen therapy o 2 delivery systems

Partial Rebreathing mask (polymask)


Partial rebreathing mask polymask

O2 Flowrate (L/min)

6

7

8

Partial Rebreathing mask(polymask)

Fi O2

0.60

0.70

0.80


Poly mask

Poly mask

What type of circuit it is – ?


Poly mask1

Poly mask

What type of circuit it is – ?

Modified T – Piece


Non rebreathing mask

Non Rebreathing mask

Non Rebreathing Mask


Oxygen therapy o 2 delivery systems

10 – 15 Ltr/min flow rate – 50-100 O2 conc.


Face masks

Face Masks

Merits

  • Higher Oxygen Conc.

    Demerits

  • Rebreathing (if O2 flow is inadequate)

  • Interfere with further airway care

  • Proper fitting is required

  • Uncomfortable (sweating, spitting)


Bag valve mask assembly ambu resuscitator

Bag – Valve – Mask assembly(Ambu Resuscitator)

Bag – Valve – Mask assembly(Ambu Resuscitator)


Bag valve mask assembly ambu resuscitator1

Bag – Valve – Mask assembly(Ambu Resuscitator)

  • Delivers O2 during BOTH spont. & artf. Vent

  • O2 concentration

    • 30 – 50% (without reservoir)

    • 80 – 100% (with reservoir)

  • To deliver 100% O2


Bag valve mask assembly ambu resuscitator2

Bag – Valve – Mask assembly(Ambu Resuscitator)

  • Delivers O2 during BOTH spont. & artf. Vent

  • O2 concentration

    • 30 – 50% (without reservoir)

    • 80 – 100% (with reservoir)

  • To deliver 100% O2

    • Reservoir – as large as bag vol

    • O2 flow rate > minute volume (10 l/m)

  • Drawback – keeps rescuer’s hands engaged


Pocket mask

Pocket Mask

  • Delivers O2 in BOTH spont. & aponeic

  • Allows use of both hands – for maintaining airway

  • Upto 4 ltr reserve vol. (rescuer’s vital capacity)

O2 Flowrate (L/min)

5

10

15

Fi O2

0.40

0.50

0.80 (Spont.)

0.54 (M - mask)


Incubator

Incubator

  • Small infants – not on ventilator

  • Works on venturi principle

  • Complete air change – 10 times / hour

  • Control of humidity & temperature

  • O2 conc. falls rapidly when access ports are open


O 2 tents

O2 tents

  • For children – not tolerating mask / catheter

  • Large capacity system

  • Upto 50% O2 concentration

  • Large tent cap. and leak port – limited CO2 build up.

  • Disadvantage

    • Limited access

    • Risk of fire

    • Conflict in O2 therapy / nursing care


Oxygen therapy o 2 delivery systems

Can You name the device ?

Written over it – 28 % @ 4 L P M – ?

If flow is doubled (8 LPM) – what will the %age of O2 delivered by the device ?

If flow is halved (@ 2 LPM) – what will be the %age of O2 received by the patient ?

What is the likely entertainment ratio of this device ?

1 2 4 8 16

What precaution to be taken for humidification of gases while using this device ?


Oxygen therapy o 2 delivery systems

  • Works on principle of constant pressure jet – mixture.

  • O2 jet entrains air as per entrain. ratio.

  • Total flow > PIFR (30 – 35 L/min)

  • Eliminates the problem of dead space & leak free connection.


Oxygen therapy o 2 delivery systems

Ventimask


Simple face mask3

Simple Face Mask

Simple face mask

NO YES


Oxygen therapy o 2 delivery systems

  • Works on principle of constant pressure jet – mixture.

  • O2 jet entrains air as per entrain. ratio.

  • Total flow > PIFR (30 – 35 L/min)

  • Eliminates the problem of dead space & leak free connection.

  • Upper limit is 60 %.

  • Humidification of O2 supply is not sensible.


Oxygen therapy o 2 delivery systems

If conc. of O2 which a patient is getting is not known then the situation is similar toa drug being administered without knowing the dosewhich can do harm if given more or provide insufficient effect if given less


100 not more than 12hrs 80 not more than 24hrs 60 not more than 36hrs

O2 Toxicity

100% - not more than 12hrs 80% - not more than 24hrs 60% - not more than 36hrs


Rest read it yourself

Rest (read it yourself)


Oxygen therapy o 2 delivery systems

Thank you

&

Best of Luck

[email protected]


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