Micro technology for positioning navigation and timing pnt
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Micro-Technology for Positioning, Navigation and Timing (µPNT). Dr. Andrei M. Shkel. Aggregation. Overall goal: Enable self-contained chip-scale inertial navigation Reduce SWaP of existing Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) What we have now: CSAC , IMPACT , NGIMG , PINS (DSO) - Components

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Micro-Technology for Positioning, Navigation and Timing (µPNT)

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Micro technology for positioning navigation and timing pnt

Micro-Technology forPositioning, Navigation and Timing(µPNT)

Dr. Andrei M. Shkel


Aggregation

Aggregation

  • Overall goal:

    • Enable self-contained chip-scale inertial navigation

    • Reduce SWaP of existing Inertial Measurement Units (IMU)

  • What we have now:

    • CSAC, IMPACT, NGIMG, PINS (DSO) - Components

    • MINT, TUNS (DSO), SoOP (STO) – System Integration

  • Unaddressed need:

    • Limited dynamic range

    • Unacceptable long-term drift

    • Size, Weight, Power and Cost (no path for chip-scale IMU)

  • New approaches:

    • Exploit inertia of elastic waves for increase in dynamic range

    • Self-calibration on-a-chip for compensation of long-term bias drift

    • Integration of time and inertial measurement units for cross-calibration and SWaP&C

  • Why now?

    • Recently emerged precision manufacturing of 3D structures

    • Lab demonstration of bias stability improvement via mimicking inertial forces and persistent excitation

    • Accumulated knowledge in heterogeneous integration and algorithms


Durations of dod missions

Durations of DOD Missions

Over 70% of missile missions are less than 3 min

Precision Engagement with

GPS-assisted guidance

Ballistic

10 sec

3 min

Missile 5

Missile 9

Missile 8

Missile 7

Missile 4

M-16

Missile 2

SEALs Underwater Mission

Soldier Walking in Cave

Soldier Walking in Open Field

New Starts

Micro

UAV

10,000

Missile 6

Missile 3

Missile 1

Missile 11

HMMWV

Missile 10

Grenade Launcher

1,000

1 hr

100

Speed of Platform (km/hr)

Personal navigation GPS-assisted

10

Currently Funded

24 hr

1

10

100

1

1,000

Range of Mission (km)

Enable self-contained inertial navigation with micro systems


Micro technology for positioning navigation and timing pnt

µPNT Technology Drivers

  • Navigation

  • Guidance

Driving Operation Characteristics

High Dynamic Range

Low Power Consumption

Technical

Focus Area

Components

  • NGIMG: Navigation Grade

  • Integrated Micro Gyroscopes

  • Gyros, clocks,

  • accels, velocity

  • sensors

  • MRIG: Micro Rate Integrating

  • Gyroscopes

  • CSAC: Chip Scale Atomic Clock

  • IMPACT: Integrated Micro Primary

  • Atomic Clock Technology

System Calibration

  • MINT: Micro Inertial

  • Navigation Technology

  • ZUPting, persistent

  • excitation with

  • micro stages,

  • algorithms

  • PASCAL: Primary and Secondary Calibration on Active Layer

  • IT-MARS: Information Tethered

  • Micro Automated Rotary Stages

Device Integration

1

1

  • Fabrication

  • approaches,

  • architectures

  • TIMU: Deep Integration of Time and Inertial Measurement Unit

  • - New Starts


Precision engagement

Precision Engagement

Active Guidance

Define Orientation

Define Target

Today: large & expensive sensors on static platforms

Vision: small SWaP sensors extended to mobile platforms

Today: GPS-assisted

Vision: self-contained guidance (no GPS) in fast precision engagement

Today: GPS, magnetic compass, and range finder

Vision: eliminate magnetic compass with ultra-small gyro compassing solutions


Pnt challenges

µPNT Challenges

Challenging dynamic environment, bias drift, ultra miniaturization on system-level

  • Deep integration of clocks & IMU

    • SoA clocks and sensors are incompatible, and implemented separately

    • Multiple non-synchronized frequency sources are used in Navigation system routinely

    • (power consumption, grows in uncertainty of time-position-orientation)

2 mm

2 mm

  • Long-term bias drift

    • Increased surface- to-volume ratio makes micro devices sensitive to surface effects: charging, contamination, out-gassing, trapping

    • This results in long-term fluctuation of physical parameters, reflected in long-term sensor drift

  • Fabrication processes

  • Dissimilar and incompatible with wafer-level parallel fabrication →SWaP & C

  • Can build small, but cannot build precise (~10-2relative tolerance) → performance

  • SoA micro-structures are fundamentally flat, non-ideal for high-g environment and fast-agile sensor concepts

2 mm

  • Sensors for dynamic environment

    • Frequency miss-match grows proportionally to input rotation rate.

    • Linearity of response is affected by rotation rate


Pnt technical approaches

µPNT Technical Approaches

Inertia of elastic waves, self-calibration/cross-calibration algorithms, 3D fabrication

  • Deep integration of clocks & IMU

    • Develop clocks and sensors around a compatible combination of materials (Si, SiO2, Rb, Cs)

    • Use a single master clock for time, sync, and signal processing

2 mm

2 mm

  • Long-term bias drift

    • Compensate by applying persistent excitation via calibration stage integrated along side with sensors

  • Fabrication processes

    • Utilize under-explored process: post-release assembly, chip-level welding, stacking

    • Explore precision fabrication based on surface tension (~10-6projected tolerance)

    • 3D processes: blow, stretch, stamp, roll

2 mm

  • Sensors for dynamic environment

    • Utilize inertia of elastic waves. Precession of standing waves preserves linearity and extends the dynamic range.

    • Explore new materialswith large Young Modulus


New approach for solving dynamic range limitations

New Approach for Solving Dynamic Range Limitations

  • Hemispherical Resonance Gyro (HRG)

    • Highly successful

    • “Boutique” process

New approach

Rate Integrating

Gyroscope

Rate Response

Northrop Grumman HRG

3%

Classical

Rate Gyroscope

20 Hz

40 Hz

Input Angular Rate

Classical

Rate Gyroscope

New Approach

Rate Integrating Gyroscope

Axis of Rotation

Elastic wave

  • HRG on micro scale

    • Exploits inertial properties of elastic waves in solids

    • Relies on wafer-scale fabrication of isotropic 3D solids

    • Results in unprecedented increase in dynamic range

Price Range per axis: $50,000-$100,000


Self calibration on a chip

Self-Calibration On-a-Chip

Motivation

Approach

  • Why Now?:

  • Previously, technology pushed towards the “perfect” sensor

    • community now realizes the challenges of this approach

  • Phenomenon of drift not well understood

  • Re-calibration circumvents knowledge about the cause of drift

  • New emerging technological advances permit the miniaturization of rate tables for on-chip calibration

Output

(Voltage)

Gyroscope

Input

(Rotation)

Bias Drift (illustration)

Ideal response

Drifted response

  • Current options when sensor drifts:

  • Use inaccurate data

  • Remove sensor from system

    • re-calibrate in lab &

    • re-insert in system

    • discard & replace

Calibration Stage

1. Co-fabricate

2. Excite

3. Extract

4. Reset

reference

sensor

New Approach:

  • Fabricate sensor directly on calibration stage

  • Periodically apply reference stimulus (e.g. oscillatory)

  • Extract reference stimulus and sensor response

  • Recover new I/O relationship and reset bias


Pnt objective

µPNT Objective

  • This program

  • HG9900 Nav grade IMU

  • HG1930 MEMS IMU

2 mm

2 mm

The program addresses the emerging DOD need to

  • Decrease reliance on GPS

  • Increase system accuracy

  • Reduce co-lateral damage

  • Increase effective range

  • Reduce SWAP&C


Micro technology for positioning navigation and timing pnt

µPNT Organization

FY10

FY12

FY13

FY14

FY11

Components

Nav-Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG)

BAA

Demo 3D isotropic

manufacturing

Demo Rate

Integrating Gyro

SWaP and

Performance

demonstrated

Micro Rate Integrating

Gyroscopes (MRIG)

System Calibration

Micro Inertial Navigation Technology (MINT)

Prim. and Sec. Calibration on Active Layer (PASCAL)

Demo Sensors on

Calibration Stages

Demo Improvement

in drift characteristics

Completely

Integrated System

Information Tethered Micro Automated Rotary Stages (ITMARS)

BAA

Device Integration

Chip-Scale Atomic Clock (CSAC)

Timing and IMU Integration (TIMU)

Demo functional

T+IMU unit

Demo tactical

grade performance

Demo Nav. grade

performance

Integrated Micro Primary Atomic Clock Technology (IMPACT)

BAA

=End of Phase

=BAA


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