User interface
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User interface . Systems Analysis and Design Accountancy Department Petra Christian University Surabaya 2003. What ?. Interaction/dialogues between machine and users Communicating information from machine to the user Communicating information from the user to the machine. Why ?.

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User interface

User interface

Systems Analysis and Design

Accountancy Department

Petra Christian University

Surabaya

2003


User interface

What ?

Interaction/dialogues between machine and users

Communicating information from machine to the user

Communicating information from the user to the machine


User interface

Why ?

  • To focus on the needs of the users rather than on the needs of the computers

  • To avoid frustration, confusion, boredom, misuse, abandonment etc. ( easy to learn, remember, use)

  • To reduce the trainings to use the systems


How basic principles

How ? (basic principles)

  • Understanding audience

  • Knowing the goal

  • Consistent

  • clear

  • systematic

  • Communicative

  • Intuitive

  • Flexible

  • aesthetics


Understanding audience

UNDERSTANDING AUDIENCE

  • Novice vs expert

    • Novice : instruction, help, dialogue

    • Expert : efficient

  • Involvement from the beginning

  • Identifying likes and dislikes of the existing system

  • Involvement in the testing stage ( finding errors)

  • feedback


Knowing the goal

KNOWING THE GOAL

  • Easy to learn

  • Easy to use

  • Efficiency


Consistent

CONSISTENT

  • term

  • layout

  • font size

  • Color

  • character type

  • icon, button, form etc.

    for similar concepts, headings, body of text, page etc


Clear

CLEAR

  • readable to be read on screen or printed ( font color, size, type); text – 12 “

  • concise

  • simple term/heading

  • Grammatically correct sentences

  • avoid acronyms/abbreviations

  • no exaggerations, funny or cute words

  • Use action words for phrase instructions


Systematic

SYSTEMATIC

  • alphabetical

  • chronological

  • category/sub-category

  • process-based approach

  • geographical


Communicative 1

COMMUNICATIVE 1

  • help/guide ( readable, clear, consistent, complete)

    • PAGE (not exceeding the wide of the monitor used, not too long approx 2,5 screen length)

    • TEXT/REPORT/PARAGRAPH (concise, short sentences, use abstracts or summaries at the top of the page if the text is long, not > one concept per paragraph, most important point first, background color – white

    • If more than 1 page , use scroll or button ( previous/next)

    • Use search or topic list/index


Communicative 2

COMMUNICATIVE 2

  • messages ( warning, confirmation, status, error, reasons etc)

  • Internal controls (prevent user to perform inappropriate action, not allowed to proceed without correcting the errors, Authentication and authorization etc. )

  • Navigation ( know the position, how to go back and move forward)


Intuitive

INTUITIVE

  • Easy to learn ( minimal instruction, users can pick it up quickly and easily)

  • Unambiguous

  • Know what to do next

    • to distinguish between alternative actions


Flexibility customized to the needs of the users

FLEXIBILITY ( customized to the needs of the users)

  • Hiding/displaying tools bars/menu etc.

  • Font size, color, type

  • Dates to pick up

  • Types of display screen, print outs

  • Layout ( portrait, landscape)

  • Number of pages displayed, printed

    Etc.


Aesthetics

AESTHETICS

  • not crowded

  • composition – color, layout , size

  • Character types not > 3 in one page

  • Images/graphics/animation - small enough to be viewed/downloaded


Human factors

Human Factors

  • Memory (7 ± 2)[ Miller (1956)]

  • Dynamic, e.g. Web: 2 or 3? (Yentema& Mueser, 1960; Yentema, 1963; Venturino, 1997)

  • Search engines can offload memory burden

  • Perception: visual

  • Motor skills:

  • Attention and vigilance

  • Problem solving

  • Learning and skill acquisition

  • Motivation

  • Users' conceptual models

  • Population Stereotypes

  • Human diversity, including disabled


Graphical user interface

GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE

  • Windows and frames

    • Scroll bar

    • Task bar

  • Menu-driven interface

  • Instruction-driven interface

  • Question-answer dialogue


Menu driven

Menu driven

  • Hierarchical

  • Pull down/drop down & Cascading

  • Dialogue box

  • Tear-0ff

  • Pop-up

  • Tool bar, iconic menu ( push/click)

  • Consumer-style interface

  • Hypertext and hyperlink ( hybrid windows/web interface)


Questions

questions

  • Jika anda dihadapkan pada pilihan merancang user interface, mana yang anda dahulukan, estetika atau keterpakaian? Mengapa?


What is usability

What is Usability?

  • "Usability (is) the ease with which a user can learn to operate, prepare inputs for, and interpret outputs of a system or component." [IEEE 90]

  • "The usability of an interface is a measure of the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction with which specified users can achieve specified goals in a particular environment with that interface." [ISO 13407]


Attributes of usability

Attributes of Usability

According to Nielsen [1993], usability is associated with these five usability attributes:

  • Learnability

  • Efficiency

  • Memorability

  • Errors

  • Satisfaction


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