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DNA Mutations. Section 11.3 . Review. DNA controls structure and function of cells because it holds the code to build all proteins. Amino acid sequence. DNA. mRNA. transcription. translation. Mutation—mistakes in the DNA.

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Dna mutations

DNA Mutations

Section 11.3


Review
Review

  • DNA controls structure and function of cells because it holds the code to build all proteins.

Amino acid sequence

DNA

mRNA

transcription

translation


Mutation mistakes in the dna
Mutation—mistakes in the DNA

  • Mistakes can occur randomly through errors in replication, transcription, or cell division.

  • External factors can also cause mutations.


Mutation in body cell

Mutation in sperm or egg

Only adult cells affected

Only offspring affected

Cell may no longer work properly

Cell doesn’t reproduce properlymay lead to cancer

New protein that is better than before

New protein hurts organism or doesn’t work at all.


Certain types of mutations are found in the genes or dna
Certain types of mutations are found in the genes or DNA in body cells.

  • Point mutation is the change in a single base pair.

    • EX. When you change one letter in a sentence:

      • THE DOG BIT THE CAT.

      • THE DOG BIT THE CAR.


Dna mutations con t
DNA mutations con’t in body cells.

  • Frameshift mutation is when one base is deleted or inserted and the whole sequence shifts.

    • EX: If you delete the letter G, from the original sentence:

      • THE DOG BIT THE CAT.

      • THE DOB ITT HEC AT.

    • EX: If you insert the letter A, into the sequence.

      • THE DOG ABI TTH ECA T.



Mutation causes are called mutagens
Mutation causes are called mutagens. also have mutations

  • Radiation (nuclear, x-ray, UV, etc), asbestos, formaldehyde all can lead to mutations.

  • Organisms have evolved several enzymes that check and repair DNA, but the more exposure to a substance, the more chances for mistakes.


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