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UWF WRITING LAB RULES OF THUMB FOR FAULTY CAPITALIZATION, ITALICIZATION, HYPHENATION, AND QUOTATION TECHNIQUE. From Real Good Grammar, Too by Mamie Webb Hixon. To capitalize or not to.

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From real good grammar too by mamie webb hixon

UWF WRITING LABRULES OF THUMB FOR FAULTY CAPITALIZATION, ITALICIZATION, HYPHENATION, AND QUOTATION TECHNIQUE

From

Real Good Grammar, Too

by Mamie Webb Hixon

Created by April Turner

Revised by Mamie Webb Hixon

June 30,2010


To capitalize or not to

To capitalize or not to . . .

  • When Amazon launched its Kindle book reader, Oprah announced on NBC that this e-reader is one of her favorite things.

  • CAPITALIZE trademarks/product names: Kindle

  • CAPITALIZE corporations: Amazon

  • CAPITALIZE certain initialisms/abbreviations: NBC

  • CAPITALIZE people’s names: Oprah


Do not capitalize

DO NOT CAPITALIZE

  • The first letter of some trademark/product names

    eBay

    eLearning

    iPhone and iPad

  • Music genres

    jazz

    hip-hop

    rock ‘n roll music

  • Ideologies

    capitalismsocialism

    existentialism


Do not capitalize1

DO NOT CAPITALIZE

  • Names that have no association with their origin

    sandwich

    pasteurization

    leotards

  • Slang names

    dork

    geek

  • Common religious termsa priest

    holy

  • Types of transportationplanes and boats and trains


Do not capitalize2

DO NOT CAPITALIZE

  • Seasons

    winter, spring, summer, or fall

  • Compass directions

    north by northwest

    west of the Mississippi

  • Majors or disciplines

    special education

    social work

  • Professional titles or occupational descriptionsmath teacheractor Kevin Bacon

    lawyerformer astronaut Dr. Mae Jemison

    bank tellerthe sheriff


Do not capitalize3

DO NOT CAPITALIZE

  • Academic classifications

    freshman year

    senior

  • Common nouns used in place of proper nouns

    a junior college

    the interstate

  • General events

    a civil war

    a proclamation

  • General names of organizations, agencies, and officesan insurance agency

    a social security check


Do not capitalize4

DO NOT CAPITALIZE

  • Common nouns

    hurricane

    a large city

  • Names of animals

    bald eagle

    mockingbird

  • Academic degrees

    a doctorate

    bachelor’s degree

  • Military titlesretired admiral

    a U.S. marine


From real good grammar too by mamie webb hixon

Which words have capitalization errors?

  • retired admiral David Brewer, U.S. navy

  • Sex And The City

  • Marketing Communications department


Capitalization

CAPITALIZATION

  • (NOTE: The list below includes but is not limited to proper nouns that should be capitalized; when in doubt, consult a dictionary.)

  • Words in a title except articles, prepositions, and conjunctions

    • The Wizard of Oz

    • Sex and the City

  • Professional titles preceding or following names

    • Doctor Frank Jones

  • Titles with rank

    • Chief Petty Officer Kumwaltz

    • Retired Admiral David Brewer, U.S. Navy

  • Specific departments

    • Foreign Languages Department

    • Marketing Communications Department

  • Divisions of the military

  • Army, Air Force, Navy


From real good grammar too by mamie webb hixon

  • Which words have capitalization errors?

  • english skills

  • MBA degree

  • Master’s degree

  • west of the Mississippi

  • on the west coast

  • The Gulf Coast


Capitalization1

CAPITALIZATION

  • Geographical areas

    • West Coast

    • The South

  • Names of businesses and institutions

    • First National Bank

  • Languages

    • Korean

    • English

  • Courses followed by a number

    • English Composition 101

  • Names of specific degrees

    Bachelor of Arts degree BUT

    bachelor’s degree

    master’s degree

  • Specific rather than generic course titles

  • Western Civilization

  • Philosophy of Love

  • history

  • philosophy


From real good grammar too by mamie webb hixon

  • Which words have capitalization errors?

  • Buddhists, Catholics, Protestants, and Atheists

  • the league of women voters

  • blacks, whites, and latinos


From real good grammar too by mamie webb hixon

  • Which words have capitalization errors?

  • Summer vacation

  • Facebook, MySpace, and LinkedIn

  • Google apps

  • Waiting to Exhale

  • Gone With The Wind


Capitalization2

CAPITALIZATION

  • Religions, churches, denominations

    • Catholicism

  • Organizations

    • Boys and Girls Club

    • League of Women Voters

  • Historical events, periods

    • the Harlem Renaissance

  • Familial terms such as mother and father if they are not preceded by a possessive word

    • Aunt Judy is my favorite aunt.

  • Races, nationalities

    • Mexican-American

    • African-American

  • Businesses

    • AT&T

    • Sears

  • Do NOT capitalize

    • Neologistic or other terms used to refer to races and nationalities

      • whites

      • Blacks (usage is divided)

      • a native American


Capitalization3

CAPITALIZATION

  • Calendar names and events

    • Independence Day

  • Personal names and nicknames

    • Michael “Air” Jordan

  • Ships, trains, planes

    • Air Force One

  • Abbreviations

    acronyms and initials

    • AA, NRA

  • Trademarks

    • eBay

    • iPhone

    • BlackBerry

    • Wi Fi

  • Seasons accompanying event names

    • Spring Festival

    • summer vacation

  • BUT

    • winter, spring, summer


When in doubt about the capitalization of a word consult a dictionary

When in doubt about the capitalization of a word, consult a dictionary.


Italicization underlining

ITALICIZATION &UNDERLINING

  • Italicize longer works (for handwritten work, underline):

    Books, novels, plays, movies, newspapers, magazines, paintings, sculptures, ships, trains, TV programs

    • A Streetcar Named Desire, The New Yorker, Pensacola News Journal, The Amazing Race


Use quotation marks for

USE QUOTATION MARKS FOR

  • Shorter works:

    TV episodes, short stories, songs, poems, chapters in a book, essays, speeches

    • “The Gettysburg Address”

    • “Ode to a Grecian Urn” by John Keats

    • “A Worn Path” by Eudora Welty

  • Direct quotations:

    Place periods and commas inside closing quotation marks; semicolons and colons, outside; question marks and exclamation marks are placed according to whether the mark accompanies the sentence or the quotation.

    • Cameron exclaimed, “That dog’s barking was not music to our ears!”


Use double quotation marks

USE DOUBLE QUOTATION MARKS

  • TO SET OFF:

    Words and expressions that need to be emphasized or that the writer wants to call attention to:

    Marco is a career student – he has been enrolled eight years already because he believes in the mantra “stay in school.”

    The celebrity couple are not married to each other; they have an “LTA,” a “living together arrangement.”

    Both children have cancer, but neither of them is “out of the woods” yet.

    I remember “Mommilies” such as “Things aren’t always as bad as they seem.”


Use double quotation marks1

USE DOUBLE QUOTATION MARKS

  • TO SET OFF:

    Words used as words

    The report will use the word “aborigine” to refer only to the primitive tribes now living in Australia.

  • TO SET OFF:

    Words used satirically or words that should not be taken literally

    The librarian righteously cleansed the library of all "dirty literature" such as Catch 22, Huckleberry Finn, and The Color Purple.


Use single quotation marks

USE SINGLE QUOTATION MARKS

  • TO QUOTE SOMEONE WHO IS QUOTING SOMEONE ELSE:

    A quotation within another quotation or a title within a quote

    Dr. Feinstein opened his lecture by saying, “Albert Einstein reminded us that ‘Great spirits always receive violent opposition from mediocre minds.’”

    The intro to Lit student naively remarked, “The nurse in Eudora Welty’s short story ‘A Worn Path’ calls the protagonist Phoenix Jackson ‘aunt,’ so are the two characters related?”


From real good grammar too by mamie webb hixon

  • Place commas and periods inside closing quotation marks.

  • Place semicolons and colons outside closing quotation marks.

  • “Do your own thing, an expression coined by Ralph Waldo Emerson, is found in his 1841 edition of “Self Reliance,” and it is considered a “philosophical gem.”

  • The graffito on a bathroom wall reads “ESP should be outlawed”; underneath this quote is “I knew you’d say that!”


From real good grammar too by mamie webb hixon

  • Place question marks and exclamation points inside closing quotation marks when the quoted material asks a question or makes an exclamation.

  • My personal anthem is Tina Turner’s song “What’s Love Got to Do with It?”

  • The captain shouted, “Halt!”


From real good grammar too by mamie webb hixon

  • Place question marks and exclamation points outside closing quotation marks when the sentence, not the quoted material, asks a question or makes an exclamation.

  • Which philosopher said, “I think; therefore, I am”?

    • (René Descartes)

  • I know that “misery loves company,” but please save us from his “misery”!


Hyphenation

HYPHENATION

  • Words with a fixed hyphen (use a dictionary)

  • Compound modifiers preceding a noun: a three-hour movie

  • Words beginning with the prefixes self-, all-, and

    well-: self-evident, all-encompassing, well-intended

  • Prefixes before a proper noun: pro-American


Hyphenation1

HYPHENATION

  • Fractions used as modifiers: one-third voter turnout

  • Numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine

  • Multiword adjectives: out-of-state checks

  • Some compound nouns: mother-in-law


Let s practice

LET’S PRACTICE!!!

  • Eighty year old actress Betty White said that “Facebook” is a waste of time.

    • Eighty-year-old actress Betty White said that Facebook is a waste of time.

  • The Grapes of Wrath is Steinbeck’s greatest novel.

  • The Grapes of Wrath…

  • My Aunt attends the local Junior College.

  • My aunt…junior college

  • Beth said that “Tony is a teacher’s pet.”

  • No quotation marks

  • UWF boasts a low student teacher ratio.

  • …student-teacher…


  • Let s practice a little more

    LET’S PRACTICE A LITTLE MORE!!!

    • Joe Smith is a member of the I have a dream foundation.

    • …I Have a Dream Foundation

    • Doesn’t everyone love Elvis’s song called Jailhouse Rock?

    • …“Jailhouse Rock”?

    • Her paper is extremely well written.

    • …well-written

    • Jessie has never read Much Ado About Nothing, but she did watch the movie.

    • …Much Ado About Nothing…


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