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Probing Reionization & Galaxy Evolution by High-z Lyα Emitters. z=6.96 LAE. Kazuaki Ota Cosmic Radiation Lab. RIKEN Institute of Physical and Chemical Research. Outline. I. Goal: to address the question, When did reionization end? II. Approach: Lyα Emitters III. Result IV. Conclusion

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probing reionization galaxy evolution by high z ly emitters

Probing Reionization & Galaxy Evolution by High-z Lyα Emitters

z=6.96LAE

Kazuaki OtaCosmic Radiation Lab. RIKEN Institute of Physical and Chemical Research

outline
Outline

I. Goal: to address the question,

When did reionizationend?

II. Approach: LyαEmitters

III. Result

IV. Conclusion

V. Upcoming Projects

outline1
Outline

I. Goal: to address the question,

When did reionizationend?

II. Approach: LyαEmitters

III. Result

IV. Conclusion

V. Upcoming Projects

slide4

When did reionization end?

quasars

Fan et al. 2006

neutral fraction

XHI ~ 1 – 4%

z~6.2

WMAP (CMB)

Dunkley et al. 2008

zreion=11.0±1.4

zreion> 6.7 (3σ limit)

z=6.3

γ-ray burst

Totani et al. 2006

neutral fraction

0< XHI < 17 – 60%

GP trough

slide5

Reionization Scenario: Late vs. Early

Neutral Fraction XHI

Redshift z

Fan et al.2006 ARAA

slide6

Our Result: LAEs support late reionization

Neutral Fraction XHI

z=7z=6.6Lyα Emitters(LAEs)

Reionization might have ended at z~6.

Redshift z

Fan et al.2006 ARAA

outline2
Outline

I. Goal: to address the question,

When did reionizationend?

II. Approach: LyαEmitters

III. Result

IV. Conclusion

V. Upcoming Projects

slide8

Fan et al. 2002

Reionization Probe: z~6Quasars Neutral Fraction1 – 4%

GP trough

z=5.7

z=6.6

z=7

Lyαemitters (LAEs)

If NF increases beyond z~6,observed LAE number density could decrease beyond z~6.

Iye et al. 2006

slide9

Narrowband Filters to Detect Lyα

Filter Response

z=5.7Lyα

z=6.6

z=7LAE

Skylines

z=7

Wavelength(A)

slide10

Sample Selection: NB excess

z=6.6 LAEs

z=5.7 LAEs

Shimasaku et al.2006

Taniguchi et al.2005Kashikawa et al.2006

slide11

z’ – NB973 [mag]

i’ – z’ [mag]

Sample Selection of z=7LAEs

3:z=6.6LAE

1

Detected in only NB973

2

Model z=7 LAE

Ota et al.2008

slide12

Spectroscopic confirmation

Kashikawa et al.2006z=6.6 LAEs 89% complete

Shimasaku et al.2006z=5.7 LAEs 86% complete

Iye, Ota et al.2006z=7 LAE

slide13

Target Sky Region & Samples

3σ, 2” aper. Limit. Mag.B ≤ 28.45 V ≤ 27.74 R ≤ 27.80i’ ≤ 27.43z’ ≤ 26.62

NB816 ≤ 26.63 (z=5.7)

NB921 ≤ 26.54 (z=6.6)

NB973 ≤ 25.47 (z=7.0)

876 arcmin2

Subaru Deep Field

Suprime-Cam

SDFLatest LAE Samples

ImageSpec.z=5.789 34 Shimasaku et al. 2006z=6.658 17 Kashikawa et al. 2006z=7.0 2 1Ota et al. 2008

outline3
Outline

I. Goal: to address the question,

When did reionizationend?

II. Approach: LyαEmitters

III. Result

IV. Conclusion

V. Upcoming Projrcts

slide15

Does HI increase beyond z=6?

Did reionization end at z~6?

Comparison of z<6 & z>6 LAE’s

Lyα Luminosity Function (LF)

galaxy evolution

Increase in HI

LAE evolution model

slide16

LyαLF(Observed)

z=5.7Phot■z=6.6Phot●z=6.6Spec▲z=7.0Spec◆

z=7LAEdetectionlimit

Number density log[n(>L) Mpc-3]

Decline in n(>L) ・galaxy evolution?・increase in HI?・both?

Lyα Luminosity log[L(Lyα) erg/s]

slide17

A LAE Evolution Model(Kobayashi et al.2007)

Observed Lyα luminosity

IGM transmission toLyα photons

IGM

Lyc

fesc =0

0 ≤ TLyα≤ 1

Lyα luminosity emitted from a galaxy

Lyα emitters

Quiescent galaxy

Starburst galaxy

Lyα escape fraction

0.8

outflow + dustmodel

slide18

LyαLF(Model vs.Observation)

LAE evolution model(Kobayashi et al.2007)

galaxy evol.

Number densitylog[n(>L) Mpc-3]

Increase in HI

IGM

IGM

TLyα z=6.6: 0.62–0.78

TLyα=1

Lyα Luminosity log[L(Lyα) erg/s]

slide19

LyαLF(Model vs.Observation)

LAE evolution model(Kobayashi et al.2007)

galaxy evol.

Number densitylog[n(>L) Mpc-3]

Increase in HI

IGM

TLyαz=7.0: 0.40–0.64

TLyα=1

IGM

Lyα Luminosity log[L(Lyα) erg/s]

neutral fraction z 6 6 24 36 z 7 0 32 64

Flux

wavelength(A)

Neutral Fraction

Lyαline attenuation: Model of Santos(2004)

IGM transmission to Lyα photons: TLyα

z=6.6: 0.62–0.78

z=7.0: 0.40–0.64

IGM

Neutral Fraction z=6.624–36% z=7.032–64%

IGM

TLyα

slide21

z~3-5

z=5.7

Gal. evol.

reionization

z=6.5

Model predictionKobayashi 07

z=7

Ouchi 08

Shimasaku 06

Dawson 07

Kashikawa 06

van Breukelen 05

Ota 08

slide22

Reionization History

Neutral Fraction XHI

z=7z=6.6Lyα Emitters

Redshift z

Fan et al.2006 ARAA

slide23

Conclusion

  • When did reionizationend?
  • NOTE:
  • Estimation of XHI is model dependent.
  • z=7 LAE survey is shallow.
  • We surveyed only one sky field.

LAEs support late reionization.

Reionization might have ended at z~6.

outline4
Outline

I. Goal: to address the question,

When did reionizationcomplete?

II. Approach: LyαEmitters

III. Result

IV. Conclusion

V. Upcoming Projects

slide25

Upcoming ProjectsNew Filter + New CCDs

NB1005 filter z~7.3 LAE center=10050AFWHM=210A

NB1005

34’x27’ Suprime-Cam

Filter Response

Red-sensitive CCDs for [email protected] 1μm ~ 0.422

Wavelength(A)

slide26

Upcoming Project (1)

Deepen z=7 ImageNB973=24.9  25.4

Obtain z=7.3 ImageNB1005=25.0 or deeper

Improved samples z=7 LAEs z=7.3 LAEs

Subaru Deep Field

876 arcmin2Suprime-Cam 1 pointing

s ubaru x mm newton d eep s urvey sxds 1 3 degree 2 suprime cam 5 pointings

Upcoming Project (2)

Subaru/XMM-NewtonDeep Survey(SXDS)~1.3 degree2 (Suprime-Cam 5 pointings)

Samples:z=5.7 LAEs 5 fieldsz=6.6 LAEs 5 fields(Ouchi et al.)z=7 LAEs 1 fieldz=7.3 LAEs 1 field(Observation in this Oct. & Nov.)

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