The effect of mating with neanderthals and denisovans on our i mmune system
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The Effect of Mating with Neanderthals and Denisovans on our I mmune system. G roup A10 Gerald Duncan, Olivia Lahay, Madeline Lionberger, Kyle Sledge, Heather Yutko. Introduction. HLA (human leukocyte antigen): Genes important in immune system response

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The Effect of Mating with Neanderthals and Denisovans on our I mmune system

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The effect of mating with neanderthals and denisovans on our i mmune system

The Effect of Mating with Neanderthals and Denisovans on ourImmune system

Group A10

Gerald Duncan, Olivia Lahay, Madeline Lionberger, Kyle Sledge, Heather Yutko


Introduction

Introduction

  • HLA (human leukocyte antigen): Genes important in immune system response

  • Haplotype: Combination of alleles transmitted together

  • Ligand: binds to receptors

  • Natural Killer Cells: Integral part of immune system

  • Denisovans: group similar to Neanderthals

  • Balancing selection: Multiple alleles maintained in population

  • Introgression: Gene flow between hybrids and parental populations

  • Admixture: Mixing formerly unexposed populations


Data results

Data/Results

  • Study led by Stanford University

  • Human migration from Africa occurred 67,500 years ago

  •  Maximum of  4% of modern Eurasian genomes can be traced back to Neanderthals

  • Maximum of 4-6% of modern Melanesian genomes can be traced back to Denisovans

  • Thousands of alleles per HLA

  • Denisovans would have to evolved certain immunities (Malaria)


Http images dailytech com nimage 21570 large hla b protein jpg model of a hla b protein

http://images.dailytech.com/nimage/21570_large_HLA_B_Protein.jpg

Model of a HLA-B Protein


Data results cont d

Data/Results (Cont’d)

  • Percentage of HLA-A deviations believed (Abi-Rached)  to be from sexual activity with extinct races:

  • European: 50%

  • Chinese: 70%

  • Papua New Guinean: 95%

  • 50-60 % of Chinese inhabitants possess A*11

  • Very rare in African regions


The effect of mating with neanderthals and denisovans on our i mmune system

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/334/6052/89/F2.large.jpg


The effect of mating with neanderthals and denisovans on our i mmune system

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/334/6052/89/F3.large.jpg


Discussion

Discussion

  • The findings suggest:

  • Interbreeding between archaic humans and Homo sapiens.

  • Adaptive introgression of HLA genes.

  • HLA:

  • Control NK cells

  • T cell immunity

  • Highly polymorphic---different alleles

  • Vital immune system component


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Some HLA alleles in modern humans may have originated from extinct human species.

  • These alleles may contribute to defending against locally prevalent diseases.


Literature cited

Literature Cited

  • Abi-Rached, Jobin, Kulkami, McWhinnie, Dalva, Gragert, Babrzadeh, Gharizadeh, Luo, Plummer, Kimani, Carrington, Middleton, Rajalingam, Beksac, Marsh, Maiers, Guethlein, Tavoularis, Little, Green, Norman & Parham. 2011. “The Shaping of Modern Human Immune Systems by Multiregional Admixture with Archaic Humans.” Science Mag, online. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/334/6052/89.full

  • Freeman, Scott. Biological Science. 4th ed. San Francisco: Person Education, Inc, 2011. Print.

  • Handbook of Statistical Genetics. 3rd ed. Eds. D.J. Balding, M. Bishop., C. Cannings. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2007. Print.

  • “Haplotype.” genome.gov. National Human Genome Research Institute. Web. 17 November 2012. http://www.genome.gov/Glossary/index.cfm?id=99

  • McGrath, Matt. “Neanderthal sex boosted immunity in modern humans.” BBC News, online. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-14673047

  • Mick, Jason. “Neanderthal Sex Gave Europeans and Asians Stronger Immune Systems.” Daily Tech, online. http://www.dailytech.com/Neanderthal+Sex+Gave+Europeans+and+Asians+Stronger+Immune+Systems/article22555.htm

  • Rhymer, Judith M and Daniel Simberloff. “Extinction by Hybridization and Introgression.” Annual Reviews Inc., 1996. Web. 17 November 2012. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.27.1.83

  • Sample, Ian. “The Downside of Sex with Neanderthals.” The Guardian, online. http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/blog/2011/aug/25/neanderthal-denisovan-genes-human-immunity

  • Vivier E, Tomasello E, Baratin M, Walzer T, Ugolini S. “Functions of natural killer cells.” Nat Immunol, May 2008. Web. 17 November 2012. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18425107

  • Young, Ed. “Did sex with Neanderthals and Denisovans shape our immune system? The jury’s still out.” Discover Magazine, online. http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/notrocketscience/2011/08/25/did-sex-with-neanderthals-and-denisovans-shape-our-immune-systems-the-jury%E2%80%99s-still-out/


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