the effect of mating with neanderthals and denisovans on our i mmune system
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The Effect of Mating with Neanderthals and Denisovans on our I mmune system. G roup A10 Gerald Duncan, Olivia Lahay, Madeline Lionberger, Kyle Sledge, Heather Yutko. Introduction. HLA (human leukocyte antigen): Genes important in immune system response

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the effect of mating with neanderthals and denisovans on our i mmune system

The Effect of Mating with Neanderthals and Denisovans on ourImmune system

Group A10

Gerald Duncan, Olivia Lahay, Madeline Lionberger, Kyle Sledge, Heather Yutko

introduction
Introduction
  • HLA (human leukocyte antigen): Genes important in immune system response
  • Haplotype: Combination of alleles transmitted together
  • Ligand: binds to receptors
  • Natural Killer Cells: Integral part of immune system
  • Denisovans: group similar to Neanderthals
  • Balancing selection: Multiple alleles maintained in population
  • Introgression: Gene flow between hybrids and parental populations
  • Admixture: Mixing formerly unexposed populations
data results
Data/Results
  • Study led by Stanford University
  • Human migration from Africa occurred 67,500 years ago
  •  Maximum of  4% of modern Eurasian genomes can be traced back to Neanderthals
  • Maximum of 4-6% of modern Melanesian genomes can be traced back to Denisovans
  • Thousands of alleles per HLA
  • Denisovans would have to evolved certain immunities (Malaria)
http images dailytech com nimage 21570 large hla b protein jpg model of a hla b protein
http://images.dailytech.com/nimage/21570_large_HLA_B_Protein.jpghttp://images.dailytech.com/nimage/21570_large_HLA_B_Protein.jpgModel of a HLA-B Protein
data results cont d
Data/Results (Cont’d)
  • Percentage of HLA-A deviations believed (Abi-Rached)  to be from sexual activity with extinct races:
  • European: 50%
  • Chinese: 70%
  • Papua New Guinean: 95%
  • 50-60 % of Chinese inhabitants possess A*11
  • Very rare in African regions
discussion
Discussion
  • The findings suggest:
  • Interbreeding between archaic humans and Homo sapiens.
  • Adaptive introgression of HLA genes.
  • HLA:
  • Control NK cells
  • T cell immunity
  • Highly polymorphic---different alleles
  • Vital immune system component
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Some HLA alleles in modern humans may have originated from extinct human species.
  • These alleles may contribute to defending against locally prevalent diseases.
literature cited
Literature Cited
  • Abi-Rached, Jobin, Kulkami, McWhinnie, Dalva, Gragert, Babrzadeh, Gharizadeh, Luo, Plummer, Kimani, Carrington, Middleton, Rajalingam, Beksac, Marsh, Maiers, Guethlein, Tavoularis, Little, Green, Norman & Parham. 2011. “The Shaping of Modern Human Immune Systems by Multiregional Admixture with Archaic Humans.” Science Mag, online. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/334/6052/89.full
  • Freeman, Scott. Biological Science. 4th ed. San Francisco: Person Education, Inc, 2011. Print.
  • Handbook of Statistical Genetics. 3rd ed. Eds. D.J. Balding, M. Bishop., C. Cannings. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2007. Print.
  • “Haplotype.” genome.gov. National Human Genome Research Institute. Web. 17 November 2012. http://www.genome.gov/Glossary/index.cfm?id=99
  • McGrath, Matt. “Neanderthal sex boosted immunity in modern humans.” BBC News, online. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-14673047
  • Mick, Jason. “Neanderthal Sex Gave Europeans and Asians Stronger Immune Systems.” Daily Tech, online. http://www.dailytech.com/Neanderthal+Sex+Gave+Europeans+and+Asians+Stronger+Immune+Systems/article22 555.htm
  • Rhymer, Judith M and Daniel Simberloff. “Extinction by Hybridization and Introgression.” Annual Reviews Inc., 1996. Web. 17 November 2012. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.27.1.83
  • Sample, Ian. “The Downside of Sex with Neanderthals.” The Guardian, online. http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/blog/2011/aug/25/neanderthal-denisovan-genes-human-immunity
  • Vivier E, Tomasello E, Baratin M, Walzer T, Ugolini S. “Functions of natural killer cells.” Nat Immunol, May 2008. Web. 17 November 2012. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18425107
  • Young, Ed. “Did sex with Neanderthals and Denisovans shape our immune system? The jury’s still out.” Discover Magazine, online. http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/notrocketscience/2011/08/25/did-sex-with-neanderthals-and- denisovans-shape-our-immune-systems-the-jury%E2%80%99s-still-out/
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