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Music Theory Crash Course!. ~Music isSOUND organized in TIME~. Elements of Sound. Pitch- How high or low; frequency Duration- How long or short it lasts Dynamics- How loud or soft; amplitude Goes from Fortississimo to pianoississimo Articulation- Quality as sustained

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Elements of sound
Elements of Sound

  • Pitch- How high or low; frequency

  • Duration- How long or short it lasts

  • Dynamics- How loud or soft; amplitude

    • Goes from Fortississimo to pianoississimo

  • Articulation- Quality as sustained

    • Common Articulations: Staccato, Legato, Accent

  • Timbre- Color of tone; waveform


Types of timbre textures
Types of Timbre/Textures

  • Homophonic- All use similar rhythm

  • Polyphonic- Independent musical parts overlap

  • Monophonic- Only one musical line

  • Accompianmental- Exactly what it says on the tin; accompanying a clear melody


More vocab yayy
More Vocab! Yayy

  • Range- Spectrum of pitch an instrument can play

  • Equal Temperament Tuning- all half steps equal distance from each other

    • Used in Romantic Era as common tuning standard

  • Expression Marks- Indicate articulations, setting the mood





Time signatures
Time Signatures

  • Top number- Beats per measure

  • Bottom number- Length of the beat

  • Simple meter= top number 2 [duple],3 [triple], 4 [quadruple]

  • Compound is everything else; divides beats into parts


Accidentals
Accidentals

  • # = Sharp, raises pitch by a half step

  • ♭= Flat, lowers pitch by half step

  • ♮ = Natural, cancels sharps and flats

  • Half step- two consecutive keys

  • The key signature provides set of sharps or flats at the beginning of a line of music.

    • indicates which notes the main scale of the piece alters.


Scales prepare yourselves
Scales (PREPARE YOURSELVES)

  • Tonic- Name of scale, usually 1st note

  • Dominant- 2nd most important, 5th note

  • Leading Tone- Half step below tonic

  • Diatonic- Within the Scale

  • Chromatic- Outside of the scale



Comparing major and minor
Comparing Major and Minor

  • Relative- Same key signature, same sharps and flats

  • Parallel- Same tonic



Instruments technical boring stuff time
Instruments- Technical Boring stuff time!

  • Classifications

  • CHORDOPHONES

    • Vibrating Strings (violin)

  • AEROPHONES

    • Vibrating column of air (tuba)

  • MEMBRANOPHONES

    • Vibrating stretched membrane across frame (drum)

  • IDIOPHONES

    • Body itself vibrates (xylophone)


Instrument families
Instrument Families

  • Strings- Chordophones; plucked, bowed, struck

  • Brass- Metal Aerophones; caused by buzzing lips

  • Woodwinds- Aerophones; breath alone vibrates

  • Percussions- Membranophones/Idiophones

  • Keyboards- Self explanatory :P


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