Basic chemistry
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basic chemistry. Anatomy & physiology. Matter : anything that takes up space & has mass Energy : ability to do work (effects matter). Concepts of matter and energy. Trace elements make up less than .01% (like I) Compouns contain 2 or more elements (H 2 O, NaCl ).

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Anatomy & physiology

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Basic chemistry

basic chemistry

Anatomy & physiology


Concepts of matter and energy

  • Matter: anything that takes up space & has mass

  • Energy: ability to do work (effects matter)

Concepts of matter and energy


Anatomy physiology

Trace elementsmake up less than .01%(like I)

Compounscontain 2 or more elements(H2O, NaCl)

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Energy

energy

  • Kinetic energy: energy of motion

  • Potential energy: stored (inactive) energy

  • Electrical energy: movement of charged particles

  • Chemical energy: energy of bonds (stored within molecules)

  • Mechanical energy: energy used to move

  • Radiant energy: electromagnetic energy (x-rays, heat, light)


Composition of matter

  • All matter is composed of elements.

  • Each element is composed of the same atoms.

  • Atoms have:

  • Protons (p+): positive charge

  • Neutrons (n): neutral

  • Electrons (e-): negative charge

  • The most abundant elements in the human body are (in order): Oxygen (O), Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), and Nitrogen (N). The next most abundant: phosphorus (P) and sulfur (S)

Composition of matter


Molecules and compounds

  • Molecules: 2 or more (generally) identical atoms chemically combined

  • Compound: 2 or more different atoms chemically combined

Molecules and compounds


Types of chemical bonds

Covalent bonds

Ionic bonds

  • Electrons are shared (either equally or not equally)

  • Ex: H2, O2 or C6H12O6 (glucose)

  • Electrons are transferred between atoms (one atom gives e-, the other receives e-)

  • Ex: salts like NaCl (sodium chloride)

Types of chemical bonds


Anatomy physiology

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Types of chemical bonds1

Types of chemical bonds

  • Hydrogen bonds: a bond between a hydrogen of one compound to a nitrogen or oxygen of another compound.

  • TWO different compounds are involved!

  • Ex: 2 water molecules

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Chemical reactions

Synthesis:

Decomposition:

  • Anabolic; to make or create; to build up; these reactions make chemical bonds

  • Require energy

  • A + B  AB

  • Catabolic; to break down or decompose; these reactions break chemical bonds.

  • Release energy

  • AB  A + B

Chemical reactions


Chemical reactions1

Exchange:

Reversible:

  • Both synthesis & decomposition; parts of 2 compounds switch (exchange) places.

  • AB + CD  AC + BD

  • Reactions that can go in both directions.

  • A + B ↔ AB

Chemical reactions


Biochemistry of living matter

Inorganic:

Organic:

  • Molecules that lack C (except CO and CO2)

  • Include: salts, water, CO2, and many acids & bases

  • Molecules that contain C (& usually H & O)

  • Include: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, & nucleic acids

Biochemistry of living matter


Inorganic compounds

  • Water: most abundant inorganic compound in the body. Important b/c

  • Maintains body temperature (has high heat capacity )

  • Dissolves many substances (solvent of life)

  • Most chemical reactions occur in water (chemical reactivity)

  • Water protects and cushions (CSF, fetus)

  • Salts: ionic compounds ; are electrolytes. Important b/c

  • Transport substances in and out of cell

  • Conduct nerve & muscle impulses

Inorganic compounds


Acids and bases

When electrolytes release more H+ (ions) than OH- (ions), the resulting solution is anacidwhile more OH- than H+, it is abase.

Acidityis measured based on the concentration ([ ]) of H+ and OH-. These are inversely proportionate: increased [H+]=decreased [OH-].

The measurement is a scale called the pH scale. It ranges from 0-14, with 7 being neutral (water). The scale:

Acids= high [H+], low [OH-],0-6= acidic Ex: HCl

Bases= low [H+], high [OH-], 8-14=basic or alkaline Ex: NaOH

Neutral= [H+]=[OH-], 7, water

Buffers: maintain the stability of acids-bases within the body. by taking up excess H+ or OH-.

Acids and bases


Anatomy physiology

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Organic compounds

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Organic compounds

Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids, oh my…

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Carbohydrates

  • Contain C, H, & O in a fixed ratio (2 H for every 1 C and 1 O; remember “CH20”).

  • Known as sugars

  • Three categories:

  • Monosaccharidesare simple sugars (1 sugar: glucose (C6H12O6) a.k.a. blood sugar, fructose & galactose

  • Disaccharides are double sugars: sucrose (table sugar), lactose (milk sugar) & maltose (malt sugar)

  • Polysaccharides are many sugars: starch and glycogen

carbohydrates


Lipids

  • Contain C, H, & O but not in a fixed ratio.

  • Do NOT dissolve in H2O; but dissolve (soluble) in ether and chloroform

  • Fats (most common lipids)store energy (supply more than carbs gram for gram); ex: triglyceride (3 fatty acids & 1 glycerol)

    • can be saturated or unsaturated

  • Phospholipids are major constituent of cell membranes; contain 2 parts: hydrophilic (meaning water loving or H2O soluble) and hydrophobic(meaning water fearing or insoluble in H2O).

  • Steroids:simplest & most important ischolesterol (found in all body cells and used to synthesize hormones & other steroids).

lipids


Proteins

proteins

  • Composed of amino acids; contain C, H, O, N & sometimes S

  • Provide structural materials, energy sources, hormones, & enzymes in which their structure determines their fcn.

  • Most have a 3D shape that can be denatured, or destroyed, easily by high temperatures, pH, radiation, or electricity.

  • Glycoproteins are proteins w/ carbs, on cells, act as receptors for chemical messages & recognition.

  • Antibodiesprotectagainst foreign bodies (invaders).

  • Enzymes are catalysts in chemical rxns but are not part of the rxns (not consumed).


Anatomy physiology

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Nucleic acids

  • large and complex molecules that contain C, H, N, O and P

  • Composed of nucleotides (building blocks).

  • Nucleotides contain: a 5-C sugar (called a pentose), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base (adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, or uracil)

  • 2 groups:

  • 1. RNA (ribonucleic acid): sugar is a ribose; single stranded molecule

  • 2. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): sugar is a ribose without an O; double stranded molecule; molecular code of life

Nucleic acids


Anatomy physiology

DNA

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