Growing Sentences
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Growing Sentences. The Tree Trunk. Who or What + Action. (Subject + Predicate) The boy ran . W/W + A and A. The boy ran and jumped. W/W + A, A, and A. The boy ran, jumped, and laughed. “When” words. When While During After Before Until As soon as.

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Growing Sentences

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Growing sentences

Growing Sentences


The tree trunk

The Tree Trunk

  • Who or What + Action.

    (Subject + Predicate)

    The boy ran.

  • W/W + A and A.

    The boy ran and jumped.

  • W/W + A, A, and A.

    The boy ran, jumped, and laughed.


When words

“When” words

  • When

  • While

  • During

  • After

  • Before

  • Until

  • As soon as


The when branch adverb clause prepositional phrase

The “When” Branch(Adverb Clause, Prepositional Phrase)

  • W/W + A + When Branch.

  • Do not put a comma between the trunk and the branch when the branch is AFTER the trunk.

    The boy danced during the fiesta.

  • When Branch, W/W + A.

  • Put a comma between the trunk and the branch when the branch is before the trunk.

    During the fiesta, the boy danced.


Why words

“Why” words.

  • Because

  • Since

  • To + action

  • So that

  • In order to


The why branch adverb clause infinitive phrase

The “Why” Branch(Adverb Clause, Infinitive Phrase)

  • W/W + A + Why Branch.

  • Do not put a comma between the trunk and the branch when the branch is AFTER the trunk.

    The boy danced because he was happy.

  • Why branch, W/W + A.

  • Put a comma between the trunk and the branch when the branch is before the trunk.

    Because he was happy, the boy danced.


Where words

“Where” words.

  • What does and airplane do to a cloud???

  • It flies toward a cloud. It flies under a cloud. It flies through a cloud. Etc.

  • What else???

  • Over

  • Past

  • Below

  • Beneath

  • Beside

  • Etc.


The where branch prepositional phrase adverb clause adverb

The Where Branch(Prepositional Phrase, Adverb Clause, adverb)

  • W/W + A + Where Branch.

  • Do not put a comma between the trunk and the branch when the branch is AFTER the trunk.

    The boy danced on the dance floor.

  • The Where Branch, W/W +A.

  • Put a comma between the trunk and the branch when the branch is before the trunk.

    On the dance floor, the boy danced.


The condition words

The “Condition” Words

Words that begin a Condition branch

  • Although

  • If

  • Though

  • Even though

  • Unless

  • despite


The condition branch adverb clause conditional clause prepositional phrase

The Condition Branch(adverb clause/conditional clause, prepositional phrase,)

W/W + A + Condition Branch.

Do not put a comma between the trunk and the branch when the branch is AFTER the trunk.

You must work hard if you want to get paid.

Condition branch, W/W + A.

Put a comma between the trunk and the branch when the branch is before the trunk.

Although they were hungry, they didn’t want to leave the movie.


The how branch ly adverb prepositional phrase comparison simile

The How Branch-ly, (adverb, prepositional phrase, comparison/simile)

  • -ly (sample: silently, slyly, gently)

  • The –ly word may be placed before the sentence

    Eagerly the hunter moved.

  • The ly word may be placed after the sentence.

    The water skier skied skillfully.

  • The –ly word may be placed within the sentence

    The thief cautiously opened the door.


The how branch with without by like as

The How Branchwith/without/by, like/as

With/Without/by:

(adverb prepositional phrase)

  • It may be placed before the sentence.

    With all of his effort he pushed on the door.

  • It may be placed at the end of the sentence

    The child left by bus.


The how branch like as

The How Branch like/as

  • Like/As

    (adverb prepositional phrase/simile)

    Like a mother the little girl cared for her dolls.

    The teacher shouted directions like a traffic cop.

    As quickly as a jackrabbit, my brother dashed out of the house.


Sentence noun expanders making the who or what w w grow

Sentence/Noun ExpandersMaking the Who or What (W/W) GROW

  • Describe (add adjectives)

  • Rename or Repeat (add an appositive)

  • Use a Renamer Group

  • Use a “with/that/-ing/-ed” group (prepositional phrase)

  • Use a “who/which/that” group (adjective clause)

  • Use a “-ing” group (present participial phrase)

  • Use a “-ed” group (past participial phrase)


Noun expanders describe

Noun Expanders“Describe”

  • One adjective may be placed before the noun:

    The important general saluted.

  • Two or more adjectives may be placed before the noun. Separate using a comma:

    The tall, magnificent tree

    overlooked the canyon.

  • Two adjectives, joined with an “and” may be placed after the noun to emphasize them:

    The monster, cruel and determined, stalked its prey.

    *Note the use of commas here.


Noun expanders rename repeat

Noun Expanders“Rename/Repeat”

Renamer:

My sister…Alison

My sister, Alison, is pregnant with her first child.

Renamer Group (appositive phrase):

The (W/W), a (adjective) RENAMER (group of words describing the renamer), action.

Examples:

The cat, a beautiful white Persian with long fur, sat on a pillow.

The determined man, a ragged prospector bearing a heavy pack on his back, staggered along the path.


Noun expanders with without group prepositional phrase

Noun Expanders“With/Without Group” (prepositional phrase)

You can expand the noun by adding a group of words beginning with “with” or “without” and placing the group immediately after the noun:

Examples:

The man with the puppy sat down.

The child without his two front teethwhistled each time he attempted to sing, “Sally sells seashells by the seashore.”


Noun expanders who which that group adjective clause

Noun Expanders“Who/Which/That group” (adjective clause)

  • This group begins with one of the words “who”, “which”, or “that”

    The dog that sniffed the trail belongs to the detective.

    The girl who has the dragon tattoo is not someone to be messed with.


Noun expanders ing group present participial phrase

Noun Expanders“ing” group (present participial phrase)

  • This group begins with a word ending with the suffix “-ing”. The group is placed immediately after the noun to which it refers.

    Examples:

    The clown wearing the bright orange nose came to my little brother’s birthday party.

    The cloud sweeping along the rooftops resembled a fluffy white bunny.


Ing group continued be sure the group refers to the subject

-ing group continued(Be sure the group refers to the subject)

1. The –ing group may be placed before the main sentence. Use a comma.

Weaving in and out of the defensive players, the quarterback scored easily.

2. The –ing group may be placed after the main sentence. Use a comma.

The family played cards for hours, sitting in front of the cozy fire.

Sample –ing groups

  • Slithering through the grass

  • Pretending to be king

  • Showing their teeth

  • Paying close attention

  • More than one –ing group may be added. Use commas.

    Moving very quickly, the boy slipped and fell, hurting himself badly, breaking his wrist as he landed.


Noun expanders ed group past participial phrase

Noun Expanders“-ed group” (past participial phrase)

  • This group begins with a word ending with “-ed” or irregular endings such as “-en” (frozen) or “-t” (burnt). It is placed immediately after the noun.

    Examples:

    The bandit seated at the table pointed his gun.

    The girl painted thick with makeup smiled for the picture.


Noun expanders ed group past participial phrase1

Noun Expanders“-ed group” (past participial phrase)

  • The subject must be receiving the action of the –ed word, not doing the action. (The verb must be transitive passive.)

    In other words

    The –ed word must fit into this frame: The w/w was -ed word by the __________.

    Place the group before or after the main sentence:

    Tired from the long journey, the salesperson collapsed in the chair.

    She played the piano, dressed in her finest gown.


Noun part patterns absolute phrases

“Noun-Part” patternsAbsolute phrases

  • Noun-part+ ing

    The man fell off the cliff, his loud voice cutting through the wind.

    The fireman drove the truck, both handsclutching the steering wheel.

    His face contorting with rage like a demon, the manic stormed into her house.

  • Noun-part+ ed

    The small child spoke indistinctly, his mouth filled with food.

    Our imaginations stimulated by the presentation, we began to write beautiful poetry.


Noun part patterns absolute phrases1

“Noun-Part” patternsAbsolute phrases

  • Noun-part+ describer

    The dog crept toward the fire, its body cold to the bone.

    Her stomach empty, the small child sat at the table with little to eat.

  • Noun-part + like/as

    We sailed on the bay, our sailboat like a sea gull gliding effortlessly.

    Her clinched jaw like a sign of angry disagreement, she listened to her boss’s accusations.


Noun part patterns absolute phrases2

“Noun-Part” patternsAbsolute phrases

  • Noun-part+ where

    His hand over his heart, he began to say pledge to the flag.

    I cautiously drove down the street, my foot near the brake.

  • Noun-part+ renamer of the noun part

    The gentleman gave a lecture, his resonant voice a joy to hear.

    His sinister smile an obvious sign of evil intent, the wicked man waited to strike.


Noun part patterns noun part to action

“Noun-Part” patternsNoun-part+ (to action)

*The w/w must be a group

The students went to class, someto learn, othersto socialize.

Our entire family went on vacation, Dadto get away from household drudgery, Mom to escape the office, and the children to have fun in the wilds.


Describer group free adjective cluster

Describer Group(free adjective cluster)

  • A describer group is composed of an adjective followed by a group of words that goes with that adjective. E.g.…afraid of being discovered…

  • She smiled, joyousabout her grades.

  • Afraidof being discovered, the boy moved silently.

  • She walked down the runway, beautiful in the avant-garde gown.


Renamer group after the main sentence free noun cluster

Renamer group after the main sentence(Free Noun Cluster)

  • The bully waited impatiently, a real tyrantin the neighborhood.

  • The student talked rudely, a thoughtless personcontinually interrupting his friends and teachers.

  • Authors use this patterns, enabling description to ride piggyback on an action sentence, still maintaining a flowing rhythm. The action is expressed in the main sentence, and the renamer group is placed after it, adding description. When using this pattern, be careful that the reference of the renamer group is clear.


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