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ADOLESCENCE EDUCATION PROGRAMME. (MHRD – CBSE– UNFPA). RESOURCE PERSONS Priya Asnani Dinesh Bhanderi. Introduction Session I Getting Started. OBJECTIVES OF THE WORKSHOP To understand the Adolescence Education Programme (AEP) implemented by MHRD in the school system.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

ADOLESCENCE

EDUCATION PROGRAMME

(MHRD – CBSE– UNFPA)

www.schoolofeducators.com

slide2

RESOURCE PERSONS

Priya Asnani

Dinesh Bhanderi

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introduction session i getting started
Introduction Session IGetting Started

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slide4

OBJECTIVES OF THE WORKSHOP

  • To understand the Adolescence Education Programme (AEP) implemented by MHRD in the school system.
  • To create a supportive environment for implementing AEP.
  • To highlight the role of Principals, Teachers and Peer Educators as advocates of AEP.

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slide5

Who is an advocate?

An advocate is a person who influences others to support an idea, issue, organisation or programme.

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slide6

WHAT DOES ADVOCACY INVOLVES

    • Analyzing the environment
    • Defining the agenda or the cause
    • Identifying partners
    • Lobbying support of decision-makers

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slide7

WHAT DOES ADVOCACY INVOLVES (contd.)

    • Forming allies and rallying support
    • Establishing networks
    • Mobilizing public opinion
    • Enlisting support of beneficiaries
    • Addressing the concerns of adversaries

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slide8

What are the qualities of an Advocate?

    • Personal attributes – background, experience
    • Thorough Knowledge of the issue being advocated
    • Positive attitude towards the issue
    • Skills – Thinking skills
    • Social skills
    • Negotiation skills
    • Behaviour – role model

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some indicative ground rules
Some Indicative Ground Rules
  • Listen to all interventions & participate in the discussion.
  • Maintain confidentiality at all times. What is shared by the group remains strictly within it.

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ground rules contd
Ground Rules(contd.)
  • Punctuality and time management. Mutual support in maintaining timings for the training.

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ground rules contd1
Ground Rules(contd.)
  • No interruptions. It is better to raise hands so that the Resource Person can invite the individual’s comment.
  • Ask questions one at a time and also give others a chance to talk.

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ground rules contd2
Ground Rules(contd.)
  • Non-judgemental approach. Do not laugh at any person.
  • Respect each other’s feelings, opinions and experiences.

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slide14

Who are Adolescents?

    • Adolescents - 10-19 years.
    • Youth – 15- 24 years
    • Young people – 10-24 years
    • Growth Phase
    • Early Adolescence: 10-13 years
    • Mid Adolescence : 14-16 years
    • Late Adolescence: 17-19 years

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why focus on adolescents
Why focus on Adolescents?
  • Large human resource (22% population)
  • Caring, supportive environment will promote optimum development – physical, emotional, mental.
  • Their behaviour has impact on National Health Indicators like maternal and infant mortality

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why focus on adolescents contd
Why focus on Adolescents? (contd.)
  • Adolescents are vulnerable to STIs, HIV/AIDS, sexual abuse
  • Health of girls has inter-generational effect.

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india s demographic bonus
India’s demographic bonus
  • ‘Window of Opportunity’.
  • How can we make this a reality?

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public health impact of adolescent sexuality and fertility
Public health impact of adolescent sexuality and fertility
  • Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR)
  • Neonatal and Infant Mortality Rate
  • STI incidence/prevalence Rate
  • HIV incidence/prevalence Rate

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slide21

Adolescent Concerns

    • Growing up concerns
    • Developing an identity
    • Managing emotions
    • Body image
    • Building relationships
    • Resisting peer pressure

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slide22

Issue:Education

    • Enrollment figures have improved but dropout rates are high – 68% from class 1 to X.(Source: NSSO, 55th round, 2001).
    • Gender disparities persist - girls enrollment less than 50 % at all stages
    • Young people not at school join the workforce at an early age – nearly one out of three adolescents in 10-19 yrs is working.(Source: Census 2001).

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slide23

Issue:Education(contd.)

    • Quality of education is poor-students are not equipped with skills to face life challenges
    • Please reflect on
    • How can we make education useful in handling day-to-day issues?

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issue marriage
Issue: Marriage
  • Despite laws prohibiting marriage before 18 years, more than 50% of the females were married before this age. (Source: Census 2001).
  • Nearly 20% of the 1.5 million girls who were married under the age of 15 years are already mothers. (Source: Census 2001).
  • Choices are limited as to: whether, when and whom to marry; when and how many children to have.

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please reflect on

Issue: Marriage(contd.)

Please reflect on
  • How can you contribute to prevent early marriages?
  • What can we do to equip young people to have children by choice, not chance?

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issue health
Issue: Health
  • Adverse sex ratio 10-19 years: 882/1000, 0-6 years: 927/1000. (Source: Census 2001).
  • Malnutrition and anaemia - boys and girls below 18 years consume less than the recommended number of calories and intake of proteins and iron.
  • Higher female mortality in the age group of 15-24 years.

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issue health contd
Issue: Health(contd.)
  • For rape victims in the age group of 14-18 years, a majority of the offenders are known to victims.
  • More than 70% girls suffer from severe or moderate anaemia(Source: District Level Health Survey – Reproductive and Child Health, 2004).

Please reflect on

  • How can we improve the nutritional status of Adolescents?

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issue hiv aids
Issue: HIV/ AIDS
  • There are 2 – 3.1 million (2.47 million) people living with HIV/AIDS at the end of 2006.
  • Number of AIDS cases in India is 1,24,995 as found in 2006 (Since inception i.e. 1986 to 2006). (Source: naco.india.org)
  • 0.97 million (39.3%) are women and 0.09 million (3.8%) are children

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issue hiv aids contd
Issue: HIV/ AIDS(contd.)
  • India – 2nd largest population of HIV positive persons infected. Over 35% of all reported HIV cases are in the age group of 15-24 years (NACO).
  • India has the second largest population of AIDS patients. Over 35% of all reported AIDS cases occurs among 15-24 year olds. {Source: NACO and UNICEF, 2001. Knowledge, attitudes and practices for young adults (15-24 years; NACO. 2005. India Resolves to Defeat HIV/AIDS)}.

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issue hiv aids contd1
Issue: HIV/ AIDS(contd.)
  • Lack of abstinence is a contributory cause.
  • Persons living with HIV/AIDS face stigma & discrimination.
  • The estimated adult prevalence in the country is 0.36% (0.27% - 0.47%).

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issue substance abuse
Issue: Substance Abuse
  • Estimated number of drug abusers in India is around 3 million and that of drug dependents is 0.5 - 0.6 million. (Source: UNODC and Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, 2004)
  • Problem is more severe in the North-Eastern States of the Country.

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issue substance abuse contd
Issue: Substance Abuse(contd.)
  • Most drug users are in the age group 16-35 years.
  • Drug abuse rate is low in early Adolescence and high during late Adolescence.
  • Among current users in the age group of 12-18 years, 21% were using alcohol, 3% cannabis and 0.1% opiates (NHS-UNODC 2004).

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issue substance abuse contd1
Issue: Substance Abuse(contd.)
  • A Household Survey on Drug Abuse indicated that 24% of 40,000 male drug users were in the age group of 12-18 years.(Source: UNODC and Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, 2004)

Please reflect on

  • How can we reduce the vulnerability of young people to Substance - Abuse?

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child abuse
CHILD-ABUSE
  • Two Out of every three children were Physically-Abused.
  • Out of 69% children Physically-Abused in 13 sample states, 54.86% were boys.
  • Over 50% children in all the 13 sample states were being subjected to one or the other form of Physical-Abuse.

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salient findings on study on child abuse contd
Salient Findings on Study on CHILD-ABUSE(contd.)
  • Out of those children Physically-Abused in family situations, 88.6% were Physically-Abused by parents.
  • 53.22% children reported having faced one or more forms of Sexual -Abuse.
  • Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar and Delhi reported the highest percentage of Sexual-Abuse among both boys and girls.

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salient findings on study on child abuse contd1
Salient Findings on Study on CHILD-ABUSE(contd.)
  • 21.90% child respondents reported facing severe forms of Sexual-Abuse and 50.76% other forms of Sexual-Abuse.
  • Out of the child respondents, 5.69% reported being sexually assaulted.
  • In matters of Sexual-Abuse, 50% abusers are persons known to the child or in a position of trust and responsibility.
  • Most children did not report the matter to anyone.

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vision for healthy and empowered adolescents
Vision for Healthy and Empowered Adolescents

Through information, education and services adolescents are empowered to:

  • Make informed choices in their personal and public life promoting their creative and responsible behaviour.

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slide38

National Policies on Adolescent Health

    • Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports
      • National Youth Policy 2003
    • Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
      • National Population Policy 2000
      • National AIDS Prevention and Control Policy 2000
      • National Health Policy 2002
    • Ministry of Human Resource Development
      • National Policy on Education, 1986 (as modified in 1992)
      • National Policy for Empowerment of Women, 2001

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slide39

National Programmes Influencing Adolescent Health

    • Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports
      • National Service Scheme
      • Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan
      • Scheme of Financial Assistance for Development and Empowerment of Adolescents
    • Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
      • Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) programme
      • National AIDS Control Programme – Phase 3

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slide40

Ministry of Human Resource Development

    • Department of Education
      • National Adolescence Education Programme
      • Mahila Samakhya Programme
      • Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
  • Ministry of Women & Child Development (MWCD)
      • Kishori Shakti Yojna
  • Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment
    • Scheme for Child Helplines
    • Services for Treatment of Drug Addicts

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slide41

Addressing Health Concerns

Information

Education

Health

Services

LIFE SKILLS

Demand

Generation

Services

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empowering adolescents
Empowering adolescents

Create a safe and supportive environment.

Provide opportunities for making informed choices in real life situations.

Improve adolescent-friendly health services and link with existing programmes.

Provide education and build life skills.

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slide43

The Adolescence Education Programme

Session III

About the Programme

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adolescence education programme aep
Adolescence Education Programme (AEP)

Upscaled to

Adolescence Education as a component of National Population Education Programme(NPEP)

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slide45

ADOLESCENCE EDUCATION

An educational intervention to help learners acquire accurate and adequate knowledge about reproductive and sexual health with a focus on the process of growing up during adolescence, in its biological, psychological, socio-cultural and moral dimensions.

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objectives of aep
Objectives of AEP
  • To develop essential value enhanced Life-Skills for coping and managing concerns of adolescence through co-curricular activities (CCA).
  • To provide accurate knowledge to students about process of growing up, HIV/AIDS and Substance-Abuse.

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objectives of aep contd
Objectives of AEP(contd.)
  • To develop healthy attitudes and responsible behaviour towards process of growing up, HIV/AIDS and substance abuse.
  • To enable them to deal with gender stereotypes and prejudices.

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common minimum content
Common Minimum Content
  • Imparting accurate age and sex-appropriate knowledge about the process of growing up during adolescence to young people in schools.
  • Basic facts about HIV/AIDS, its transmission and methods of prevention; also addressing myths and misconceptions relating to it, and encouraging positive attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA).

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common minimum content contd
Common Minimum Content (contd.)
  • Basic facts about substance abuse, signs and symptoms, and prevention.
  • Reinforcing existing positive behaviour and strengthening life skills development that will enable young people to protect themselves from risky situations.
  • Linkages with adolescent-friendly health services

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slide50

APPROACHES

CO-CURRICULAR

CURRICULAR

Students

Teachers

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slide51

Curricular Approaches

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slide52

Co-Curricular Approaches

STRATEGIES

Interactive

Activities

Teacher

Counseling

Peer

Education

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intervention for co curricular activities
Intervention for Co-curricular Activities
  • Advocacy
  • Capacity building of teachers/peer educators
  • Student activities
  • Health services – Counselling and referrals to adolescent friendly health services

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slide54

Stakeholders - AEP

    • State Education Department
    • Govt. Secondary & Sr. Secondary Schools
    • National Organizations
  • COBSE 41 State Boards
  • CBSE
  • KVS
  • NVS
  • NIOS

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slide55

School Level Activities

  • Time: Minimum of 16 hours per academic year (more than 16 hours, wherever feasible)
  • Training: At least two Nodal Teachers and two Peer Educators per school trained along with a plan of action for schools to conduct activities by teachers.
    • Advocacy activities at the school and community level
    • Conducting sessions by organizing interactive activities

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slide56

Using Question Box activity and responding to questions raised by students

  • Training, Peer Educators and students to reach out to children who have dropped out or were never enrolled in school
  • Strengthening linkages with Adolescent/ Youth Friendly Health Services

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health services for adolescents in rch 2
Health Services for Adolescents in RCH-2

Services reorganised at Primary Health Centres on dedicated days and timings for adolescents:

  • Nutrition counselling, including treatment of anaemia
  • Tetanus Toxoid immunisation
  • Counselling for issues related to growing up and health
  • Management of menstrual problems
  • RTI/STI prevention, education and management

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content of aep
CONTENT of AEP

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slide60

PROCESS OF GROWING UP

    • Nutritional needs of adolescents in general and adolescent girls in particular
    • Physical growth and development
    • Psychological development
    • Reproductive and Sexual Health
    • Gender sensitization

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slide61

HIV / AIDS

    • HIV/AIDS: Causes and consequences
    • Preventive measures
    • Treatment: Anti-retro viral therapy (ART)
    • Individual and social responsibilities towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA)
    • Services available for improving reproductive and sexual health, prevention of spread of HIV and for HIV infected persons.

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substance abuse
Substance Abuse
  • Situations in which adolescents are driven to substance abuse.
  • Commonly abused substances.
  • Consequences of substance abuse.
  • Preventive measures.
  • Treatment.
  • Rehabilitation of drug addicts.
  • Individual and social responsibilities.

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slide63

LIFE SKILLS

Life skills are abilities for adaptive and positive behaviour that enable individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life. The ten core life skills are as follows:

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slide64

Expected Outcomes of Life Skills Development

    • Enhanced self esteem
    • Self confidence
    • Assertiveness
    • Ability to establish relationships
    • Ability to plan and set goals
    • Acquisition of knowledge related to specific content areas

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slide65

APPLICATION OF LIFE SKILLS

    • Life Skills can be utilized in many areas of concern, such as
      • Process of Growing Up
      • HIV/AIDS/STD prevention
      • Sexual violence
      • Suicide prevention
      • prevention of drug abuse

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slide66

FRAMEWORK OF

LIFE SKILLS FOR AEP

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core life skills
Core Life Skills
  • Self-awareness includes our recognition of ourselves, of our character, of our strengths and weaknesses, desires and dislikes.
  • Empathy is the ability to imagine what life is like for another person, even in a situation that we may not be familiar with.
  • Interpersonal relationship skills help us to relate in positive ways with the people we interact with.
  • Effective communication means that we are able to express ourselves, both verbally and non-verbally, in ways that are appropriate to our cultures and situations.
  • Critical thinking is the ability to analyze information and experiences in an objective manner.

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slide68

Creative thinkingcontributes to both decision making and problem solving by enabling us to explore the available alternatives and various consequences of our actions or non-action.

  • Decision-making helps us to deal constructively with decisions about our lives.
  • Problem solvingenables us to deal constructively with problems in our lives.
  • Managing feelings and emotions includes skills for increasing the internal locus of control for managing emotions, anger and stress.

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slide69

Methodology for Life Skills Development

    • Interactive and fun learning process
    • Methods used are brainstorming, group discussion, games, role-playing, debates, collage and quiz.
    • Structure is provided through the use of processing questions. They help in student involvement and reflection.
    • Practice of skills in a supportive learning environment and experiential learning.

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monitoring and evaluation
Monitoring and Evaluation

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process evaluation
Process evaluation
  • Answers the following questions:
    • Is it being implemented as planned? Are there any deviations from the plans and their reasons?
  • Dimensions of the process evaluation:
    • Coverage: extent to which the programme actually reaches the intended audience.
    • Quality: adequacy of training and satisfaction of stakeholders with training and delivery of the programme.

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outcome evaluation
Outcome evaluation
  • Assesses the results and impact of the interventions.
  • Answers the following questions:
    • To what degree have the objectives been accomplished?
    • To what extent have the knowledge, attitudes, skills and behaviour of the students and the staff been influenced?
    • Which specific interventions or components of the programme work best?
    • Which elements do not work to the optimum?

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slide73

LEVELS OF

  • ASSESSMENT
    • National Level
    • State Level
    • District and School Level

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slide74

KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS IN AEP

    • Reach and Coverage of AEP
    • Effectiveness of Training Programme
    • Effectiveness of Advocacy Sessions
    • Changes in both teachers and students as reflected through pre and post-measurement tools for Knowledge, Attitude and Life-Skills Application.
    • Integration – Policy level changes (curriculum, pre-service and in-service teacher training)

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monitoring of aep school level
Monitoring of AEP – School Level

AEP Interventions

Advocacy on AEP with school Principals, parents, community leaders

Expected Outcomes

  • Supportive family environment
  • Supportive institutional environment

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monitoring of aep school level cont
Monitoring of AEP – School Level (Cont.)

AEP Interventions

Capacity building of teachers/peer educators

Expected Outcomes

  • Teachers/peer Educators knowledge base on AE increased.
  • Teachers/Peer Educators attitude towards adolescent issues, HIV/AIDS, gender concerns improved.
  • Teachers/Peer Educators skills to use interactive methodology enhanced.

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monitoring of aep school level cont1
Monitoring of AEP – School Level (Cont.)

AEP Interventions

Interactive student activities

Expected Outcomes

  • Knowledge and understanding related to ARSH, gender issues enhanced
  • Attitude towards adolescent issues, HIV/AIDS, gender concerns improved
  • Life skills (thinking, social, negotiation skills) improved
  • Reduced risk behaviour

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monitoring of aep school level cont2
Monitoring of AEP – School Level (Cont.)

AEP Interventions

Health services including Counseling for adolescents

Expected Outcomes

  • Utilization of services

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monitoring of aep school level indicators for health services
Monitoring of AEP – School LevelIndicators for Health Services

Expected

Outcomes

  • Utilization

of services

Suggested Indicators

  • % of students aware of health services available
  • Number of students seeking counseling services in the school from teachers or counselors (if available)
  • Number of adolescents referred to professional health workers/clinics by the teachers

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slide80
The Adolescence Education Programme:Stakeholders - Roles and ResponsibilitiesSession IVRole of Stakeholders

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slide81

ROLE OF THE PRINCIPAL

    • Making school environment conducive for AEP
    • Support the functioning of the trained teachers and their group of peer educators.
    • Encouraging participation of students in planning, designing and implementation of AEP.

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slide82

ROLE OF THE PRINCIPAL (contd.)

    • Selecting and supporting nodal teachers.
    • Advocating with parents, other teachers and Community Leaders.
    • Encouraging the incorporation of AE themes into various Co-Curricular activities such as Debates, Contests, Essay Writing, etc.

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slide83

ROLE OF THE NODAL TEACHER

    • Conduct advocacy meetings at school / community level.
    • Conduct advocacy meetings with the parents and the teachers before starting the AEP in the schools.
    • Conduct the AE co-curricular activities in schools with students.

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slide84

ROLE OF THE NODAL TEACHER(contd.)

    • Supporting Department of Education (DoE) in Monitoring and Conducting Periodic Programme Reviews.
    • Compiling reports on Co-Curricular activities and sending these to the District Institute of Education and Training/District-Level focal point identified for collection of feedback

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slide85

Qualities of Nodal Teacher

    • Sensitive
    • Non judgemental attitude
    • Good rapport with students
    • Willing to act as a nodal teacher

A MUST

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slide86

PEER EDUCATOR APPROACH

  • A ‘Peer’ is an individual who is of equal standing or rank with other person
  • A ‘Peer Educator’ is a member of a group all of whose members share the same backgroud, experiences & values.

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slide87

PEER EDUCATORS

  • HOW DO THEY WORK?
    • Being aware of and being trained for the task. Being enthusiastic.
    • Conveying Educational Messages to a target group.
    • Endorsing ‘healthy’ norms, beliefs and behaviour in their group.
    • Challenging ‘unhealthy’ behaviour and beliefs.

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how do peer educators benefit
How do peer educators benefit?
  • Receive special training in making decisions, clarifying values and acting in accordance with those values.
  • Mastering extensive information relevant to their own lives.
  • Gain leadership recognition from their peers.

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how do peer educators benefit contd
How do peer educators benefit? (contd.)
  • Direct involvement, having a voice, and exercising some control over programme design and operation.
  • Learn important skills, including facilitation and communication.
  • Improve self-discipline and self-esteem.

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slide90

ENABLING PEER EDUCATORS / LEADERS TO BECOME ADVOCATES

    • Creating supporting environment
    • Undertaking capacity building through training
    • Ensuring back-up support – professional support
    • Sustaining motivation to continue – recognition and opportunity

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slide91

ROLE OF THE PEER EDUCATORS

    • Enhancing knowledge, modifying beliefs, attitudes and behaviours, and develop skills at an individual level.
    • Encouraging collective action leading to change in programmes and policies.
    • Acting as a motivator and role model for other young people.

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slide92

ROLE OF THE PEER EDUCATORS (contd.)

    • Acting as bridge between adolescents and adults.
    • Organizing other young people to work on AEP issues.
    • Forming networks to encourage, support and promote healthy living.

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slide93

COMMUNITY MOBILISATION

    • Project work to students involving advocacy with community members.
    • Creating and distributing pamphlets on powerful messages related to the issue of adolescent health.
    • Advocacy with parents.

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slide94

COMMUNITY MOBILISATION (contd.)

    • Community celebration on particular days such as World AIDS Day, International Youth Day and Women’s Day etc.
    • Advocacy with Village Panchayat.

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slide95

Principal

Peer Educators

Nodal Teachers

Other members of Community

Message of AEP

School going Adolescents

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slide96

Thank you

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