Cell organelles and features
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 23

Cell Organelles and Features PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 86 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Cell Organelles and Features. Plasma/Cell Membrane. Found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes Structure: Composed of: phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins Organization: Phospholipids form a bilayer Proteins and cholesterol are embedded in the bilayer. Cell-Membrane = Fluid Mosaic Model.

Download Presentation

Cell Organelles and Features

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Cell organelles and features

Cell Organelles and Features


Plasma cell membrane

Plasma/Cell Membrane

  • Found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes

  • Structure:

    • Composed of: phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins

    • Organization:

      • Phospholipids form a bilayer

      • Proteins and cholesterol are embedded in the bilayer


Cell membrane fluid mosaic model

Cell-Membrane = Fluid Mosaic Model

  • Membrane’s lipids and proteins move laterally within the bilayer

  • The “pattern” of the mosaic is always changing


Function of the membrane components

Function of the Membrane Components

  • Phospholipids

    • Control what enter and exit the cell

    • Give structure to the cell

  • Proteins

    • Control what enter and exit the cell

    • Interact with external environment

    • Facilitate chemical reactions

    • Receive signals

  • Cholesterol

    • Maintain fluidity of cell


Nucleus

Nucleus

  • Structure:

    • Nucleoplasm

    • Nuclear envelope with nuclear pores

      • Double membrane

    • Nucleolus

  • Contains DNA


Functions of nucleus

Functions of Nucleus

  • Nucleoplasm

    • Surrounds and protects DNA

  • Nuclear envelope and nuclear pores

    • Controls what enters and exits the nucleus

  • Nucleolus

    • Production of ribosomes (structures that synthesize proteins)


Ribosomes

Ribosomes

  • NOT technically organelles

  • Made of proteins and RNA, but have NO membrane

  • Some ribosomes are free-floating in cytoplasm others are bound to the endoplasmic reticulum


Endoplasmic reticulum er

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

  • Structure: system of membranous tubes and sacs (cristernae)

  • Two types of ER: Rough and Smooth

    • Rough ER is covered with ribosomes

    • Smooth ER lacks ribosomes


Function of the er

Function of the ER

  • Both types of ER serve as intracellular highway along which molecules move from one part of the cell to the other

  • RER

    • Produces phospholipids and proteins

  • SER

    • Build lipids, such as cholesterol and steroid hormones

    • Detoxifies blood and poisons


Golgi apparatus

Golgi Apparatus

  • Structure: system of flattened, membranous sacs

  • Function:

    • Modifies proteins that it receives from the RER

    • Exports protein to the appropriate location


Vesicles

Vesicles

  • Structure:

    • small, spherically shaped sacs

    • Surrounded by single membrane

  • Vesicles are classified by their contents

  • Often migrate and merge with plasma membrane to release contents

  • Types of Vesicles: lysosomes, peroxisomes, glyoxysomes, endosomes


Lysosomes

Lysosomes

  • Contain digestive enzymes

  • Created by the Golgi apparatus

  • Responsible for breaking down cells when it is time for the cell to die = autolysis

Food Vacuoles are referred to as endosomes


Peroxisomes

Peroxisomes

  • Contain enzymes that breakdown alcohol and drugs into peroxide (H2O2)

  • Neutralize free radicals

  • Not created by the Golgi apparatus

  • Special type of peroxisome = glycoxysomes

    • Found in seeds of some plants


Ribosomes er golgi and vesicles all play a role in protein synthesis

Ribosomes, ER, Golgi, and Vesicles all play a role in protein synthesis

  • Proteins are assembled by ribosomes on the RER

  • Vesicles transport proteins to the Golgi apparatus

  • Golgi modify proteins and package them into new vesicles

  • Vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane to release proteins outside the cell

  • Vesicles containing enzymes that remain inside the cell form lysosomes, peroxisomes, endosomes, etc.


Mitochondria

Mitochondria

  • Structure:

    • Outer and inner membrane

      • Inner membrane has many folds = cristae

    • Contain DNA

  • Function: transfer energy from organic molecules to ATP (cellular respiration)


Cytoskeleton

Cytoskeleton

  • Structure: Network of thin tubes and filaments that crisscross in the cytosol

  • Three major components:

    • Microtubules

    • Microfilaments

    • Intermediate filaments

  • Function:

    • Give shape and support to the cell

    • Acts as a system of internal tracks for intracellular movement


Cytoskeleton1

Cytoskeleton


Cilia and flagella

Cilia and Flagella

  • Structure: Hairlike structures that extend from the surface of the cell

  • Part of the cytoskeleton

  • Function: Assist in movement


Centrioles

Centrioles

  • Structure: two short cylinders of microtubules at right angles

    • In the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope

  • Part of the cytoskeleton of animal cells

  • Function: organize microtubules during cell division


Do all cells contain all of these organelles in the same concentration

Do all cells contain all of these organelles in the same concentration?


What organelle s would you find a lot of in muscle cells

What organelle(s) would you find a lot of in muscle cells?


What organelle s would you find a lot of white blood cells

What organelle(s) would you find a lot of white blood cells?


What organelle s would you find in a skin cell

What organelle(s) would you find in a skin cell?


  • Login