cell organelles and features
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Cell Organelles and Features. Plasma/Cell Membrane. Found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes Structure: Composed of: phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins Organization: Phospholipids form a bilayer Proteins and cholesterol are embedded in the bilayer. Cell-Membrane = Fluid Mosaic Model.

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plasma cell membrane
Plasma/Cell Membrane
  • Found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes
  • Structure:
    • Composed of: phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins
    • Organization:
      • Phospholipids form a bilayer
      • Proteins and cholesterol are embedded in the bilayer
cell membrane fluid mosaic model
Cell-Membrane = Fluid Mosaic Model
  • Membrane’s lipids and proteins move laterally within the bilayer
  • The “pattern” of the mosaic is always changing
function of the membrane components
Function of the Membrane Components
  • Phospholipids
    • Control what enter and exit the cell
    • Give structure to the cell
  • Proteins
    • Control what enter and exit the cell
    • Interact with external environment
    • Facilitate chemical reactions
    • Receive signals
  • Cholesterol
    • Maintain fluidity of cell
nucleus
Nucleus
  • Structure:
    • Nucleoplasm
    • Nuclear envelope with nuclear pores
      • Double membrane
    • Nucleolus
  • Contains DNA
functions of nucleus
Functions of Nucleus
  • Nucleoplasm
    • Surrounds and protects DNA
  • Nuclear envelope and nuclear pores
    • Controls what enters and exits the nucleus
  • Nucleolus
    • Production of ribosomes (structures that synthesize proteins)
ribosomes
Ribosomes
  • NOT technically organelles
  • Made of proteins and RNA, but have NO membrane
  • Some ribosomes are free-floating in cytoplasm others are bound to the endoplasmic reticulum
endoplasmic reticulum er
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
  • Structure: system of membranous tubes and sacs (cristernae)
  • Two types of ER: Rough and Smooth
    • Rough ER is covered with ribosomes
    • Smooth ER lacks ribosomes
function of the er
Function of the ER
  • Both types of ER serve as intracellular highway along which molecules move from one part of the cell to the other
  • RER
    • Produces phospholipids and proteins
  • SER
    • Build lipids, such as cholesterol and steroid hormones
    • Detoxifies blood and poisons
golgi apparatus
Golgi Apparatus
  • Structure: system of flattened, membranous sacs
  • Function:
    • Modifies proteins that it receives from the RER
    • Exports protein to the appropriate location
vesicles
Vesicles
  • Structure:
    • small, spherically shaped sacs
    • Surrounded by single membrane
  • Vesicles are classified by their contents
  • Often migrate and merge with plasma membrane to release contents
  • Types of Vesicles: lysosomes, peroxisomes, glyoxysomes, endosomes
lysosomes
Lysosomes
  • Contain digestive enzymes
  • Created by the Golgi apparatus
  • Responsible for breaking down cells when it is time for the cell to die = autolysis

Food Vacuoles are referred to as endosomes

peroxisomes
Peroxisomes
  • Contain enzymes that breakdown alcohol and drugs into peroxide (H2O2)
  • Neutralize free radicals
  • Not created by the Golgi apparatus
  • Special type of peroxisome = glycoxysomes
    • Found in seeds of some plants
ribosomes er golgi and vesicles all play a role in protein synthesis
Ribosomes, ER, Golgi, and Vesicles all play a role in protein synthesis
  • Proteins are assembled by ribosomes on the RER
  • Vesicles transport proteins to the Golgi apparatus
  • Golgi modify proteins and package them into new vesicles
  • Vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane to release proteins outside the cell
  • Vesicles containing enzymes that remain inside the cell form lysosomes, peroxisomes, endosomes, etc.
mitochondria
Mitochondria
  • Structure:
    • Outer and inner membrane
      • Inner membrane has many folds = cristae
    • Contain DNA
  • Function: transfer energy from organic molecules to ATP (cellular respiration)
cytoskeleton
Cytoskeleton
  • Structure: Network of thin tubes and filaments that crisscross in the cytosol
  • Three major components:
    • Microtubules
    • Microfilaments
    • Intermediate filaments
  • Function:
    • Give shape and support to the cell
    • Acts as a system of internal tracks for intracellular movement
cilia and flagella
Cilia and Flagella
  • Structure: Hairlike structures that extend from the surface of the cell
  • Part of the cytoskeleton
  • Function: Assist in movement
centrioles
Centrioles
  • Structure: two short cylinders of microtubules at right angles
    • In the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope
  • Part of the cytoskeleton of animal cells
  • Function: organize microtubules during cell division
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