200 ITEMS . 1.. Which of the following statements is/are true? During anaerobic, metabolism energy for muscle contraction is produced During aerobic metabolism, energy for muscle contraction is produced The energy for muscle contraction is used for production of ATP
1.. Which of the following statements is/are true?
2. When there is equal passage of ions across the membrane, the polarity would be:
3. Skeletal muscles store energy just enough ATP to provide chemical energy for:
4. Resting membrane potential:
5. Which of the following is true of Sodium/Potassium/ATPase pump?
6. This hormone inhibits secretion of insulin and glucagon and slows down the absorption of nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract:
7. The ability of the stomach to accommodate food and fluid without a significant increase in pressure is known as:
8. Type II muscle fibers:
9. It contains mitochondria, fat and lipoprotein droplets:
10. Lower body temperature in the elderly are usually associated with:
11. This substance/hormone cause inhibition of the conversion of Angiotensin II from Angiotension I:a. Reninb. Bradykininc. Ace inhibitorsd. Aldosterone
12. Hyposecretion of PTH can lead to Hypocalcemia which is/are characterized by the following signs and symptoms EXCEPT:a. Tetanyb. Twitchingc. Arrythmiad. Hypotensione. Pathologic fractures
13. Facilitated diffusion may be described by the ff. Statements, EXCEPT:
14. The classic type I muscle fibers are:
15. A patient’s breathing is characterized by cycles of gradual increase in rate and depth of respiration with apnea in between.
16. The Sinuatrial Node is considered as the pacemaker of the heart because:
17. What is the proper attitude about smoking to be conveyed to the patient with obstructive lung disease?
a. The patient should be forced to stop smoking and should be warned that death might occur if he starts smoking again
b. The patient should be encouraged to stop smoking and should be presented appropriate educational material
c. The lung disease is already present and the damage is already done. It makes no difference whether the patient continues to smoke or decides to quit.
d. Since there is no definite evidence liking smoking and lung disease, smoking need not even be mentioned
18. Pleural effusion is caused by which of the following?
19. A 7 y/o patient diagnosed with cystic fibrosis was referred for PT treatment. Upon exercising the patient, you check that there is decreased breath sounds and the patient currently experiences difficulty in breathing. The PT should:
a. Call emergency assistance
b. Stop PT treatment and check vital signs
c. Continue with the treatment
d. Lower the resistance of the exercise
20. The following are signs and symptoms of an 11 y/o child with cystic fibrosis in the chronic stage EXCEPT:
21. Cushing`s syndrome is characterized by the following EXCEPT:a. Buffallo humpb. Moon fasciec. Spindling of the arms and legsd. Striae on the abdomene. Edema of the face
22. Which of the following is not an appropriate reason to terminate a maximum exercise tolerance test for a patient with pulmonary dysfunction?
23. A client is positioned on a treatment table in prone with two pillows under her hips. This position most likely would be used to perform postural drainage techniques to the:
a. anterior basal segment of the lower lobes
b. lateral basal segment of the lower lobes
c. right middle lobe
d. superior segment of the lower lobes
24. A patient with COPD is sitting on a bedside chair. The apices of the lungs in this position compared with other areas of the lungs in this position would demonstrate:
25. Type of hormone transfer in which substances are conveyed over short distances by diffusion through the interstitial space, to act on neighboring cells for regulation:
26. Pulmonary tuberculosis is an infection caused by an airborne mycobacterium tuberculosis. Which of the following statements holds true about tuberculosis?
27. The following pituitary hormones are under tonic stimulation by the hypothalamus, EXCEPT:
28. A therapist monitors a client’s respiration rate during exercise. Which of the following would be considered a normal response?
29. If the ventricular cell is stimulated during the spike of the action potential, it would fall during the:
30. In asthma, pertinent physical findings during exacerbation would include the following except:
32. Which of the following is the most appropriate standard positioning for draining the posterior basal segment of the lung?
32. The whole process by which depolarization of the muscle fiber initiates muscle contraction is called excitation – contraction coupling. During this process, the following events occur except:
33. the PT program for a patient with Emphysema should incorporate purse lip expiration since it helps to:
34. The most important stimulus which will result in an increase ventilation is:
35. Corpulomale is exhibited in what clinical condition?
36. A cardiac client undergoes a low-level symptom limited exercise tyreadmill test that begins at 1.5 METS and progresses to 4 METS. Which of the following activities would require an energy expenditure of approximately 4 METS?
37. Body temperature is affected by:
38. The proper sequence of events that occur in coughing after inspiration is:
39. Thjs conditions are contraindicated for postural drainage in any position:
40. Normal value of PR in adults:
42. The following set of PFTs demonstrate an FVC of 3.2, an FEV1 of 2.6, and an FEV1 / FVC ratio of 81.25%. Which of the following Caucasian female patients would these PFTs most likely represent?
43. All are appropriate instructions that should be given to a patient who experiences frequent sudden attack of shortness of breath, EXCEPT:
a. Lean forward while in sitting position
b. Flex head and trunk while standing
c. Pursed-lip breathing while slightly bending the trunk backward in sitting
d. Perform daily activities through pacing
e. None of these
44. This is the primary rhythm generator for respiration:
45. Atrial depolarization represents:
46. Rapid exchange of positive and negative ions due to cell’s increase in permeability is termed:
47. Which of the following is a branch of the Left coronary artery?
48. In the cardiac cycle, early systole is characterized as:
49. You were asked to treat a patient at the pulmonary ward. You have seen that the management for this patient includes pulmonary percussion. As a physical therapist, you would know that this technique is contraindicated for patients with the following conditions, EXCEPT:
50. Presence of ADH hormone will increase the permeability of water and concentration of filtrate in the following segment/s EXCEPT:a. Proximal Tubuleb. Distal tubulec. Collecting tubuled. Collecting ductse. None of the above
51. Crystalloids and colloids solution in water:
52. Which of the following helps in venous return during exercise?
53. Stimulation of mass movement after ingestion of the normal meal is called:
54. This small intestine cells secrete lysosomes:
55. A patient with DM is exercising late in the late afternoon complains of irritability, tremors, headache and blurred vision. The presenting signs and symptoms indicates:a. Heat strokeb. Heat exhaustionc. Hypoglycemiad. Hyperglycemia
56. Facilitated diffusion may be described by the ff. Statements, EXCEPT:
57. Vital capacity is the summation of what volumes?
58. Filling of ventricles maximally occurs during:
59. If the cardiac output is 7.2 L/min and the heart rate is 80 bpm, then the stroke volume is:
60. A patient has a history of DM, HTN and chronic heart failure. The failure. The patient’s venous filling time is less than 15 seconds, Homan’s sign is negative and rubor dependency test is not slowed. These findings support which of the following diagnoses?
61. The following is/are function of the renal system, EXCEPT:
62. Which of the following is a vasodilator?
63. Type I muscle fibers:
64. The gateway to pain is opened by:
65. The kidneys are paired, bean shaped structures located outside the peritoneal cavity and at the level of :a. T12 to L2b. L1 to L2c. L2 to L3d. L3 to L4
66. The nephrons consist of tubular segments but have slight difference depending on the location. The following statement is/are true about the nephrons:
I. Cortical nephrons have glomeruli that are located in the outer cortexII. Juxtamedullarynephrons lie deep in the medullaIII. The vascular structures supplying the juxtamedullarynephrons: long efferent arterioles extending to the peritubular capillariesIV. Cortical nephrons have longer loop of Henlea. I, and IIIb. II and IVc. I and IId. II and IIIe. III and IV
67. The indented medial side of the kidney where the renal artery, and vein, lymphatics, nerve supply and ureter passes through going to the renal bladder.a. Medullab. Renal Hilumc. Major calyxd. Renal Pelvis
68. The tubular segment/s that is/are impermeable to water depending on presence or absence of ADH EXCEPT:a. Ascending Loop of Henleb. Distal tubulec. Collecting tubuled. Collecting ductse. None of the above
69. The work performed by the left ventricle is substantially greater than that performed by the right ventricle, because in the left ventricle:
70. What change in the ECG would be most predictive of myocardial ischemia?
71. Which of the following characterizes right sided heart failure?
72. The 2nd heart sound is caused by the closure of what structures?
73. The oxidative system:
74. A patient who suffered myocardial infarction was referred for Cardiac Rehabilitation. Upon reading the medical chart, you noticed that the patient is under medications that include beta- blockers. In exercising the patient, what is the best method to use in determining exercise tolerance?
75. Inhibits the synthesis of the angiotensin II in the blood stream and various tissue and decreases angiotensin II mediated vasoconstriction and vascular structural changes:
76. A patient with DM is exercising late in the late afternoon complains of irritability, tremors, headache and blurred vision. The presenting signs and symptoms indicates:a. Heat strokeb. Heat exhaustionc. Hypoglycemiad. Hyperglycemia
77. An idiopathic inflammatory condition of the aorta and branches, also called “Pulselessness Disease”:
78. Following a post-myocardial infarction, a patient is a newly admitted to Phase 3 cardiac rehabilitation program. During the initial exercise session his ECG responses are continuously monitored via radio telemetry. The therapist notices 3 PVCs occurring in a run with no P wave. The MOST appropriate action to take is:
79. This hormone inhibits Interleukin-6 hat cause an increase in bone resorption greater than bone formation that later cause osteoporosis:a. Testosteroneb. Progesteronec. Estrogend. Prolactin
80. Which of the following is/are true METS?
81. Pulse abnormality seen in Left sided heart failure:
82. Metabolic equivalent of sitting at ease:
83. A physical therapist examines a four month old infant. During mat activities the infant suddenly becomes unconscious. The MOST appropriate location to check the infant’s pulse is the:
84. The resting heart rate (RHR) after a period of bed rest increase by approximately:
85. You were asked to treat a patient at the pulmonary ward. You have seen that the management for this patient includes pulmonary percussion. As a physical therapist, you would know that this technique is contraindicated for patients with the following conditions except:
86. A 25 y.o. member of the national cycling team with a resting heart rate of 65 bpm asks you what target heart rate he should maintain during his endurance4 program. Using Karvonen’s formula, the target heart rate you would recommend is:
87. Crackles are abnormal breath sounds which may be heard upon chest auscultation. During early inspiration, crackles may indicate:
88. This autoimmune condition is characterized by a peculiar substance that mimics the thyroid stimulating hormone causing enlargement of the thyroid gland and the characteristic exopthalmos:
a. Addison`s diseaseb. Cushing`s syndromec. Goiterd. Grave`s diseasee. Cretinism
89. A physician orders an electrocardiogram for a patient diagnosed with congestive heart failure (CHF). The medical record indicates the patient is currently taking Digitalis. What effect would you expect Digitalis to have on patient’s ECG?
90. The kidneys function is to remove waste products of metabolism, the following is/are the waste products that are being removed in the renal system via tubular excretion EXCEPT:a. Creatinineb. Uric acidc. Bilirubind. Ureae. None of the above
91. Target heart rate is equal to:
92. A referring physician entrusts a 70 year-old male with lung cancer to the physical therapist’s care. The order calls for postural drainage and percussion of the affected Bronchopulmonary segments. What will be the therapist’s BEST response?
a. Proceed with the treatment emphasizing percussion on the affected areas
b. Call the physician and withhold the order
c. Do not perform the percussion but do postural drainage
d. Place the patient in a comfortable position and do vigorous percussion but not postural drainage
93. Responsible for the rate of respiration:
94. Fast twitch fibers differ from slow twitch fibers, EXCEPT:
95. The following are effects of cardiac transplantation on cardiovascular and pulmonary variables except:
96. What percentages of human genes are involved in the formation and function of the nervous system?
97. Filling of ventricles occurs maximally during:
98. Side effects of Digitalis, Diuretics, and Calcium Inhibitors:
99. If you want to increase the patient’s muscle strength this sequence of exercise is prescribed:
100. In the pancreas particularly in the Islets of Langerhans produces important hormones particularly glucagon which is produced by the:a. Alpha cellsb. Beta cellsc. Delta cellsd. Gamma cells
101. Dressing and undressing is how many METS?
102. Hypocoagulopathy can lead to:
103. . A physical therapist employed in an acute care hospital reviews the medical record of a patient diagnosed with congestive heart failure (CHF). The therapist would like to implement a formal exercise program, but is concerned about the patient’s exercise tolerance. Which condition is MOST responsible for the patient’s limited exercise tolerance?
104.Sign of arterial insufficiency:
105. This is the best position of a patient doing diaphragmatic breathing exercises:
106. On chest x-ray, you notice that there is bullae formation and loss of peripheral vascular markings. Spirometry reveals obstructive pattern unimproved with bronchodilator. What is the probable diagnosis?
107. Which of the following cell membrane channels has a single pore surrounded by five protein sub-unit?
108. Anatomically, the mitral valve is located:
109. A physical therapist assesses the pulse rate of a patient exercising on a treadmill. The therapist notes that the rhythm of the patient is often irregular. The MOST appropriate action to ensure an accurate measurement of pulse rate is to:
110. A patient has a history of DM, HTN and chronic heart failure. The failure. The patient’s venous filling time is less than 15 seconds, Homan’s sign is negative and rubor dependency test is not slowed. These findings support which of the following diagnoses?
111. All of the following would be inappropriate home physical therapy interventions for a young patient with cystic fibrosis except:
112. The work performed by the left ventricle is substantially greater than that performed by the right ventricle, because in the left ventricle:
113. The main types of sensory receptors include the following except:
114. What is the best prognosticating factor to diagnose Myocardial Infarction?
115. The time in which a tissue excited by means of a stimulus does not react to a second stimulus is called:
116. Goals of the PT program the patient with chronic obstructive airway disease include:
a. improving the efficiency of the breathing patterns
b. facilitating drainage of excessive bronchial secretions
c. overall physical reconditioning
d. reversing the pulmonary disease with specific breathing exercises
117.. A patient has been diagnosed with cancer has had an above right knee amputation. During gait training, the patient begins to complain of stump pain. Your immediate response should be:
118. Most important Phase of cardiac Rehabilitation Program:
119. Which of the ff classification of drugs would have an increased effect in the heart rate and blood pressure during an exercise test?
120. During treatment of your patient, hypotension syncope occurs. This is caused by:
121. . Which of the following statements describe the heart?
122. True of myocardial infarction:
123. Boundaries of the auscultatory triangles are:
124.A 90 y.o. patient with chronic CHF has been non ambulatory and has resided in a nursing home for the past year. The patient was recently admitted to the hospital after an episode of dehydration. Which of the following plans for prophylactic respiratory care is MOST appropriate?
125. What do you call the amount of air, which enters or leaves the lungs during single resting breath?
126. Calcium bind with what to produce contraction:
127. A patient is developing pulmonary edema but there is no edema in the lower extremities. This would indicate a:
128. A PT attempts to quantify a patient’s endurance level by administering a maximal exercise test. What is the primary limitation of the maximal exercise test?
129. A phase IV cardiac rehabilitation program can best be described as:
130. During phase 0 of the cardiac action potential, there is rapid influx of this ion
131. Your cardiac patient manifests with systolic pressure higher in upper extremities than in lower extremities; diastolic pressures are similar. ECG shows left ventricular hypertrophy and chest x-ray shows rib nothing. The probable diagnosis is:
132. Refers to how often the exercise is performed:
133. The Point of Maximal Impulse could be appreciated in:
134. A physician orders an electrocardiogram for a patient diagnosed with congestive heart failure (CHF). The medical record indicates the patient is currently taking Digitalis. What effect would you expect Digitalis to have on patient’s ECG?
135. Proteins that are secreted by cells are:
136. The use of combination of Digoxin, Lasix and Cardizem ( Ca-channel blocker) are medical management primarily for:
137. A variety of factors can influence blood pressure. Which group of individuals would you expect to have the lowest systolic BP?
138. This hormone inhibits secretion of insulin and glucagon and slows down the absorption of nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract:
139. Decreases vascular resistance by inhibiting calcium-mediated contraction of vascular smooth muscle:
140. The primary filtration barrier for plasma protein:a. Podocytesb. Endotheliumc. Mesothelial cellsd. Basement membrane
141. Best way to monitor patient in Phase 2 cardiac rehabilitation:
142. In normal ECG/EKG, what wave or change in shape of the ECG results from atrial depolarization:
143. Which of the following statements describe erythrocytes?
144. Decreases vascular resistance by inhibiting calcium-mediated contraction of vascular smooth muscle:
145. Gastric emptying is mainly the function of the:
146. . Upon evaluation of a patient post myocardial infarct, you check the patient’s medical chart, which includes an electrocardiograph. It shows an absent P-wave. This indicated the following abnormality:
147. Myocardial oxygen consumption is a measure of the oxygen consumed by the myocardial muscle. The ability to supply the myocardium with oxygen is dependent on the:
148. In O – A – B blood group systems, the agglutinins responsible for causing transfusion reaction develop spontaneously; whereas in the RH system spontaneous agglutinins almost never occur:
149. Patients with MET level 7 would mean:
150. A PT attempts to quantify a patient’s endurance level by administering a maximal exercise test. What is the primary limitation of the maximal exercise test?
151.. An 83 y /o outpatient has been referred for cardiovascular conditioning, her diagnosis is intermittent claudication and the exercise prescription limits activity to less than 5 Mets. The frequency and duration for treating this patient:
152. This is usually found in patients with cretinism:
153. This channel communicates with the periosteum at the bone’s surface and receives fluid from the haversiancanal:
154. Deciduous molars are replaced by:
155. The action potential of skeletal muscles:
156. A high school coach asks you what is the best type of exercise to improve an athlete’s vertical jump. Which of the following exercise types would be the best to achieve this goal?
157. You have been asked to teach a class at a local gym for a group of geriatric athletes. Which of the following is not a general guideline for exercise prescription in this patient population?
158. Hypertrophy is the muscular response to strength training. This can be expected to occur following at least:
159. Which of the following will be emptied first?
160. Contraindicated to condition with cold intolerance:
161. Preoperative instructions to a patient who will undergo CABG to prevent atelectasis:
162. This is deemed the most important phase of cardiac rehabilitation:
163. Which of the following pancreatic enzymes acts to produce smaller peptides from proteins?
164. All of the following can elicit the enterogastric reflex, except:
165. The action potential of skeletal muscles:
166. Which part of the neuron has the highest concentration of sodium channels per square millimeter of cell membrane
167. This hormone inhibits secretion of insulin and glucagon and slows down the absorption of nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract:
168. This is the most important management of bipedal edema:
169. The kidneys function is to remove waste products of metabolism, the following is/are waste products that are being removed in the renal system via tubular excretion, EXCEPT:
170. Bacterial activity in the colon is responsible for the formation of several necessary substances. Among them are the following, EXCEPT:
171. In order from the small intestine to the anus, the major regions of the large intestines are:
172. Which of the following secrete gastric acid?
173. Angiotensin II is a circulating hormone that regulates low level of Arterial BP through the following mechanism:a. Increasing the GFRb. Vasodilation of the afferent arteriolesc. Vasoconstriction of the efferent arteriolesd. Decrease the level of ADH and Aldosterone
174. The anterior pituitary secretes the following hormones EXCEPT:a. ADHb. FSHc. hGHd. Prolactine. TSH
175. The following describes the pineal gland:a. Secretes nine major hormonesb. A cone shaped gland that overlies the tectum of the midbrainc. Secretes melanin a hormone responsibe for the circadian rhythmd. A pea-shaped gland that rests in the sellatursica of the sphenoid bone
176. A patient with DM is exercising late in the late afternoon complains of irritability, tremors, headache and blurred vision. The presenting signs and symptoms indicates:a. Heat strokeb. Heat exhaustionc. Hypoglycemiad. Hyperglycemia
177 . The following describes Diabetes Mellitus Type I EXCEPT:I. Prone to ketoacidosisII. Ketosis-resistantIII. Decrease in size and number of Islets of LangerhansIV. Inadequate utilization of insulina. I and IIIb. II and IVc. II and IIId. III and IV
178. A patient with a long history of systemic steroid use for asthma control has a contraindication for percussion if there is evidence of:
179. Facilitated diffusion may be described by the ff. Statements, EXCEPT:
180. The primary filtration barrier for plasma protein:a. Podocytesb. Endotheliumc. Mesothelial cellsd. Basement membrane
181. The work performed by the left ventricle is substantially greater than that performed by the right ventricle, because in the left ventricle:
182. Fast twitch fibers differ from slow twitch fibers, EXCEPT:
183. Filling of ventricles occurs maximally during:
184. 5 days following Myocardial Infarction, you begin to ambulate the patient for the first time. After 1 minute the patient experience significant exertionalDyspnea and very strong and uncomfortable angina pain. In this case you should:
185. Which of the following is not true about smooth muscle contraction as opposed to skeletal muscle contraction?
186. These molecules supply energy to myofilaments to allow movement of the actin filaments toward the center of the A bands.
187. You are teaching your patient self assisted coughing techniques. You will instruct your patient to:
188. In tuberculosis, post primary infarction is characterized by the following symptoms except:
189. A physical therapist should be alert to recognize the signs and symptoms associated with the onset of aspiration pneumonia. Of the following, the patient MOST susceptible to develop this form of pneumonia is one with:
a. a complete spinal cord lesion at T2 with diminished coughing ability
b. a circumferential burn of the thorax associated with significant pain
c. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with dysphagia and diminished gag reflex
d. severe scoliosis with compression of internal organs
190. This type of pulse abnormality is seen in Cardiac Tamponade:
191. Blood clotting mechanisms include the following except:
192. A physical therapist examines the heart sounds of a 48 y/o female S/P CABG. When auscultating, the therapist identifies the heart sound associated with closing of the mitral and tricuspid valves. The heart sound BEST describes:
193. How might the patient with obstructive pulmonary disease help overcome air trapping?
196. Which of the following factors affect blood pressure?
194. . The following are observed during ventricular systole EXCEPT:
195. Beta – blockers medication decreases the demand of the heart muscle and can improve the exercise power of patient with angina pectoris by:
197. The most concentrated filtrate is found in the:
198. This type of pulse abnormality is seen in aortic stenosis:
199. Concentration and dilution of urine depends on the influence of hormone in the specific tubular segment, which makes the following statement/s true:a. The higher the level of ADH the more diluted is the urineb. The lower the level of ADH the more concentrated the urinec. The higher the level of ADH the more concentrated is the urined. The lower the level of Aldosterone the more is diluted the urinee. The higher the level of Aldosterone the more concentrated is the urine
200. Risk factor of coronary artery disease includes age, gender, family history, cigarette smoking, obesity, physical inactivity and blood lipid abnormality. The distribution of lipoprotein associated with lower risk heart disease: