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Introduction. Lecture1. Communication Systems. Systems communicate in order to share information. To communicate means to pass information from one place to another.

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communication systems
Communication Systems
  • Systems communicate in order to share information.
  • To communicate means to pass information from one place to another.
  • It is more convenient to convert information into a signal. Your concern as a communication engineer is with the transmission and reception of these signals.
components of communication system








Components of communication System
  • Block diagram of communication system
overview of wireless systems
Overview of wireless systems
  • Guglielmo Marconi invented the wireless telegraph in 1896
    • Communication by encoding alphanumeric characters in analog signal
    • Sent telegraphic signals across the Atlantic Ocean
  • Communications satellites launched in 1960s
  • Advances in wireless technology
    • Radio, television, mobile telephone, communication satellites
  • More recently
    • Satellite communications, wireless networking, cellular technology
broadband wireless technology
Broadband Wireless Technology
  • Higher data rates obtainable with broadband wireless technology
    • Graphics, video, audio
  • Shares same advantages of all wireless services: convenience and reduced cost
    • Service can be deployed faster than fixed service
    • No cost of cable plant
    • Service is mobile, deployed almost anywhere
limitations and difficulties of wireless technologies
Limitations and Difficulties of Wireless Technologies
  • Wireless is convenient and less expensive
  • Limitations and political and technical difficulties inhibit wireless technologies
  • Lack of an industry-wide standard
  • Device limitations
    • E.g., small LCD on a mobile telephone can only displaying a few lines of text
    • E.g., browsers of most mobile wireless devices use wireless markup language (WML) instead of HTML
components of a cellular system
Components of a cellular system
  • Mobile station/unit
  • Base station
  • Mobile switching center

. An overview of the cellular system. Each base station has an antenna, and all the base stations An overview of the cellular system. Each base station has an antenna, and all the base stations are connected to the mobile telephone switching office, which provides the link to the landline. are connected to the mobile telephone switching office, which provides the link to the landline.

electromagnetic signal
Electromagnetic Signal
  • Function of time
  • Can also be expressed as a function of frequency
    • Signal consists of components of different frequencies
time domain concepts
Time-Domain Concepts
  • Analog signal - signal intensity varies in a smooth fashion over time
    • No breaks or discontinuities in the signal
  • Digital signal - signal intensity maintains a constant level for some period of time and then changes to another constant level
  • Periodic signal - analog or digital signal pattern that repeats over time
    • s(t +T ) = s(t ) -< t < +
      • where T is the period of the signal
time domain concepts1
Time-Domain Concepts
  • Aperiodic signal - analog or digital signal pattern that doesn\'t repeat over time
  • Peak amplitude (A) - maximum value or strength of the signal over time; typically measured in volts
  • Frequency (f )
    • Rate, in cycles per second, or Hertz (Hz) at which the signal repeats
time domain concepts2
Time-Domain Concepts
  • Period (T ) - amount of time it takes for one repetition of the signal
    • T = 1/f
  • Phase () - measure of the relative position in time within a single period of a signal
  • Wavelength () - distance occupied by a single cycle of the signal
    • Or, the distance between two points of corresponding phase of two consecutive cycles
sine wave parameters
Sine Wave Parameters
  • General sine wave
    • s(t ) = A sin(2ft + )
  • Figure 2.3 shows the effect of varying each of the three parameters
    • (a) A = 1, f = 1 Hz,  = 0; thus T = 1s
    • (b) Reduced peak amplitude; A=0.5
    • (c) Increased frequency; f = 2, thus T = ½
    • (d) Phase shift;  = /4 radians (45 degrees)
  • note: 2 radians = 360° = 1 period
time vs distance
Time vs. Distance
  • When the horizontal axis is time, as in Figure 2.3, graphs display the value of a signal at a given point in space as a function of time
  • With the horizontal axis in space, graphs display the value of a signal at a given point in time as a function of distance
    • At a particular instant of time, the intensity of the signal varies as a function of distance from the source
frequency domain concepts
Frequency-Domain Concepts
  • Fundamental frequency - when all frequency components of a signal are integer multiples of one frequency, it’s referred to as the fundamental frequency
  • Spectrum - range of frequencies that a signal contains
  • Absolute bandwidth - width of the spectrum of a signal
  • Effective bandwidth (or just bandwidth) - narrow band of frequencies that most of the signal’s energy is contained in
frequency domain concepts1
Frequency-Domain Concepts
  • Any electromagnetic signal can be shown to consist of a collection of periodic analog signals (sine waves) at different amplitudes, frequencies, and phases
  • The period of the total signal is equal to the period of the fundamental frequency
relationship between data rate and bandwidth
Relationship between Data Rate and Bandwidth
  • The greater the bandwidth, the higher the information-carrying capacity
  • Conclusions
    • Any digital waveform will have infinite bandwidth
    • BUT the transmission system will limit the bandwidth that can be transmitted
    • AND, for any given medium, the greater the bandwidth transmitted, the greater the cost
    • HOWEVER, limiting the bandwidth creates distortions
data communication terms
Data Communication Terms
  • Data - entities that convey meaning, or information
  • Signals - electric or electromagnetic representations of data
  • Transmission - communication of data by the propagation and processing of signals
examples of analog and digital data
Examples of Analog and Digital Data
  • Analog
    • Video
    • Audio
  • Digital
    • Text
    • Integers
analog signals
Analog Signals
  • A continuously varying electromagnetic wave that may be propagated over a variety of media, depending on frequency
  • Examples of media:
    • Copper wire media (twisted pair and coaxial cable)
    • Fiber optic cable
    • Atmosphere or space propagation
  • Analog signals can propagate analog and digital data
digital signals
Digital Signals
  • A sequence of voltage pulses that may be transmitted over a copper wire medium
  • Generally cheaper than analog signaling
  • Less susceptible to noise interference
  • Suffer more from attenuation
  • Digital signals can propagate analog and digital data
reasons for choosing data and signal combinations
Reasons for Choosing Data and Signal Combinations
  • Digital data, digital signal
    • Equipment for encoding is less expensive than digital-to-analog equipment
  • Analog data, digital signal
    • Conversion permits use of modern digital transmission and switching equipment
  • Digital data, analog signal
    • Some transmission media will only propagate analog signals
    • Examples include optical fiber and satellite
  • Analog data, analog signal
    • Analog data easily converted to analog signal
analog transmission
Analog Transmission
  • Transmit analog signals without regard to content
  • Attenuation limits length of transmission link
  • Cascaded amplifiers boost signal’s energy for longer distances but cause distortion
    • Analog data can tolerate distortion
    • Introduces errors in digital data
digital transmission
Digital Transmission
  • Concerned with the content of the signal
  • Attenuation endangers integrity of data
  • Digital Signal
    • Repeaters achieve greater distance
    • Repeaters recover the signal and retransmit
  • Analog signal carrying digital data
    • Retransmission device recovers the digital data from analog signal
    • Generates new, clean analog signal
about channel capacity
About Channel Capacity
  • Impairments, such as noise, limit data rate that can be achieved
  • For digital data, to what extent do impairments limit data rate?
  • Channel Capacity – the maximum rate at which data can be transmitted over a given communication path, or channel, under given conditions
concepts related to channel capacity
Concepts Related to Channel Capacity
  • Data rate - rate at which data can be communicated (bps)
  • Bandwidth - the bandwidth of the transmitted signal as constrained by the transmitter and the nature of the transmission medium (Hertz)
  • Noise - average level of noise over the communications path
  • Error rate - rate at which errors occur
    • Error = transmit 1 and receive 0; transmit 0 and receive 1
nyquist bandwidth
Nyquist Bandwidth
  • For binary signals (two voltage levels)
    • C = 2B
  • With multilevel signaling
    • C = 2B log2M
      • M = number of discrete signal or voltage levels
signal to noise ratio
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
  • Ratio of the power in a signal to the power contained in the noise that’s present at a particular point in the transmission
  • Typically measured at a receiver
  • Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, or S/N)
  • A high SNR means a high-quality signal, low number of required intermediate repeaters
  • SNR sets upper bound on achievable data rate
shannon capacity formula
Shannon Capacity Formula
  • Equation:
  • Represents theoretical maximum that can be achieved
  • In practice, only much lower rates achieved
    • Formula assumes white noise (thermal noise)
    • Impulse noise is not accounted for
    • Attenuation distortion or delay distortion not accounted for
example of nyquist and shannon formulations
Example of Nyquist and Shannon Formulations
  • Spectrum of a channel between 3 MHz and 4 MHz ; SNRdB = 24 dB
  • Using Shannon’s formula
example of nyquist and shannon formulations1
Example of Nyquist and Shannon Formulations
  • How many signaling levels are required?