從網路的組成元件來談網際網路
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從網路的組成元件來談網際網路. 資管系 梁德昭. 今日的 Internet 是如何形成的?. 通訊技術 區域網路( Local Area Network, LAN) 都會網路( Metropolitan Area Network, MAN) 廣域網路( Wide Area Network, WAN) 通訊協定 TCP/IP. Internet 的構成. 簡單的 Internet 模型. 區域網路( LAN).

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從網路的組成元件來談網際網路

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從網路的組成元件來談網際網路

資管系

梁德昭


Internet

今日的Internet是如何形成的?

  • 通訊技術

    • 區域網路(Local Area Network, LAN)

    • 都會網路(Metropolitan Area Network, MAN)

  • 廣域網路(Wide Area Network, WAN)

  • 通訊協定

    • TCP/IP


Internet1

Internet的構成


Internet2

簡單的Internet模型


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區域網路(LAN)

A local area network (LAN) is a data communication system that allows a number of independent devices to communicate directly with each other in a limited geographic area such as a single department, a single building, or a campus. A large organization may need several connected LANs.The most popular LANs are Ethernet and wireless LANs. We briefly review these technologies in this section.

以下將就兩類目前最為流行的區域網路技術略為介紹

Wired LANs: Ethernet

Wireless LANs: IEEE 802.11


Ethernet csma cd

Ethernet的媒體存取控制方式 CSMA/CD


Ethernet logical link control

Ethernet的邏輯連結控制 (Logical Link Control)

邏輯連結控制的訊框格式:


Ethernet

各類的Ethernet


Fast ethernets

Fast Ethernets


Gigabit ethernets

Gigabit Ethernets


Wireless lans ieee802 11

Wireless LANs (IEEE802.11)

  • AP (Access Point)

    • 銜接有線區域網路與無線區域網路之設備

  • BSS(Basic Service Set)

    • 一個無線網路AP的涵蓋區域組成 BSS

  • DS(Distribution System)

    • 由無線網路橋接器與相連接的區域網路所組成

  • ESS(Extended Service Set)

    • 由所有無線網路橋接器構成的 BSS 與 DS 共同組成 ESS

  • ESSID

    • ESS識別字串


Ap bss ad hoc

沒有AP也可形成BSS (Ad-hoc)


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ESS


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無線網路的訊號與展頻技術


Ieee802 11

IEEE802.11之媒體存取控制標準


Ieee802 11 csma ca

IEEE802.11的媒體存取控制方式 CSMA/CA


Ieee802 11 logical link control

IEEE802.11的邏輯連結控制 (Logical Link Control)

邏輯連結控制的訊框格式:


Man wan

MAN 與 WAN

  • 基本上採用相類似的技術,唯管轄含括的區域大小有別

  • WAN技術之沿革

    • X.25

    • Frame Relay

    • Cell Relay (ATM)


Frame relay

Frame Relay


Cell relay

Cell Relay的好處


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ATM的架構


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ATM的虛擬電路觀念

ATM cell的格式:


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OSI模型與通訊協定


Sender receiver transmitter

Sender, Receiver, Transmitter


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連接裝置

  • Repeaters

  • Hubs

  • Bridges

  • Routers


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A repeater connects segments of a LAN. It forwards every bit but has no filtering capability.

A bridge has a table used in filtering decisions. It does not change the physical (MAC) addresses in a frame.

A router is a three-layer (physical, data link, and network) device. It connects independent LANs or WANs to create an internetwork (internet)


Tcp ip

TCP/IP

  • IP 協定的版本 (Network Layer)

    • IP V4

    • IP V5

    • IP V6

  • Transport Layer 的協定

    • UDP

    • TCP

    • SCTP


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總結

一個設計周延的通訊協定,套用在OSI 分層負責的理想模型上,成就了今日百花齊放、繽紛旭燦的

INTERNET


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