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High density liver improvement For Aquaculture LiverCall GCG TM - product description

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High density liver improvement For Aquaculture LiverCall GCG TM - product description. ▣ Culture environment of aquaculture fish.

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slide1

High density liver improvement

For Aquaculture

LiverCall GCGTM

- product description

slide2

▣Culture environment of aquaculture fish

In order to culture fish within limited period, the cultured fish usually are fed feeds containing more nutrients than they required and fish are cultured in high density in limited space, therefore arise the unbalanced metabolism and give fish many artificial stress.

Because of these problems in aquaculture, liver is the most affected intestines and most of the parts in liver are wound or the metabolism can\'t be proceeded smoothly, then arise nutritional diseases or are easy to be infected by bacteria or virus because their immune resistance are depressed.

slide3

▣Function of liver

  • (1) The center of metabolism
  • Liver is the place for metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and lipid
  • Liver has the important metabolism function of protein synthesis.
  • If the liver is wound or its function is depressed

- the balance of body materials metabolism will be destroyed

- Arise nutritional diseases, the normal metabolism could not be maintained.

  • (2) Maintaining the balance of body hormones
  • Hormones are secreted by the endocrine organs.
  • If the disease of liver is serious, the secretion of hormones will be

unbalanced and arise many problems of body functions.

  • If the liver function is depressed, such secretion of hormones will

become unbalanced and decrease the growth of fish.

slide4

(3) Antidotal function

  • Liver is the organ that all medicines absorbed in fish body (antibiotic, formalinetc.) are transferred to other forms and the organ that could secrete ammonia produced from protein metabolism.
  • Specially in summer when water temperature is high, or fish are cultured in high density or fish were over fed, the concentration of ammonia in blood is easy to become high to be toxic to fish.
  • If the concentration of ammonia continuously accumulate, fish could become comatose or even die.

(4) Immune function

  • Liver has the function of storing antibody to against abnormal materials.
  • However, if the function of liver is depressed, the immune resistance ability is also depressed, and the fish is infected by bacteria and virus.
  • In order to increase immune resistance ability, use the additives to improve its own immune resistance ability through improvement of liver function.
slide5

▣ Specific character of LiverCall GCG

  • LiverCall GCG could completely replace the existed liver improvement - glutathione. LiverCall GCG contains several kinds of amino acids, minerals and immune stimulants.
  • (2) LiverCall GCG could improve the liver function, release stress and increase disease resistance through increase of immune resistance.
  • (3) LiverCall GCG could greatly improve feed intake as feed additive to improve liver function, almost has no adverse effect and has high absorption.
slide6

▣Merits of LiverCall GCG

(1) Improve feed intake, growth and feed efficiency

(2) Improve metabolism of protein and amino acids

(3) Improve the synthesis of glutathioneand glutathioneperoxidase.

(4) Prevent fat liver and improve antioxidationability

(protect body against oxygen free radical and peroxide)

(5) Release stress

(6) Strengthen disease resistance through improve immune resistance

(7) Improve secretion of liver ammonia, heavy metal and antibiotic

(8) Colorless through reducing of melanin color

slide7

▣The composition of LiverCall GCG

  • (1) GCG could completely replace glutathione, could improve synthesis of glutathione, strengthen liver function and counteracting poison function, could improve body metabolism as a strong reducing agent (As the improvement of liver function, LiverCall GCG is in the application processing of patent)
  • (2) Several kinds of essential nutrients : containing 18 kinds of essential and non-essential free amino acids, could improve growth and feed efficiency through increasing of feed intake, could increase disease resistance through increasing of non-specific immune resistance.
slide8

▣Function of LiverCall GCG proved through experiment

  • (1) Improve growth
  • 1) Experimental method
  •  Test animal : juvenile flounder flatfish (average weight 22.5 ± 0.1 g)
  • Test condition : test period 6 weeks
  • Experimental design

The basal diet was used as control (Cont), GCG(liver improvement material of Liver Call)

  • and GSH(glutathione) were supplemented in diets as 10 and 20 mg/kgfish/day
  • (Cont, GCG10,GCG20,GSH10 andGSH20).

Figure 1. Weight gain of fish fed

diets containing GCGand

GSHfor 6 weeks

slide9

▣Function of LiverCall GCG proved through experiment

  • (1) Improve liver function
  • 1) Experimental method
  •  Test animal : juvenile flounder flatfish (average weight 22.5 ± 0.1 g)
  • Test condition : test period 10 days
  • Experimental design

The basal diet was used as control (Cont), GCG (liver function improvement material of

Liver Call) and GSH (glutathione) were supplemented in diets as 10 and 20 mg/kg

fish/day (Cont, GCG10, GCG20, GSH10 and GSH20).

2) Experimental result

slide10

Figure 2. Values of liver glutathioneand glutathioneperoxidasefed diets containing GCG

andGSHfor 10 days.

slide11

(2) Non-specific immune response

  • 1) Experimental method
  •  Test animal : juvenile flounder flatfish (average weight 22.5 ± 0.1 g)
  • Test condition : test period 10 days
  • Experimental design

The basal diet was used as control (Cont), GCG (liver function improvement material of

Liver Call) and GSH (glutathione) were supplemented in diets as 10 and 20 mg/kg

fish/day (Cont, GCG10, GCG20, GSH10 and GSH20).

2) Experimental result

slide12

▣Function of LiverCall GCG proved through experiment

  • (3) Stress response
  • 1) Experimental method
  •  Test animal : juvenile flounder flatfish (average weight 22.5 ± 0.1 g)
  • Experimental design

After formalinbath, blood cortisolreturned to normal level, and blood cortisollevel of fish

fed GCGand GSHreturned to normal level after 6 hours of formalinbath.

2) Experimental result

Figure 3. Stress responses during

48 hours after formalin

bath

slide14

▣Discussion

(1) Improve liver function

  • When liver cells are mysterious death or are infected

- GOT and GPTcould flow out to blood in high concentration

- GOT and GPTwill become high in blood quickly

  • GCG(improve liver function material in Liver Call)

could help the metabolism of protein and amino acids in

liver more smoothly than glutathione(GSH), and improve

the function of liver.

slide15

Glutathione (GSH)

- Existed in all animals in nature and yeast

- The important function in liver to prevent the lipid accumulation

and the formation of fat liver and peroxides.

- GSH are absorbed through the effect of digestible enzymes from each

amino acids, it can\'t be absorbed as the GSHform.

- After releasing from each amino acids, GSHbecomes part of active, and

SHradical of GSH has the effect to improve liver function.

  • From the above mentioned experimental results, it is obvious

that the supplementation of GCGand GSHcould improve the

synthesis of glutathione.

slide16

The supplementation of GCGand GSH

- Improve the synthesis the glutathioneperoxidase

- Could improve the total antioxidationactivity through glutathioneand

glutathioneperoxidase

  • With the oxidation of accumulated lipid in liver

- The toxic of produced peroxides become serious and destroy the liver

of cultured fish

- The glutathioneperoxidasecould prevent the formation of such

peroxides and could be considered as an improtantenzyme in

liver function

slide17

(2) Non-specific immune response

  • The function of liver is depressed

- Immune resistance ability is alsodepress

- The fish is easy to be infected by bacteria, parasite and virus

  • Non-specific immune resistance with the supplementation of GCG

- The activities of Chemiluminescence(CL) and plasma lysozymeincreased

- Thus the disease resistance is also increased from the above mentioned

experiments

slide18

(3) Stress response

  • The blood cortisolconcentration

- To be stressed, the cortisollevel will be increased

- Stress are released, the cortisolwill recover to normal level again

  • After the formalinbath, the plasma cortisollevels returned

to normal levels within 6∼12 hours in fish supplemented with

GCGand GSH, and within 24∼48 hours in fish from control

group.

  • GCGand GSHhave strong effects on releasing stress.
slide19

▣Economical merit of LiverCall GCG

  • There is no difference in GCG(improve liver function material in

Liver Call) and glutathionein liver function improvement.

  • Compared with the existed glutathioneproduct (containing 2% of

glutathione), the concentration of GCGin LiverCall GCG is high

(containing 6% of GCG), similar results could be obtained even

using 1/3 concentration of Liver Call.

  • It is a big burden for fish farmers to use glutathionedue to its high

price, however, only 1/3 of expense is possible if using Liver Call

that could get the similar results in improving liver function and it is

possible to use for long term.

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